Oberhuber G, Schwarzenhofer M, Vogelsang H
Dig Dis 1999 Nov- Dec;16(6):341-4

Department of Clinical Pathology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. The in vitro challenge of duodenal mucosa with gliadin is a useful model to reproduce the immunological features of celiac disease (CD) and allows the study of early pathogenetic events in this disease. With this model it was shown that antigens such as ICAM-1 and HLA-DR are upregulated as early as 1-2 h after gliadin challenge in patients with CD. After 24 h the