• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    77,473
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    hayley stan
    Newest Member
    hayley stan
    Joined
  • 0

    How Effective is a Gluten-free, Casein-free Diet for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder?


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 04/11/2012 - Studies on the gluten-free and/or casein-free (Gluten-free Casein-free) dietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that some children may positively respond to implementation of the dietary intervention.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    Photo: Jefferson AdamsOther studies support the idea of using various factors, including gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities and immune function to classify children diagnosed with ASDs

    Medical researchers Christine M. Pennesi, and Laura Cousino recently examined the effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. They are affiliated with the Department of Biobehavioral Health at the Pennsylvania State University in Pennsylvania, USA.

    For their study, Pennesi and Cousino presented a 90-question online survey to parents or primary caregivers of children diagnosed with ASD. The survey asked about the efficacy of the Gluten-free Casein-free diet. The survey included questions about the children's GI symptoms, food allergy diagnoses, and suspected food sensitivities, as well as the degree and length of their dietary regime. In all, they received 387 responses.

    Parents who reported GI symptoms, food allergy diagnoses, and suspected food sensitivities also reported greater improvement in ASD behaviors, physiological symptoms, and social behaviors, compared with parents who reported symptoms, diagnoses, or sensitivities in their children (P < 0.05).

    Parents who reported strict diet adherence, full gluten/casein elimination and infrequent diet errors during and outside of parental care, also reported improvement in ASD behaviors, physiological symptoms, and social behaviors, compared with parents who reported less strict adherence, incomplete gluten/casein elimination, and more frequent diet errors during and outside of parental care (P < 0.05).

    The full report appears in Nutritional Neuroscience. There, the authors write that findings suggest that diet adherence and GI and immune factors may help to differentiate diet responders from diet non-responders. They also suggest that the findings support the importance of further investigations into the various factors that influence efficacy of treatment in children with ASDs.

    Source:


    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    Guest Jonathan

    Posted

    Am I misunderstanding something here? It looks to me like they're trying to suggest the results of an online survey have some kind of scientific relevance?

     

    An online survey? Really?!

     

    The people who voluntarily filled out this survey will very likely be among the passionate parents desperate for results... parents who have for years willfully ignored the lack of scientific evidence to support the use of a GFCS diet for treating autism.

     

    There's nothing "scientific" about such an online survey.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Laura

    Posted

    I did not fill out the survey but I can speak from experience. My son has mild aspergers. He was not diagnosed until age 17, however this has been a very long journey. He has been an extremely difficult child since about age 1. As parents we were told to be firmer with him, force him to sleep with drugs, and that we must be exaggerating his behavior problems. At age 11 we discovered that he had celiac disease after going on an allergen free diet. The difference in his behavior was a miracle. He still has some issues but they are night and day. Whenever he eats gluten the behaviors come back. He can actually describe the sensations to me now that he is 17 and much more aware of his body. Trust me he is 6'4" tall and pure muscle and eating 4000 calories a day. Feeding him a gluten free diet is very expensive and I wouldn't be doing it if it didn't help.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Tracy

    Posted

    I did not fill out the survey but I can speak from experience. My son has mild aspergers. He was not diagnosed until age 17, however this has been a very long journey. He has been an extremely difficult child since about age 1. As parents we were told to be firmer with him, force him to sleep with drugs, and that we must be exaggerating his behavior problems. At age 11 we discovered that he had celiac disease after going on an allergen free diet. The difference in his behavior was a miracle. He still has some issues but they are night and day. Whenever he eats gluten the behaviors come back. He can actually describe the sensations to me now that he is 17 and much more aware of his body. Trust me he is 6'4" tall and pure muscle and eating 4000 calories a day. Feeding him a gluten free diet is very expensive and I wouldn't be doing it if it didn't help.

    May I ask, Laura, how did you get your son to change his diet? Our son is 13 and is very phobic when it comes to foods. We encourage him all the time to try new foods (same foods encouraged several times) and he simply will not budge. Just trying to get him to try one bite of a new food has begun WWIII in our house. Have any suggestions?

     

    Son's dxs:

    Aspergers

    ADHD

    Anxiety

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    I did not fill out the survey but I can speak from experience. My son has mild aspergers. He was not diagnosed until age 17, however this has been a very long journey. He has been an extremely difficult child since about age 1. As parents we were told to be firmer with him, force him to sleep with drugs, and that we must be exaggerating his behavior problems. At age 11 we discovered that he had celiac disease after going on an allergen free diet. The difference in his behavior was a miracle. He still has some issues but they are night and day. Whenever he eats gluten the behaviors come back. He can actually describe the sensations to me now that he is 17 and much more aware of his body. Trust me he is 6'4" tall and pure muscle and eating 4000 calories a day. Feeding him a gluten free diet is very expensive and I wouldn't be doing it if it didn't help.

    Yeah I know. My son is in his 30's now. I have celiac and now I know he has it. I had a hell of a time with him since he was a baby. He cried all the time and I mean all the time.

     

    If I had known this things would be different today. We both had these issues with this and did not know it. Now his life is a mess and he is still eating gluten. He has no money for nothing now as he don't have a job.

     

    I think it is sad. I still get sick. He still eats gluten and does not stop as he can't afford an other foods.

     

    Sad If I had known it could have been different for him at least.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    This article is very subjective. Parents of kids with PDD may perceive all kinds of changes when they try different treatments that can be caused by many factors. I work with a physician who did a small study (randomized controlled trial) on the GFD in kids with autism and found no change in behavior. In these situations, randomized controlled trials are what is needed to show if the GFD truly has benefit for these patients.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    We too have had very positive results by using the gluten-free diet for our son now 17 with an ASD. The positive results were so pronounced that they were noticed by teachers, family and friends. Anyone that has seen the difference in him is a believer. I find it sad when one feels we have to wait for science to give us the assurance to pursue something that is so harmless and may have such a strong impact.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest melissa

    Posted

    I did not fill out the survey but I can speak from experience. My son has mild aspergers. He was not diagnosed until age 17, however this has been a very long journey. He has been an extremely difficult child since about age 1. As parents we were told to be firmer with him, force him to sleep with drugs, and that we must be exaggerating his behavior problems. At age 11 we discovered that he had celiac disease after going on an allergen free diet. The difference in his behavior was a miracle. He still has some issues but they are night and day. Whenever he eats gluten the behaviors come back. He can actually describe the sensations to me now that he is 17 and much more aware of his body. Trust me he is 6'4" tall and pure muscle and eating 4000 calories a day. Feeding him a gluten free diet is very expensive and I wouldn't be doing it if it didn't help.

    My son is 24 and was diagnosed with aspergers at 15. He is also deaf. He has always had stomach issues and now I am wondering if this isn't the reason. His behaviors are worse some days than others. Can this diet help to change behaviors after all of this time?

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites


    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoji are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   7 Members, 0 Anonymous, 269 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    Carol Frilegh
    Celiac.com 12/20/2007 - The Specific Carbohydrate Diet is an excellent option in dietary intervention for celiac disease and was originally developed for that purpose over fifty years ago by Dr. Sydney Valentine Haas. Dr. Haas treated over 600 cases of celiac disease with his Specific Carbohydrate Diet, maintaining his patients on it for at lease twelve months, and found that the prognosis of celiac disease was excellent. "There is complete recovery with no relapses, no deaths, no crisis, no pulmonary involvement and no stunting of growth."

    Specific Carbohydrate Diet - A Dietary Intervention for Celiac Disease and Autism
    A fifty-year-old diet used by adults to combat Celiac Disease and other digestive and bowel problems is also having a remarkable effect on autistic children.The Specific Carbohydrate Diet restricts but does not eliminate or limit carbohydrate intake. It is neither a low carbohydrate diet nor low calorie diet. The Specific Carbohydrate Diet developed from the research and practice of celiac management by a pioneer in the field, Dr. Sydney Valentine Haas and his son, Dr. Merrill B. Haas. Haas discovered that feeding monosaccharides and restricting polysaccahrides is effective in manipulating the food supply of types of bacteria that damage the intestinal lining, flatten microvilli and interfere with nutrient absorption.
    The late Elaine Gottschall, pursued her study of the effect of food on the functioning of the digestive tract and its effects on behavior for nearly four decades. Gottschall had visited Dr. Haas as a last resort before agreeing to radical surgery for her five year old daughter. The child was cured on Specific Carbohydrate Diet and went on to resume a normal life and diet. Gottschall, sought additional answers and pursued the brain-gut connection after the death of the senior doctor Haas until her own demise at age eighty-four. The diet has enjoyed great success among adults who follow it to heal Celiac Disease, Crohn's Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, and Irritable Bowel Disease. Celiac disease is considered incurable, but this diet can be a very effective treatment for it, especially when it is started very early for children. Recent research shows that more than 50% of children with autism have GI symptoms, food allergies, and mal-digestion or malabsorption issues. The history, an overview of celiac disease and the diet protocols are among topics that appear in in Gottschall's book, "Breaking the Vicious Cycle."
    The Specific Carbohydrate Diet excludes a category of carbohydrates not easily digested. The Specific Carbohydrate Diet is about the type of carbohydrates that will heal and not hurt. It is not about the quantity of carbohydrates and should not be confused with "low carb diets" or even the Paleo or "Caveman" diets to which it is sometimes compared. Elaine Gottschall was emphatic in stressing that the Specific Carbohydrate Diet is a balanced and wholesome diet.
    Thinking of the Specific Carbohydrate Diet as a low carb diet is one of the most common mistakes made by those who are not sufficiently informed. Eliminating
    carbohydrates can lead to a condition called "ketosis," which is why it is essential to include adequate carbohydrates in the daily menu. Carbohydrates contribute energy, essential nutrients, and fiber. People who have validated concerns about yeast may moderate the use of fruit and honey until things improve but should not have to eliminate them.
    Rest assured! You may include plenty of carbohydrates on Specific Carbohydrate Diet. Former choices of starchy foods like rice and potato are replaced with filling items like squash, bananas, peas, apples (and applesauce), avocados, almond flour muffins and others. These are carbohydrates that are easier to digest and more nutritious. Their nutrients are absorbed directly into the bloodstream without taxing a compromised digestive system.
    That is why the word "Specific" was chosen to name Specific Carbohydrate Diet.
    There is a strong brain-gut connection and it appears decreasing bacterial overgrowth is restoring cognitive abilities in many of the children following the special version for Autism, Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperacticity Disorder.
    The autistic community of parents and doctors have favored popular dietary approaches like the gluten-free casein-free diet until recently, but in light of anectdotal reports of 75% success using the Specific Carbohydrate Diet as a dietary intervention, more physicians are recommending it. Parents and teachers of autistic children report changes in attitude, increases in skills and responsiveness, in some cases after only a few weeks on the diet. Although long term properly controlled studies have not been conducted, these numerous first hand reports attest to the potential this diet holds for the autism community, in addition to celiacs which have been helped by it for decades. The diet is more restrictive in some ways than the gluten-free casein-free diet, as most foods must be homemade, but the diet is varied, balanced, nutritional and the food every appetizing.
    Gluten sensitivity and intolerance to salicylates are symptoms of a damaged digestive system which is overrun with intestinal pathogens. When the health of the gut is restored, these symptoms disappear. It is better to cure the underlying cause than to just try to treat the symptoms. Because Specific Carbohydrate Diet reaches to the root cause of these problems by restoring the health of the digestive system, the Specific Carbohydrate Diet is being viewed as the optimal choice for celiacs and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
    As one mother has said, "When you see them emerge, the true child, with a loving personality, like an iridescent butterfly breaking out of its cocoon, well, that's why we all persevere."
    For more information about this diet please visit:
    http://breakingtheviciouscycle.info/
    and
    http://www.pecanbread.com
    Editor's Note: Celiac.com supports the idea that the Specific Carbohydrate Diet is gluten-free and can be very helpful for many people, depending on their situation. We disagree, however, with the assertion that Elaine Gottschall makes in her book Breaking the Vicious Cycle that people with celiac disease can be cured by the Specific Carbohydrate Diet after being on it for a certain time period.

    Carol Frilegh
    Celiac.com 12/26/2007 - Can children with Autism Spectrum Disorder eat their way out of their cocoons?
    Eight yearsago I knew little about autism. Fifty years ago I heard that a distantacquaintance of mine had an autistic child. It was extremely unusual at thetime. I needed it explained to me and was told that the child was almost totallyunresponsive.
    Recent statistics show that between one and one and ahalf million people in the USA are afflicted with autism, making it the fastest growing developmentaldisability. There has been a thirteen percent increasein autism since 1990.
    The term "autism" wasfirst coined by Eugen Bleuler a Swiss psychiatrist, and the term was also applied to those with adult schizophrenia. Initially parents were blamed andpsychological rejection was cited as a possible cause, but over time a greater understanding evolved and an analysis ofsymptoms and protocols for their treatment developed.
    If we examinethe history of dietary intervention for celiac disease, according toElaine Gottschall's Breaking the Vicious Cycle, initially the SpecificCarbohydrate Diet was widely favored . Only later on did thegluten-free casein-free diet begin to eclipse the Specific Carbohydrate Diet for the management of celiac disease, following a smallstudy published in Lancet in the U.K., and the diet gained enormouspopularity which has been maintained to the present. Researcherspublished results of their work with the gluten-free casein-free dietfor autism. Many people with autism noticed improvements once gluten and dairy products were removedfrom their diets. According to some estimates 60% of people with autism experience positiveeffects from the diet, and there are some reports of people recovering completely from Autism Spectrum Disorder. However,there is a subset of children who do not respond to the diet and get stalled orplateau at some point, and these people must often seek other treatment avenues.
    Less thanten years ago a few adults reported that the Specific CarbohydrateDiet was fostering encouraging progress in their Autism Spectrum Disorder children.Gottschall believed that in addition to gluten starches and certainsugars were at the root of digestive disorders. A small support group formedwhich followed the Specific Carbohydrate Diet to treat Autism Spectrum Disorder, and this group has grown from a handful to several thousandsince its inception. The majority of its members transitioned from the gluten-free casein-free diet. Some peoplewere told incorrectly that the Specific Carbohydrate Diet is an extension of the gluten-free casein-free diet, or that it is only suitableif the gluten-free diet fails. The protocols about food restrictions andcontamination differ. The Specific Carbohydrate Diet is, however, a unique stand-alone diet.
    Althoughchildren with autism who are on the Specific Carbohydrate Diet are in a statistical minority compared to those on the gluten-free casein-free diet, anecdotal reports indicate that their success rate is nearly 80%. It often turns out that some of those who initiallyfail have not followed the diet correctly, and they fare quite well when they start it over and do it correctly. In several small studies the Specific Carbohydrate Diet outperformed the gluten-free casein-free diet in the treatment of autism. Alarge scale formal study could cost up to one million dollars and therefore hasnot been conducted. In the absence of such studies mainstream medicinehas bypassed or dismissed the Specific Carbohydrate Diet as inconclusive, but some doctors have commented that sinceit is a healthy and balanced diet it is worth a try. One concern is thatpeople will abandon their medication, but this idea is not advocated by the support group.
    Ibecame interested in the autism-Specific Carbohydrate Diet connection when ElaineGottschall invited my support on the Internet list called "Elaine'sChildren," which was renamed subsequently renamed pecanbread@yahoo.com (www.pecanbread.com). WhenI began to read the stories of improvement, progress in behavior anddigestion, and of some who recovered from Autism Spectrum Disorder, I literally got chills. I began to archive those stories and combined several in a piecewhich I submitted to a parenting magazine. The editors were veryinterested but insisted on having a gluten-free casein-free diet author comment and counter mystory. Since I do not view dietary intervention as a competition thearticle was withdrawn.
    I am not sorry. Dietary intervention mustnot be a contest. The diet that WORKS is the diet to choose. Thatchoice may affect the entire future of a young human being and of theirfamily. It is critical for parents to explore, research, connect withothers and become informed so they can select the best option to fittheir needs.
    If you want to read more about ElaineGottschall be sure to read "All Her Children" at Pecanbread.com, and decide if this is a diet that could help your family.
    Editor's Note: Celiac.com supportsthe idea that the Specific Carbohydrate Diet is gluten-free and can bevery helpful for many people, depending on their situation. Wedisagree, however, with the assertion that Elaine Gottschall makes inher book Breaking the Vicious Cycle that people with celiac disease can be cured by the Specific Carbohydrate Diet after being on it for a certain time period.


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/08/2009 - Kids whose moms have autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and celiac disease face a risk of autism that is up to three times higher than that of the general population, according to a new study.
    Although earlier studies have documented a connection between autism and a maternal history of type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis, this is the first study to document a link between autism and celiac disease, according to the study's authors.
    A team of researchers led by Dr. William W. Eaton, chairman of the Department of Mental Health at the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University recently set out to review data related to autoimmune deficiency and autism.  
    Eaton's team collected data on 3,325 Danish children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, including 1,089 diagnosed with infantile autism. All of the children were born between 1993 and 2004, and their data was part of the Danish National Psychiatric Registry. Data on family members with autoimmune diseases came from the Danish National Hospital Register.
    The data showed that children whose mothers had autoimmune disease faced a higher risk of developing autism spectrum disorder than children of mothers who did not have these conditions. Moreover, children with a family history of type 1 diabetes faced an increased risk of infantile autism.
    Overall, the increased risk of autism in people with autoimmune diseases is not huge, Eaton said. "The increased risk for type 1 diabetes is a little less than two times, for rheumatoid arthritis it's about 1.5 times and for celiac disease it's more than three times," Eaton said. "That's enough to impress an epidemiologist, but not enough to make anybody in the general population start changing their behavior."
    Eaton added that this finding "reinforces the suggestion that autoimmune processes are connected somehow with the cause of autism and autism spectrum disorder, and...may point a flashlight to areas of the genome that connect to autism."
    The finding itself has no clinical significance, says Eaton, but could guide future efforts by researchers to determine the cause or causes of autism.
    One reason autoimmune diseases might have a role in autism lies in genetic history, Eaton said. Children who were underweight or premature at birth face a higher risk for autism, and both of these obstetric problems are associated with celiac disease, he added.
    There may be a significant overlap "in the genetics of some of the autoimmune diseases and autism," he said. "Autism is strongly inherited, but we don't have the faintest idea where...this finding is on the pathway of finding the cause of autism." Various environmental triggers may also affect the fetus, he said.
    Lead researcher, Dr. Hjordis O. Atladottir, from the Institute of Public Health at the University of Aarhus in Denmark calls the findings important because they support the theory that autism is somehow tied to problems with the immune system.

    PEDIATRICS


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/15/2013 - Most case reports suggest an association between autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) and celiac disease (celiac disease) or positive celiac disease serologic test results, but larger studies are contradictory.
    A team of researchers recently set out to examine the association between ASDs and celiac disease according to small intestinal histopathologic findings.
    The research team included Jonas F. Ludvigsson; Abraham Reichenberg; Christina M. Hultman; and Joseph A. Murray. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, and the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, with the Department of Pediatrics at Orebro University Hospital, Orebro University in Orebro, Sweden, with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of the Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota, with the Department of Psychosis Studies at the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College in London, United Kingdom, and with the Department of Psychiatry at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, New York.
    For their nationwide case-control study, the researchers used 28 Swedish biopsy registers to gather data on approximately 26,995 individuals with celiac disease, which they defined as the presence of villous atrophy, Marsh stage 3.
    They found 12,304 patients with inflammation (Marsh stages 1-2), 3719 patients with normal mucosa (Marsh stage 0), but positive celiac results for IgA/IgG gliadin, endomysium, or tissue transglutaminase. They then compared these results against and results for 213,208 age- and sex-matched control subjects. The team used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for prior ASD diagnosis according to the Swedish National Patient Register and then conducted a second analysis, using Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for future ASDs in individuals undergoing small intestinal biopsy.
    They found that previous ASD was not associated with celiac disease (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.51-1.68) or inflammation (OR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.40-2.64). However, they did finds that previous ASD was associated with a sharp higher risk of having normal mucosa but positive serologic test result for celiac disease (OR, 4.57; 95% CI, 1.58-13.22).
    Once the team restricted the data to individuals without no diagnosis for ASD at the time of biopsy, they found that celiac disease (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.13-1.71) and inflammation (HR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.29-3.13) were both connected with slightly higher risks of later ASDs, compared against the HR of 3.09 (95% CI, 1.99-4.80) for later ASDs in individuals with normal mucosa but positive celiac disease serologic test results.
    Even though this study showed no connection between previous ASD and celiac disease or inflammation, it did show that individuals with normal mucosa, but positive blood screens for celiac disease, have a much higher risk of ASD.
    Source:
    JAMA Psychiatry. Published online September 25, 2013. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2048

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/16/2018 - Summer is the time for chips and salsa. This fresh salsa recipe relies on cabbage, yes, cabbage, as a secret ingredient. The cabbage brings a delicious flavor and helps the salsa hold together nicely for scooping with your favorite chips. The result is a fresh, tasty salsa that goes great with guacamole.
    Ingredients:
    3 cups ripe fresh tomatoes, diced 1 cup shredded green cabbage ½ cup diced yellow onion ¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro 1 jalapeno, seeded 1 Serrano pepper, seeded 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar 2 garlic cloves, minced salt to taste black pepper, to taste Directions:
    Purée all ingredients together in a blender.
    Cover and refrigerate for at least 1 hour. 
    Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper, as desired. 
    Serve is a bowl with tortilla chips and guacamole.

    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 06/15/2018 - There seems to be widespread agreement in the published medical research reports that stuttering is driven by abnormalities in the brain. Sometimes these are the result of brain injuries resulting from a stroke. Other types of brain injuries can also result in stuttering. Patients with Parkinson’s disease who were treated with stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, an area of the brain that regulates some motor functions, experienced a return or worsening of stuttering that improved when the stimulation was turned off (1). Similarly, stroke has also been reported in association with acquired stuttering (2). While there are some reports of psychological mechanisms underlying stuttering, a majority of reports seem to favor altered brain morphology and/or function as the root of stuttering (3). Reports of structural differences between the brain hemispheres that are absent in those who do not stutter are also common (4). About 5% of children stutter, beginning sometime around age 3, during the phase of speech acquisition. However, about 75% of these cases resolve without intervention, before reaching their teens (5). Some cases of aphasia, a loss of speech production or understanding, have been reported in association with damage or changes to one or more of the language centers of the brain (6). Stuttering may sometimes arise from changes or damage to these same language centers (7). Thus, many stutterers have abnormalities in the same regions of the brain similar to those seen in aphasia.
    So how, you may ask, is all this related to gluten? As a starting point, one report from the medical literature identifies a patient who developed aphasia after admission for severe diarrhea. By the time celiac disease was diagnosed, he had completely lost his faculty of speech. However, his speech and normal bowel function gradually returned after beginning a gluten free diet (8). This finding was so controversial at the time of publication (1988) that the authors chose to remain anonymous. Nonetheless, it is a valuable clue that suggests gluten as a factor in compromised speech production. At about the same time (late 1980’s) reports of connections between untreated celiac disease and seizures/epilepsy were emerging in the medical literature (9).
    With the advent of the Internet a whole new field of anecdotal information was emerging, connecting a variety of neurological symptoms to celiac disease. While many medical practitioners and researchers were casting aspersions on these assertions, a select few chose to explore such claims using scientific research designs and methods. While connections between stuttering and gluten consumption seem to have been overlooked by the medical research community, there is a rich literature on the Internet that cries out for more structured investigation of this connection. Conversely, perhaps a publication bias of the peer review process excludes work that explores this connection.
    Whatever the reason that stuttering has not been reported in the medical literature in association with gluten ingestion, a number of personal disclosures and comments suggesting a connection between gluten and stuttering can be found on the Internet. Abid Hussain, in an article about food allergy and stuttering said: “The most common food allergy prevalent in stutterers is that of gluten which has been found to aggravate the stutter” (10). Similarly, Craig Forsythe posted an article that includes five cases of self-reporting individuals who believe that their stuttering is or was connected to gluten, one of whom also experiences stuttering from foods containing yeast (11). The same site contains one report of a stutterer who has had no relief despite following a gluten free diet for 20 years (11). Another stutterer, Jay88, reports the complete disappearance of her/his stammer on a gluten free diet (12). Doubtless there are many more such anecdotes to be found on the Internet* but we have to question them, exercising more skepticism than we might when reading similar claims in a peer reviewed scientific or medical journal.
    There are many reports in such journals connecting brain and neurological ailments with gluten, so it is not much of a stretch, on that basis alone, to suspect that stuttering may be a symptom of the gluten syndrome. Rodney Ford has even characterized celiac disease as an ailment that may begin through gluten-induced neurological damage (13) and Marios Hadjivassiliou and his group of neurologists and neurological investigators have devoted considerable time and effort to research that reveals gluten as an important factor in a majority of neurological diseases of unknown origin (14) which, as I have pointed out previously, includes most neurological ailments.
    My own experience with stuttering is limited. I stuttered as a child when I became nervous, upset, or self-conscious. Although I have been gluten free for many years, I haven’t noticed any impact on my inclination to stutter when upset. I don’t know if they are related, but I have also had challenges with speaking when distressed and I have noticed a substantial improvement in this area since removing gluten from my diet. Nonetheless, I have long wondered if there is a connection between gluten consumption and stuttering. Having done the research for this article, I would now encourage stutterers to try a gluten free diet for six months to see if it will reduce or eliminate their stutter. Meanwhile, I hope that some investigator out there will research this matter, publish her findings, and start the ball rolling toward getting some definitive answers to this question.
    Sources:
    1. Toft M, Dietrichs E. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease--two cases. BMC Neurol. 2011 Apr 8;11:44.
    2. Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: a case study. J Fluency Disord. 2010 Jun;35(2):141-5. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
    3. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    4. Jäncke L, Hänggi J, Steinmetz H. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 10;4(1):23.
    5. Kell CA, Neumann K, von Kriegstein K, Posenenske C, von Gudenberg AW, Euler H, Giraud AL. How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain. 2009 Oct;132(Pt 10):2747-60. Epub 2009 Aug 26.
    6. Galantucci S, Tartaglia MC, Wilson SM, Henry ML, Filippi M, Agosta F, Dronkers NF, Henry RG, Ogar JM, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain. 2011 Jun 11.
    7. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    8. [No authors listed] Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 43-1988. A 52-year-old man with persistent watery diarrhea and aphasia. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1139-48
    9. Molteni N, Bardella MT, Baldassarri AR, Bianchi PA. Celiac disease associated with epilepsy and intracranial calcifications: report of two patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Sep;83(9):992-4.
    10. http://ezinearticles.com/?Food-Allergy-and-Stuttering-Link&id=1235725 
    11. http://www.craig.copperleife.com/health/stuttering_allergies.htm 
    12. https://www.celiac.com/forums/topic/73362-any-help-is-appreciated/
    13. Ford RP. The gluten syndrome: a neurological disease. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Sep;73(3):438-40. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
    14. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/14/2018 - Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a rare complication of celiac disease that has high death rates. To diagnose RCDII, doctors identify a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). 
    However, researchers really don’t have much data regarding the frequency and significance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. Such data could provide useful comparison information for patients with RCDII, among other things.
    To that end, a research team recently set out to try to get some information about the frequency and importance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. The research team included Shafinaz Hussein, Tatyana Gindin, Stephen M Lagana, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Bachir Alobeid, Suzanne K Lewis, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Peter H R Green, and Govind Bhagat.
    They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, and the Department of Medicine at the Celiac Disease Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA. Their team analyzed results of TCR-GR analyses performed on SB biopsies at our institution over a 3-year period, which were obtained from eight active celiac disease, 172 celiac disease on gluten-free diet, 33 RCDI, and three RCDII patients and 14 patients without celiac disease. 
    Clonal TCR-GRs are not infrequent in cases lacking features of RCDII, while PCPs are frequent in all disease phases. TCR-GR results should be assessed in conjunction with immunophenotypic, histological and clinical findings for appropriate diagnosis and classification of RCD.
    The team divided the TCR-GR patterns into clonal, polyclonal and prominent clonal peaks (PCPs), and correlated these patterns with clinical and pathological features. In all, they detected clonal TCR-GR products in biopsies from 67% of patients with RCDII, 17% of patients with RCDI and 6% of patients with gluten-free diet. They found PCPs in all disease phases, but saw no significant difference in the TCR-GR patterns between the non-RCDII disease categories (p=0.39). 
    They also noted a higher frequency of surface CD3(−) IELs in cases with clonal TCR-GR, but the PCP pattern showed no associations with any clinical or pathological feature. 
    Repeat biopsy showed that the clonal or PCP pattern persisted for up to 2 years with no evidence of RCDII. The study indicates that better understanding of clonal T cell receptor gene rearrangements may help researchers improve refractory celiac diagnosis. 
    Source:
    Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023