As I refined my pancake recipe, I found that sometimes I'd get really sick afterwards. This seemed to be the case more and more, until I just didn't want to make them, being sure I'd regret it later. But since it didn't happen with an earlier incarnation of the recipe, I knew it had to be something regarding the changes I'd made to it. I simply had to figure out what the trouble was.
What I've determined is that the flour must be completely cooked, or it will make me sick, even if they don't look or taste raw at all. And, much to my chagrin, this depends mostly on the types of flours being used. Cooking them longer didn't get them cooked enough, even when partially burning them. Altering the thickness of the batter has not helped either.
The flours that have proved to be trouble thus far are legume (bean) flours. They all seem to require a longer cooking time than can effectively be achieved with pancakes. Or, perhaps the inside of the pancake doesn't get hot enough for this type of flour. Since the very same flours pose no such problem in breads and other things, and since precooking the flour renders them perfectly safe in pancakes, it certainly points to the fact that the flour isn't getting fully cooked. It is disappointing, as I found certain legume flours really help to get a nice texture and flavor in pancakes. Incidentally, even though precooking the flour makes it safe, it also ruined the texture of the finished pancake. So that's really not a satisfactory solution.
It also seems that other ingredients which retain moisture may prevent the pancake from cooking fully. This further complicates the matter of obtaining the best texture. Although I find the addition of xanthan or guar gum simply creates a soggy pancake, I did get good results with psyllium husk powder. However, this too tends to prevent the flour from cooking fully, so now I leave that out as well.
Currently, buckwheat flour alone is my preference. I recently tried adding some sorghum flour, but neither texture nor flavor was as good. I think I'll try some quinoa next time, and see if that makes an appreciable improvement. I tried some quinoa in the past, and I recall it wasn't bad in small amounts, but that was a much earlier (and different) recipe, so I have to try it again. Thing is, quinoa is comparatively costly, so it'd have to really make a good pancake to be worth it. The buckwheat works pretty well though, just not quite as nice as I'd been getting with some legume flours.
BTW, I don't use dairy or eggs, so the remaining ingredients become that much more important.
Perhaps those with stronger digestion never notice a partially uncooked pancake. Looking on the bright side, I don't have any craving for raw cookie dough. Can't imagine how I'd feel after a spoonful of that!
I'll be updating this thread as I figure out what other flours can safely be used in pancakes.