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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    CELIAC DISEASE AND IRON DEFICIENCY LINKED IN CAUCASIANS, BUT NOT NON-CAUCASIANS


    Jefferson Adams

    07/29/2013 - Rates of celiac disease in Caucasian populations of European origin are pretty well documented, but little is known about its prevalence in non-Caucasians.


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    Also, data shows that celiac disease is one likely cause of iron-deficiency anemia, but little is known about how celiac disease might contribute to iron deficiency in Caucasians, and especially non-Caucasians.

    A team of researchers recently looked at for links between celiac disease and iron deficiency in both caucasians and non-caucasians.

    The study team included Joseph A. Murray, Stela McLachlan, Paul C. Adams, John H. Eckfeldt, Chad P. Garner, Chris D. Vulpe, Victor R. Gordeuk, Tricia Brantner, Catherine Leiendecker–Foster, Anthony A. Killeen, Ronald T. Acton, Lisa F. Barcellos, Debbie A. Nickerson, Kenneth B. Beckman, Gordon D. McLaren, and Christine E. McLaren.

    To find individuals with iron deficiency and to determine celiac disease rates, the team assessed samples collected from participants in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening study. They looked at blood samples from white men 25 years or older and women 50 years or older who participated in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening study.

    Photo: CC--Wikimedia CommonsIndividuals with serum ferritin levels ≤12 μg/L were group as iron deficient, while those with serum ferritin levels >100 μg/L in men and >50 μg/L in women served as a control group.

    The team analyzed all samples for human recombinant tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A; positive results were confirmed by an assay for endomysial antibodies.

    The team assessed patients with positive results from both celiac disease tests as having untreated celiac disease. They excluded from analysis all subjects with a positive result from only one of the two tests.

    They analyzed HLA genotypes and frequencies of celiac disease between Caucasians and non-Caucasians with iron deficiency.

    In all, the team found 14 cases of celiac disease among the 567 study subjects (2.5%), and just 1 case of celiac disease among the 1136 control subjects (0.1%; Fisher exact test, P = 1.92 × 10−6). The case of celiac disease in the control group was in a Caucasian control subject. There were no cases of celiac disease found in non-Caucasian controls.

    All 14 of the cases of celiac disease found by the team were in the Caucasian group of 363 (4%). There were no cases of celiac disease in the non-Caucasian group of 204 cases (P = .003).

    Overall, individuals with iron deficiency were 28-times more likely to have celiac disease (95% confidence interval, 3.7–212.8) than were healthy control subjects. Also, and interestingly, 13 of 14 cases with celiac disease carried the DQ2.5 variant of the HLA genotype.

    This study shows that celiac disease is linked with iron deficiency in Caucasians. In fact, among Caucasians, celiac disease is rare among individuals without iron deficiency.

    It also shows that celiac disease is rare among non-Caucasians—even among individuals with common features of celiac disease, such as iron deficiency.

    The study team recommends that doctors conduct celiac screening on men and postmenopausal women with iron deficiency.

    Source:


    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Wikimedia Commons
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    I have recently been diagnosed with both celiac and iron anemia. Thought this was interesting because I didn't realize there might be a link between the two.

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    I have iron deficient anemia. My blood test for celiac was negative; however, I've been mostly gluten free for about a year. I am scheduled for a colonoscopy and upper GI as my doctor suspects celiac. I'm 67. As I look bad I suspect I've had celiac disease for many years. I think my mother had it too. This site is such a blessing.

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    admin

    Br J Haematol 2000;111:898-901.
    Celiac.com 02/15/2001 - As reported in the December issue of the British Journal of Haematology, Dr. D. J. Unsworth of Southmead Hospital in Bristol, UK, and colleagues examined 483 blood samples that were found to be anemic (hemoglobin
    Results: The researchers found that by screening anemic adults for celiac disease they ended up with a detection rate of 6%, compared with 0% detection of celiac disease using EDTA blood samples from 250 non-anemic blood donors.
    Conclusion: Celiac disease in menstruating women is under-investigated as a potential cause of iron-deficiency anemia. Celiac disease serology is easy, cheap and reliable, and the researchers recommend that all cases of anemia with an uncertain cause, including when the only cause is though to be menstruation, be tested for celiac disease-associated autoantibodies.

    admin

    South Med J. 2004;97:30-34 Celiac.com 03/30/2004 – According to Umaprasanna S. Karnam, MD (University of Miami School of Medicine in Florida), and colleagues, celiac disease is present in around 3% of iron-deficiency anemia cases. The researchers looked at all patients seen at the University of Miami for iron-deficiency anemia between 1998 and 2000. Iron-deficiency anemia was defined in their study as serum ferritin less than 25 ng/mL and hemoglobin less than 12 g/dL for women and less than 14 g/dL for men. Interestingly, patients with prior documented ulcerative or erosive conditions of the gastrointestinal tract or overt gastrointestinal bleeding during the prior three months were excluded (which means that many with advanced celiac disease would have been excluded from this study). Out of 139 possible patients with iron-deficiency anemia, 105 patients were included in the study (57 men and 48 women).
    According to the researchers: The prevalence of occult celiac disease in this prospective study of patients presenting with iron-deficiency anemia was 2.8%. A significant number of other gastrointestinal lesions amenable to therapy were also found on upper and lower endoscopy in these patients, the authors write. Given the treatable nature of celiac disease, it should be screened for in patients with unexplained iron-deficiency anemia with or without hemoccult-positive stools. The investigators recommend panendoscopy and screening for this treatable condition in unexplained cases.
    It is likely that had the study included patients with gastrointestinal bleeding or ulcerative conditions the rate of celiac disease would have been higher, perhaps as high as 5%.

    Hallie Davis
    Celiac.com 08/18/2009 - Many of you know that DQ8 is one of the two major genes which may lead to celiac disease. You may also know that celiac disease is often associated with various other autoimmune diseases. What you may not know is that DQ8 may be the direct cause of these other autoimmune diseases, for these autoimmune diseases are found in increased incidence not just in celiac disease, but also with DQ8 itself.
    What follows is a list I have compiled showing the various diseases that are found in increased frequency among people who have the DQ8 gene (DQB1*0302). I will show the reference number next to each, and the corresponding references will appear below:

    Celiac disease (1) Scleroderma (2) Rheumatoid arthritis (1) Autoimmune thyroiditis (3) Pemphigus (4) Lupus (6) Pemphigoid (5) Focal myositis (7) Multiple sclerosis (8) Myasthenia gravis (1) Insulin dependant latent autoimmune diabetes of adults and adult Type 1 diabetes (9) Type 1 juvenile diabetes (1) Sjogren’s syndrome (10) Addisons’s disease (11) Complex regional pain syndrome with dystonia (12) Latex allergy (13)
    This list is not intended to be exhaustive. It is a starter list. Hopefully more research will be done on these, including carefully controlled research as to whether gluten plays any role in triggering these other autoimmune diseases even in the absence of gluten blood antibodies or positive duodenal biopsies. I, for one have DQ8 and numerous of these autoimmune diseases, even though my gluten blood antibodies and duodenal biopsies are negative. We who have this gene need to know for certain #1 whether a gluten free diet will help prevent the triggering of these other various autoimmune diseases, and #2 whether a gluten-free diet will help mitigate autoimmune symptoms that have already developed. I feel no better on the gluten-free diet than before I started it a year and a half ago. However, if I had not been on the diet, perhaps I would be feeling even worse now. Only controlled research will give us the answer.References:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HLA-DQ8 Autoantibodies to fibrillarin in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). An immunogenetic, serologic, and clinical analysis. Frank C. Arnett, MD, John D. Reveille, MDet al. See abstract at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112212324/abstract. A strong association between thyrotropin receptor-blocking antibody- positive atrophic autoimmune thyroiditis and HLA-DR8 and HLA-DQB1*0302 in Koreans. Cho, JH Chung, YK Shong, YB Chang, H Han, JB Lee, HK Lee and CS Koh. See abstract at http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/77/3/611. Association between HLA-DRB1, DQB1 genes and pemphigus vulgaris in Chinese HansBy Zhou SH, Lin L, Jin PY, Ye SZ. See abstract at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12579512. Polymorphisms of HLA-DR and -DQ Genes in Japanese Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid. By Okazaki A, Miyagawa S, et al. See abstract at: http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/200017/000020001700A0339663.php. HLA-DRB1*03 and DQB1*0302 associations in a subset of patients severely affected with systemic lupus erythematosus from western India. By U Shankarkumar, K Ghosh, S S Badakere, D Mohanty. See abstract at: http://ard.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/62/1/92. HLA typing in focal myositis. By Kenji Sekiguchi, Fumio Kanda, Kenichi Oishi, Hirotoshi Hamaguchi, Kenichiro Nakazawa, Nobuya Maeda, Hiroyuki Ishihara and Kazuo Chihara. See abstract at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T06-4DB5B4F-1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=975695599&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=36883393fca9b990607eeb0d38116c5a. HLA-DRB1*1501, -DQB1*0301, -DQB1*0302, -DQB1*0602, and -DQB1*0603 alleles are associated with more severe disease outcome on MRI in patients with multiple sclerosis. By Zivadinov Robert; Uxa Laura et al. See abstract at: http://www.biomedexperts.com/Abstract.bme/17531857/HLA-DRB1_1501_-DQB1_0301_-DQB1_0302_-DQB1_0602_and_-DQB1_0603_alleles_are_associated_with_more_severe_disease_outcome. Similar Genetic Features and Different Islet Cell Autoantibody Pattern of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) Compared With Adult-Onset Type 1 Diabetes With Rapid ProgressionBy Nóra Hosszúfalusi, MD, PHD, Ágnes Vatay, MD1, et al. See abstract at http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/26/2/452.full. Specific amino acid residues in the second hypervariable region of HLA- DQA1 and DQB1 chain genes promote the Ro (SS-A)/La (SS- autoantibody responses. ByJD Reveille, MJ Macleod, K Whittington and FC Arnett. See abstract at http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/abstract/146/11/3871. Analysis of extended human leukocyte antigen haplotype association with Addison’s disease in three populations. ByGombos, Hermann, et al. See study at: http://www.eje-online.org/cgi/reprint/157/6/757.pdf. HLA-B62 and HLA-DQ8 are associated with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome with fixed dystonia. By Rooij, Gosso, et al. See study at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T0K-4WH0JWP-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=c869b6d3a38081820fad17c162b510ba. HLA-DQ8 and the HLA-DQ8-DR4 haplotype are positively associated with the hevein-specific IgE immune response in health care workers with latex allergy. By  Rihs Hans-Peter; Chen Zhiping; Ruëff Franziska; et al. See abstract at: http://www.biomedexperts.com/Abstract.bme/12209103/HLA-DQ8_and_the_HLA-DQ8-DR4_haplotype_are_positively_associated_with_the_hevein-specific_IgE_immune_response_in_health_c


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/09/2014 - Anemia is extremely common in patients with celiac disease. In some cases, anemia may be the sole manifestation of celiac disease, but there is no good data on rates of celiac disease in Indian patients with nutritional anemia. A research team recently examined rates of celiac disease among nutritional anemia patients at a care center in India. The team included A. Kavimandan, M. Sharma, A.K. Verma, P. Das, P. Mishra, S. Sinha, A. Mohan, V. Sreenivas, S. Datta Gupta, and G.K. Makharia.
    For their study, the team conducted positive celiac disease screens on adolescent and adult patients presenting with nutritional anemia. They also prospectively screened for celiac disease using IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG Ab). Subjects with positive antibody screens received upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy.
    In all, the team screened ninety-six patients. Of these patients, 80 had iron deficiency anemia, 11 had megaloblastic anemia, and 5 had dimorphic anemia. Seventy-three patients were receiving hematinics and 36.4 % had received blood transfusions. Nineteen patients had histories of chronic diarrhea persisting for an average of about ten years. Of those, the team found 13 patients with positive IgA anti-tTG Ab screens, 12 of whom agreed to duodenal biopsy.
    Ten patients showed villous atrophy (Marsh grade 3a in three, 3b in one, and 3c in six), while two patients showed no villous atrophy. In all, ten patients with nutritional anemia, defined as iron deficiency 9, vitamin B12 deficiency 1, were also diagnosed with celiac disease.
    Multivariate logistic regression showed age, duration of symptoms, and presence of diarrhea to be the main predictors of celiac disease. The team put all patients with celiac disease on gluten-free diet, supplemented with iron and vitamin B. All patients showed significant improvement in hemoglobin concentration.
    The team recommends celiac disease screening, and appropriate follow-up in all cases of unexplained nutritional anemia.
    Source:
    Indian J Gastroenterol. 2014 Mar;33(2):114-8. doi: 10.1007/s12664-013-0366-6. Epub 2013 Sep 1.

  • Recent Articles

    Tammy Rhodes
    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
    I have already lived through two natural disasters. Neither of which I ever want to experience again, but they taught me a very valuable lesson, which is why I created a Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag (see link below). Here’s my story. If you’ve ever lived in or visited the Los Angeles area, you’re probably familiar with the Santa Ana winds and how bitter sweet they are. Sweet for cleaning the air and leaving the skies a brilliant crystal blue, and bitter for the power outages and potential brush fires that might ensue.  It was one of those bitter nights where the Santa Ana winds were howling, and we had subsequently lost our power. We had to drive over an hour just to find a restaurant so we could eat dinner. I remember vividly seeing the glow of a brush fire on the upper hillside of the San Gabriel Mountains, a good distance from our neighborhood. I really didn’t think much of it, given that it seemed so far from where we lived, and I was hungry! After we ate, we headed back home to a very dark house and called it a night. 
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    Now we never leave home without our Epipens and our gluten free food supplies. We analyze every food label. We are hyper vigilant about cross contamination. We are constantly looking for welts and praying for no stomach pain. We are always prepared and on guard. It's just what we do now. Anything to protect our child, our love...like so many other parents out there have to do every moment of ever day!  
    Then, my second brush with a natural disaster happened, without any notice, leaving us once again scrambling to find a safe place to shelter. It was a warm and muggy summer morning, and my husband was away on a business trip leaving my young daughter and me to enjoy our summer day. Our Severe Weather Alert Radio was going off, again, as I continued getting our daughter ready for gymnastics.  Having gotten used to the (what seemed to be daily) “Severe Thunderstorm warning,” I didn’t pay much attention to it. I continued downstairs with my daughter and our dog, when I caught a glimpse out the window of an incredibly black looking cloud. By the time I got downstairs, I saw the cover to our grill literally shoot straight up into the air. Because we didn’t have a fenced in yard, I quickly ran outside and chased the cover, when subsequently, I saw my neighbor’s lawn furniture blow pass me. I quickly realized I made a big mistake going outside. As I ran back inside, I heard debris hitting the front of our home.  Our dog was the first one to the basement door! As we sat huddled in the dark corner of our basement, I was once again thinking where are we going to go if our house is destroyed. I was not prepared, and I should have been. I should have learned my lesson the first time. Once the storm passed, we quickly realized we were without power and most of our trees were destroyed. We were lucky that our house had minimal damage, but that wasn’t true for most of the area surrounding us.  We were without power for five days. We lost most of our food - our gluten free food.
    That is when I knew we had to be prepared. No more winging it. We couldn’t take a chance like that ever again. We were “lucky” one too many times. We were very fortunate that we did not lose our home to the Los Angeles wildfire, and only had minimal damage from the severe storm which hit our home in Illinois.
      
    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764