In 1994 I was diagnosed with celiac disease, which led me to create Celiac.com in 1995. I created this site for a single purpose: To help as many people as possible with celiac disease get diagnosed so they can begin to live happy, healthy gluten-free lives. Celiac.com was the first site on the Internet dedicated solely to celiac disease. In 1998 I created The Gluten-Free Mall, Your Special Diet Superstore!, and I am the co-author of the book Cereal Killers, and founder and publisher of Journal of Gluten Sensitivity.
Celiac.com 02/08/2007 - For anyone with a family history of celiac disease or of disorders such as thyroid disease, anemia of unknown cause, type I diabetes or other immune disorders or Downs syndrome, doctors may suggest routine screening. Otherwise, patients are generally screened on a case by case basis according to individual symptoms.
People with celiac disease have abnormally high levels of associated antibodies, including one or more of the following: anti-gliadin, anti-endomysium and anti-tissue transglutaminase, and damage to the villi (shortening and villous flattening) in the lamina propria and crypt regions of their intestines when they eat specific food-grain antigens (toxic amino acid sequences) that are found in wheat, rye, and barley.
Antibodies are the specialized proteins the immune system uses to break down and eliminate foreign substances from the body. In people with celiac disease, the immune system treats gluten as a foreign invader and produces elevated levels of antibodies to get rid of it, causing symptoms and associated discomfort.
A blood test, such as anti-tissue transglutaminase and anti-endomysial antibodies, can detect abnormally high antibody levels, and is often used in the initial detection of celiac in people who are most likely to have the disease, and for those who may need further testing.
Since the immune system of a person with celiac treats gluten as a foreign substance and increases the number of antibodies, elevated levels of these antibodies are a sign of celiac disease.
To confirm the diagnosis, your doctor may need to do a biopsy, that is, microscopically examine a small portion of intestinal tissue to check for celiac associated damage to the small intestine. To do this, your doctor inserts a thin, flexible tube (endoscope) through your mouth, esophagus and stomach into your small intestine and takes a sample of intestinal tissue to look for damage to the villi (tiny, hair-like projections in the walls the small intestine that absorb vitamins, minerals and other nutrients).