Can Sourdough Make Germinated Rye Safe for Celiac Patients?
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Celiac.com 05/07/2014 - Current treatment for celiac disease is to eat only foods which are gluten-free. But, what about foods processed to remove gluten? Is it safe for people with celiac disease to eat foods that have been processed to remove gluten?
Processing may render gluten-containing foods technically safe celiac patients, but so far live safety testing can only be performed on actual patients, not in laboratory computer models.
A team of researchers recently set out to test the safety of germinated rye sourdough in a celiac disease model based on the adoptive transfer of prolamin-primed memory T cells into lymphopenic mice. The research team included T.L. Freitag, J. Loponen, M. Messing, V. Zevallos, L.C. Andersson, T. Sontag-Strohm, P. Saavalainen, D. Schuppan, H. Salovaara, S. Meri. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Bacteriology and Immunology at the Haartman Institute of the University of Helsinki in Helsinki, Finland.
For their study, they modified a celiac disease mouse model to test antigenicity and inflammatory effects of germinated rye sourdough, a food product characterized by extensive prolamin hydrolysis.
The team found that:
- Rag1(-/-) recipients challenged with wheat or rye gluten lost more body weight and developed more severe histological duodenitis than mice on gluten-free diet. This correlated with increased secretion of IFNγ, IL-2, and IL-17 by secalin-restimulated splenocytes.
- In vitro gluten testing using competitive R5 ELISA showed widespread degradation of the gluten R5 epitope in germinated rye sourdough.
- However, in nude mice challenged with germinated rye sourdough (vs. native rye sourdough), serum anti-secalin IgG/CD4(+) T helper 1-associated IgG2c titers were only reduced, but not eliminated.
In addition, they found no reductions in body weight loss, histological duodenitis, or T cell cytokine secretion in Rag1(-/-) recipients challenged accordingly.
Moreover, germination of rye sourdough does not completely hydrolyze the secalin peptides, which retain B and T cell stimulatory capacity and remain harmful to the intestinal mucosa in this celiac disease model.
Current antibody-based prolamin detection methods may fail to detect antigenic gluten fragments in processed cereal food products.
- Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Mar;306(6):G526-34. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00136.2013. Epub 2014 Jan 23.
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