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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    CELIAC NEUROPATHY SHOULD BE CONSIDERED WHEN NEUROPATHY HAS UNKNOWN ORIGIN


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    Celiac.com 11/27/2002 - According to recommendations made at the 127th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Neurological Association (ANA), a diagnosis of celiac neuropathy should be considered in patients with neuropathy of otherwise unknown etiology, including in patients without any gastrointestinal symptoms. Dr. Russell L. Chin and colleagues from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, New York reviewed the records of 20 patients who had neuropathy and biopsy-confirmed celiac disease and found that six had neuropathic symptoms with no gastrointestinal symptoms and three had the neuropathic symptoms before any symptoms of celiac disease appeared. All of the patients had burning, tingling and numbness in their hands and feet that included distal sensory loss, and nine had diffuse paresthesias that involved the face, trunk, and/or lumbosacral region. Two of these patients also exhibited weakness.

    Electromyography (nerve conduction) studies were normal or slightly abnormal in 18 of the patients and sural nerve biopsies that were examined in three of the patients revealed moderate to severe axonopathies. Thirteen of the patients tested positive for ganglioside antibodies using the agglutination assay, and celiac disease was seen in five percent of all neuropathy patients, and in 20 percent of patients who were seen at the institution for neuropathy with normal electrophysiological studies.

    Based on these results and the fact that 10 percent of patients with celiac disease exhibit associated neurological disease, usually in the form of peripheral neuropathy or ataxia, Dr. Chin recommends that all patients with neuropathy of unknown origin should be screened for celiac disease, even if they have no gastrointestinal symptoms.


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    admin
    Celiac.com 06/25/2003 - The Neuropathy Association -- On May 27, 2003 a link between Peripheral Neuropathy and Celiac Disease was reported by physicians at the Weill Medical College of Cornell University and New York Presbyterian Hospital, according to The Neuropathy Association. Peripheral Neuropathy, which affects up to 20 million people in the U.S., can cause pain, numbness and weakness in the arms and legs and, when left untreated, can progress to debilitation.
    In an article published in todays Neurology, five percent of all patients with neuropathy were found to also have celiac disease, which results from an allergy to gluten in bread and other wheat products, and is estimated to affect one out of every 150 people. Based on the diagnosis, we are now able to treat a substantial number of patients with neuropathy who previously could not be helped, said Dr. Russell Chin, the first author of the paper.
    In addition, patients with celiac disease tended to have a type of neuropathy called small fiber neuropathy which often causes severe burning, stinging, and electric-shock like pains, but is often misdiagnosed as it is undetectable with routine tests used by neurologists to diagnose neuropathy. Approximately 16% of all patients with small fiber neuropathy were found to have celiac disease. Many of our patients were told that there was nothing physically wrong with them, and were advised to seek psychiatric care for presumed anxiety or depression, noted Dr. Norman Latov, Medical and Scientific Director of The Neuropathy Association, and senior author of the study. You too would be anxious and depressed if you were in constant pain, and no-one believed you or offered to help.
    Celiac disease is known to run in families, and in several of the cases, other family members were affected. Some were erroneously diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, an inherited form of neuropathy due to genetic mutations. Not all familial cases of neuropathy are due to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, noted Dr. Latov. Peripheral neuropathy can also occur in association with other causes for neuropathy that run in families, such as diabetes or autoimmunity, for example.
    The article also notes that one third of the celiac neuropathy patients did not have any gastrointestinal symptoms such as malabsorption, abdominal pain or diarrhea, which are associated with celiac disease. What many people dont realize, notes Dr. Peter Green, Director of the Celiac Disease Center at the New York Presbyterian Hospital, and co-author of the paper, Is that 50% of adults with celiac disease have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms, and present with other manifestations such as anemia, or as in this case, peripheral neuropathy. Treatment consists of eliminating gluten or wheat containing foods in the diet.
    At present, patients with neuropathy are not routinely tested for celiac disease. Based on the new study, however, patients and physicians should be aware that anyone with unexplained neuropathy or pain should be tested for celiac disease regardless of whether or not they have the classic gastrointestinal symptoms.
    About The Neuropathy Association:
    The Neuropathy Association is a public, non-profit, charitable organization, founded by patients with neuropathy and their friends and families, whose mission is to provide support and education, and fund research into the causes and treatments of neuropathy. It is a rapidly growing, broad based organization, with over 70,000 members, and over 200 support groups and chapters throughout the US. For more information about peripheral neuropathy and The Neuropathy Association, visit our web site at http://www.neuropathy.org, or contact us at 60 E. 42nd St, Suite 942, New York, N.Y. 10165, Tel: 212-692-0662, e-mail: info@neuropathy.org.
    Contact information:
    Media Contact: Jeanne Abi-Nader
    Tel: 212-484-7954
    E-mail: jabi-nader@rlmnet.com
    Norman Latov, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Neurology and
    Neuroscience, Weill Medical College of Cornell
    University, and Medical and Scientific Director, The
    Neuropathy Association.
    Tel: 212-888-8516
    E-mail: nol2002@med.cornell.edu.
     

    admin

    Brain. 2003 Mar;126(Pt 3):685-91.
    Celiac.com 08/11/2005 – Researchers in the United Kingdom screened 224 patients with various forms of ataxia (59 with familial, 132 sporadic idiopathic, and 33 with clinically probable cerebellar variant of multiple system atrophy MSA-C) for the presence of antigliadin antibodies and found that 24% of the ataxia patients were sensitive to gluten, and 72% of them had the HLA DQ2 genetic marker. Their results were compared with those of 1,200 healthy controls. Among the familial ataxia group 8 or 59 (14%), 54 of 132 (41%) of the sporadic idiopathic group, 5 of 33 (15%) in the MSA-C group, and 149 of the 1,200 (1.24%) controls, screened positive for antigliadin antibodies. The difference in prevalence between the idiopathic sporadic groups and the other groups was highly significant. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in only 13% of the ataxia patients. MRI testing found atrophy of the cerebellum in 79% and white matter hyperintensities in 19% of the ataxia patients, and 45% of patients had neurophysiological evidence of a sensorimotor axonal neuropathy.
    The researchers conclude that gluten ataxia is the single most common cause of sporadic idiopathic ataxia, and antigliadin antibody testing is should be done immediately on everyone with symptoms of sporadic ataxia.

    Destiny Stone
    Celiac.com 03/09/2010 - Celiac disease is a vastly growing epidemic. Those suffering from celiac  have varying levels of difficulty digesting wheat, rye and barley; as celiac  primarily affects the small bowel and is considered to be an autoimmune intestinal disorder. However, compounding  new evidence sited in the March 2010 edition of the The Lancet Neurology, suggests that celiac disease also affects the nervous system, indicating a wider systemic disorder than previously thought.
    Thanks to modern science and years of  testing, many neurological disorders are now being directly associated with gluten intolerance. The most common associations have been demonstrated to be, cerebellar ataxia and peripheral neuropathy. Although gluten has also been shown to impact drug resistant epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, dementia, and stiff-man syndrome among others. To accurately determine the effects gluten has on neurological health, testing by Hadjivassiliou and colleagues was done in three areas: serology, genetics, and clinical response to gluten withdrawal.
    As far as serological tests are concerned, IgG antibodies to gliadin (AGA) have long been considered the most accurate indicators of neurological gluten sensitivity. However, researchers  are now finding that IgG AGA is no longer a relevant test for gluten sensitivity, and it is now being replaced with more dependable tests. In fact, researchers recently became aware of IgG DGP AGA as an  nearly absolute marker for the connection between gluten sensitivity and celiac disease. Initial data also indicates that TG6 are markers for gluten sensitivity, while TG3 appears to be markers for dermatitis herpetiformis. Additionally, IgA antibodies to TG2, if they are detectable in the intestine, have also been shown to effectively connect neurological disease with gluten intolerance.
    Genetics is another important correlation between gluten intolerance and neurological disorders. Clinically speaking, the recognition of  HLA  DQ2 combined with a positive serology, increases the probability that gluten plays a roll in the manifestation of neurological pathogenesis.
    Evaluating gluten withdrawal is crucial when establishing the gluten/neurological abnormalities connection. The link has been clearly noted in patients newly diagnosed with cerebellar ataxia or peripheral neuropathy. After establishing a gluten-free diet, the patients showed considerable improvement of their neurological symptoms. However, patients that had neurological symptoms lasting longer than 12 months, did not typically show signs of neurological improvement once a gluten-free diet was initiated. The reason for this is thought to be a result of irreversible neural cell damage, such as a loss of Purkinje cells accompanied by prominent T-lymphocyte, as seen in patients with ataxia.
    While the findings of these studies  indicated that gluten is a major factor associated with neurological disorders, further studies are needed to show conclusive evidence of the direct correlation between the two. Such findings may provide the key to determining if autoimmunity is fundamental in evoking gluten-sensitive neurological impairment.
    Source:

    The Lancet Neurology,  Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 233 - 235, March 2010

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/27/2014 - There have been a few reports tying cortical myoclonus with ataxia to celiac disease. Such reports also suggest that the former is unresponsive to a gluten-free diet.
    A team of researchers recently set out to determine if there is any significant connection between the two conditions. The research team included Ptolemaios G. Sarrigiannis, Nigel Hoggard, Daniel Aeschlimann, David S. Sanders, Richard A. Grünewald, Zoe C. Unwin, and Marios Hadjivassiliou.
    They are variously associated with the Departments of Gastroenterology, Neurology, Neurophysiology and Neuroradiology at Royal Hallamshire Hospital, in Sheffield, UK, and with the College of Biomedical and Life Sciences at Cardiff University in Cardiff, UK.
    The team presented detailed electro-clinical characteristics of a new syndrome of progressive cortical hyperexcitability with ataxia and refractory celiac disease. Regular follow ups of over 600 patients with neurological manifestations due to gluten sensitivity revealed 9 patients with this syndrome.
    They found that all nine patients, six men and three women, experienced asymmetrical irregular myoclonus involving one or more limbs and sometimes face. This was often stimulus sensitive and became more widespread over time. Three patients had a history of Jacksonian march, and five had at least one secondarily generalized seizure. Electrophysiology showed evidence of cortical myoclonus. Three showed a phenotype of epilepsia partialis continua at onset.
    All patients showed clinical, imaging and/or pathological evidence of cerebellar involvement. All patients followed a strict gluten-free diet, and most successfully eliminated gluten-related antibodies. However, all patients still showed evidence of enteropathy, suggests that refractory celiac disease is to blame.
    During the study, two patients died from enteropathy-associated lymphoma and one from status epilepticus. Five patients were treated with mycophenolate and one in addition with rituximab and IV immunoglobulins. These patients showed improvement of ataxia and enteropathy, but continued to suffer the effects of myoclonus.
    These results indicate that myoclonus ataxia might be the most common neurological manifestation of refractory celiac disease.
    The clinical involvement, apart from ataxia, covers the whole clinical spectrum of cortical myoclonus.
    Source:
    Cerebellum & Ataxias 2014, 1:11. doi:10.1186/2053-8871-1-11

  • Recent Articles

    Tammy Rhodes
    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
    I have already lived through two natural disasters. Neither of which I ever want to experience again, but they taught me a very valuable lesson, which is why I created a Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag (see link below). Here’s my story. If you’ve ever lived in or visited the Los Angeles area, you’re probably familiar with the Santa Ana winds and how bitter sweet they are. Sweet for cleaning the air and leaving the skies a brilliant crystal blue, and bitter for the power outages and potential brush fires that might ensue.  It was one of those bitter nights where the Santa Ana winds were howling, and we had subsequently lost our power. We had to drive over an hour just to find a restaurant so we could eat dinner. I remember vividly seeing the glow of a brush fire on the upper hillside of the San Gabriel Mountains, a good distance from our neighborhood. I really didn’t think much of it, given that it seemed so far from where we lived, and I was hungry! After we ate, we headed back home to a very dark house and called it a night. 
    That’s where the story takes a dangerous turn….about 3:15am. I awoke to the TV blaring loudly, along with the lights shining brightly. Our power was back on! I proceeded to walk throughout the house turning everything off at exactly the same time our neighbor, who was told to evacuate our street, saw me through our window, assuming I knew that our hillside was ablaze with flames. Flames that were shooting 50 feet into the air. I went back to bed and fell fast asleep. The fire department was assured we had left because our house was dark and quiet again. Two hours had passed.  I suddenly awoke to screams coming from a family member yelling, “fire, fire, fire”! Flames were shooting straight up into the sky, just blocks from our house. We lived on a private drive with only one way in and one way out.  The entrance to our street was full of smoke and the fire fighters were doing their best to save our neighbors homes. We literally had enough time to grab our dogs, pile into the car, and speed to safety. As we were coming down our street, fire trucks passed us with sirens blaring, and I wondered if I would ever see my house and our possessions ever again. Where do we go? Who do we turn to? Are shelters a safe option? 
    When our daughter was almost three years old, we left the West Coast and relocated to Northern Illinois. A place where severe weather is a common occurrence. Since the age of two, I noticed that my daughter appeared gaunt, had an incredibly distended belly, along with gas, stomach pain, low weight, slow growth, unusual looking stool, and a dislike for pizza, hotdog buns, crackers, Toast, etc. The phone call from our doctor overwhelmed me.  She was diagnosed with Celiac Disease. I broke down into tears sobbing. What am I going to feed my child? Gluten is everywhere.
    After being scoped at Children's Hospital of Chicago, and my daughters Celiac Disease officially confirmed, I worried about her getting all the nutrients her under nourished body so desperately needed. I already knew she had a peanut allergy from blood tests, but just assumed she would be safe with other nuts. I was so horribly wrong. After feeding her a small bite of a pistachio, which she immediately spit out, nuts would become her enemy. Her anaphylactic reaction came within minutes of taking a bite of that pistachio. She was complaining of horrible stomach cramps when the vomiting set in. She then went limp and starting welting. We called 911.
    Now we never leave home without our Epipens and our gluten free food supplies. We analyze every food label. We are hyper vigilant about cross contamination. We are constantly looking for welts and praying for no stomach pain. We are always prepared and on guard. It's just what we do now. Anything to protect our child, our love...like so many other parents out there have to do every moment of ever day!  
    Then, my second brush with a natural disaster happened, without any notice, leaving us once again scrambling to find a safe place to shelter. It was a warm and muggy summer morning, and my husband was away on a business trip leaving my young daughter and me to enjoy our summer day. Our Severe Weather Alert Radio was going off, again, as I continued getting our daughter ready for gymnastics.  Having gotten used to the (what seemed to be daily) “Severe Thunderstorm warning,” I didn’t pay much attention to it. I continued downstairs with my daughter and our dog, when I caught a glimpse out the window of an incredibly black looking cloud. By the time I got downstairs, I saw the cover to our grill literally shoot straight up into the air. Because we didn’t have a fenced in yard, I quickly ran outside and chased the cover, when subsequently, I saw my neighbor’s lawn furniture blow pass me. I quickly realized I made a big mistake going outside. As I ran back inside, I heard debris hitting the front of our home.  Our dog was the first one to the basement door! As we sat huddled in the dark corner of our basement, I was once again thinking where are we going to go if our house is destroyed. I was not prepared, and I should have been. I should have learned my lesson the first time. Once the storm passed, we quickly realized we were without power and most of our trees were destroyed. We were lucky that our house had minimal damage, but that wasn’t true for most of the area surrounding us.  We were without power for five days. We lost most of our food - our gluten free food.
    That is when I knew we had to be prepared. No more winging it. We couldn’t take a chance like that ever again. We were “lucky” one too many times. We were very fortunate that we did not lose our home to the Los Angeles wildfire, and only had minimal damage from the severe storm which hit our home in Illinois.
      
    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764