Celiac.com 06/27/2007 - It is well known that following a gluten-free diet brings about a remission in celiac disease. But what are the true physiological effects of such remission? A study published recently in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition shows that even when people with celiac disease follow strict gluten-free diets, they frequently have inferior body composition and nutritional uptake compared to healthy people without celiac disease.
Faced with a shortage of solid data on the long-term benefits of a gluten-free diet for celiac patients, a team of Italian doctors conducted a study to determine body composition and nutritional status. They looked at data for patients with celiac disease who are following a strict gluten-free diet, and who were in full clinical, biochemical, and histological remission.
The research team was made up of Maria Teresa Bardella, Clara Fredella, Luigia Prampolini, Nicoletta Molteni, Anna Maria Giunta and Paolo A Bianchi. They looked at data from 71 patients. Subjects included 51 women and 20 men. Subjects ranged from 17 to 58 years of age. The average age of test subjects was 27 years. Subjects were assessed for the following factors: body mass index; bone mineral content (as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); fat and lean mass; height and weight. The team conducted a 3-d dietary questionnaire. They also measured total daily energy, fat, carbohydrate, and protein intakes.
Compared to control subjects, celiac patients had a lower intake of total energy (9686 ± 1569 and 11297 ± 1318 kJ/d in males and 6736 ± 1318 and 7740 ± 1715 kJ/d in females). The male celiacs showed lower weight, height, and body mass index than their control counterparts. Female celiac patients showed substantially lower weight and body mass index. For both male and female celiac patients, fat and lean mass differed dramatically from the control group.
Female celiac patients diagnosed as adults showed a markedly higher lower bone mineral content compared to the control group. Males showed no such disparity. In general and celiac patients ate an unbalanced diet that contained higher amounts of energy from fat and lower amounts of energy from carbohydrates.
The study showed that even when celiacs faithfully follow a gluten-free diet and their celiac disease is in total remission; their body composition and nutritional uptake differ substantially from healthy non-celiacs. For that reason, and in order to prevent malnutrition, the researchers recommend that all celiacs receive strict follow-ups and dietary evaluations regarding the nutritional composition of their food choices.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, No. 4, 937-939, October 2000health writer who lives in San Francisco and is a frequent author of articles for Celiac.com.