Celiac.com 05/12/2016 - What is the impact of locally formulated gluten-free flour on the dietary pattern of Pakistani celiac patients?

Photo: CC--foodcraftlabA research team recently set out to introduce indigenously formulated gluten free flour (GFF) in the diets of selected Pakestani celiac patients, and to investigate the impact of formulated gluten-free flour on the dietary pattern of those patients. The researchers included Samia Kalsoom and Saeed Ahmad Nagra of the Government College of Home Economics in Lahore, Pakistan, and the Institue of Chemistry, University of the Punjab in Lahore, Pakistan.

The flour used in the study was formulated using indigenous sources of rice, corn and daal mung.

The researchers then selected fifty diagnosed celiac patients from Sheikh Zayed Medical Complex, and the Mayo Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan, and provided those patients with gluten-free flour for a period of four months. The researchers conducted pre- and post treatment assessments of food intake, compliance, appetite, meal patterns and meal satisfaction of the study participants.

Both before and during the feeding trial, the study participants received caloric and macronutrient levels above the recommended dietary guidelines. Mean carbohydrate exchanges of all age groups were higher than standard recommended values for their respective age groups.

Before the feeding trial, participants of 19 to 30 years of age reported the highest gluten consumption. These levels fell significantly with GFF induction. Meanwhile milk, meat, fruit and vegetable intake of the study participants was less than the recommended intake levels.

Study participants of 9-13 years had the highest flour consumption, but there was no significant difference was found in the food intake from starch, milk, meat and fruit groups during the treatment phase. A significant increase in vegetable intake was observed with GFF administration.

All age groups showed improved compliance, appetite, meal regularity and meal satisfaction, with children showing the most pronounced changes.


  • Pakistan J. Zool., vol. 48(2), pp. 415-422, 2016.

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