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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    CELIAC DISEASE TIED TO DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENTS


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 06/23/2016 - Digestive Disease Week 2016 took place in San Diego from May 21-24. Among the presentations given was one that stood out for its obvious health impacts. That presentation was given by Jonathan Cordova, DO, pediatric gastroenterologist at the University of Chicago Medical Center. His presentation tied celiac disease to major depressive disorder in adolescents, and stated that most adolescents with celiac disease have symptoms consistent with the disorder.


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    Dr. Cordova said that "...interim analysis does suggest that a majority of adolescents living with celiac disease may have symptoms consistent with major depressive disorder," and that the depression has a negative impact on their quality of life, "but does not appear to be associated with their celiac disease state." That is, the depression does not seem to be impacted by how well their celiac disease is doing. Healthy gut and gluten-free diet, or unhealthy gut, with symptoms, it doesn't seem to matter. The depression levels seem about the same whatever the case.

    A number of recent studies indicate that depression and anxiety are the main reasons people with celiac disease report decreased quality of life, Dr. Cordova and his colleagues wrote. But, most of these studies were done on adults, almost none used adolescents, and adolescents may be more susceptible to depression.

    The research team was able to connect celiac disease with mental health disorders in adolescents by administering questionnaires to adolescents and their parents. Average age of adolescents was 14.6 years at the time of survey and 11.2 years at the time of diagnosis.

    The researchers found no correlation between celiac disease and depression, anxiety, ADHD, age at survey, quality of life, age at diagnosis or length of time on a gluten free diet. However, the majority of adolescents and parental reports screened positive for major depressive disorder.

    Interestingly, a parent's perception of the state of their child's celiac disease impacted their perception of depression in their child.

    Dr. Cordova says that "the data suggests that early screening for depression in any adolescent with celiac disease is crucial to help optimize behavioral health,"

    Dr. Cordova's team plans to follow these patients into young adulthood, and aims to re-screen them again in 5 years.

    Reference: 

    • Cordova J, et al. Abstract #844. Presented at: Digestive Disease Week; May 21-24, 2016; San Diego

    Image Caption: Teens with celiac disease often have symptoms of depression. Image: CC--Rui Barros
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    Guest Heather

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    As an adult diagnosed with celiac, I began to feel much better after about a year on the gluten free diet, and was pleased that the major depression subsided. However, a new sadness and anxiety was ushered in when food choices became a tense exercise in label-reading, and when I could no longer participate the same way in social gatherings that were centered around group meals, or as it's said "breaking bread" together. Being that teens are at the most social point in their lives, I wonder if some of the depression is caused by the extra and sometimes sudden challenges of having to majorly change their diets, having to feel singled-out and "different", feeling excluded from various food-centered activities they once shared with friends, etc. As many of us know, depending on the amount of or lack of family and friend support regarding the gluten-free diet, it can be a very tough and scary time when you learn that foods you formerly enjoyed are now "the enemy". Pile this on top of all the unique social issues celiac teens must grapple with along with just the normal social issues all teens must tackle and you have a ripe environment for depression, it would seem.

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    admin
    Psychosomatics 45:325-335, August 2004
    Celiac.com 07/30/2004 - Past studies have reported a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in adults with celiac disease, perhaps due to serotonergic dysfunction, and an increased prevalence of depressive and disruptive behavioral disorders in adolescence with the disease, especially before treatment. In an effort to further study any possible connections, researchers looked at 29 adolescents with celiac disease and 29 matched controls. The researchers used semi-structured psychiatric interviews and symptom measurement scales to examine all subjects. Their findings indicate that the subjects with celiac disease had significantly higher prevalence of major depressive disorder compared to the controls--31% versus 7%, and a significantly higher prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders--28% versus 3%. The researchers also found that most of the mental disorders occurred before the patients were diagnosed and treated with a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of current mental disorders was similar in both of the groups studied.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/13/2010 - More and more, researchers are showing connections between inflammatory diseases, like celiac disease, and complex disorders, such as anxiety and depression. There's also a good amount of anecdotal evidence to suggest that people with celiac disease have higher rates of anxiety and depression than the general population.
    A study of the German population is the first to show that female adults following a gluten-free diet for celiac disease show higher levels of anxiety than do members of the general population.
    The researchers are recommending that female celiacs on a gluten-free diet be screened for anxiety. The researchers included W. Häuser, K. H. Janke, B. Klump, M. Gregor, and A. Hinz of the Department of Internal Medicine I of the Klinikum Saarbrücken, Winterberg in Saarbrücken, Germany.
    The team set out to examine levels of depression and anxiety between adults with celiac disease following a gluten-free diet (GFD), and in control subjects drawn from the general population.
    For their study, the team used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to measure levels of anxiety, depression, and likely anxiety or depressive disorder, in 441 adult patients with celiac disease recruited by the German Celiac Society. They then conducted the same assessments on 235 comparable patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), either in remission or with slight disease activity. They did the same for the cross-sample control group of 441 adults from the general population.
    The team used regression analysis to test possible demographic and disease-related predictors of anxiety and depression in celiac disease. Demographic predictors included age, sex, social class, and family status. Disease-related predictors included latency to diagnosis, duration of GFD, compliance with GFD, thyroid disease.
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    Patients with celiac disease showed anxiety levels of 6.6 +/- 3.4, and those with IBD, anxiety levels of 6.9 +/- 3.7, both higher than the general population's level of 4.6 +/- 3.3 - (both P < 0.001). Depression levels were similar for people with celiac disease (4.2 +/- 3.4), IBD (4.6 +/- 3.4) and the general population (4.2 +/- 3.8) (P = 0.3). Rates of likely anxiety disorders in people with celiac disease were 16.8%, and 14.0% for IBD, both higher than the rates of 5.7% in the general population (P < 0.001). All three groups showed similar rates of probable depressive disorder (P = 0.1).
    Their results provide strong indications that adult women with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet suffer higher rates of anxiety than persons of the general population. They encourage clinicians to provide anxiety screens for adult women with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet.
    Source:

    World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jun 14;16(22):2780-7. PMID 20533598

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/03/2011 - A number of studies show that people with celiac disease have higher risk of depression and death from external causes, but there are no conclusive studies on death from suicide.
    A research team set out to more deeply examine the risk of suicide in people with celiac disease. The team included J. F. Ludvigsson, C. Sellgren, B. Runeson, N. Långström, and P. Lichtenstein. They are affiliated with the Department of Paediatrics at Örebro University Hospital in Sweden.
    The team examined suicide risk in individuals with celiac disease where the small intestinal biopsy showed no villous atrophy.
    For their study, the team collected biopsy data from all 28 clinical pathology departments in Sweden for 29,083 individuals diagnosed during 1969-2007 with celiac disease with Marsh 3 villous atrophy, with inflammation without villous atrophy (Marsh 1-2; n=13,263), or with positive celiac disease serology, but normal mucosa (Marsh 0, n=3719).
    The team used Cox regression to calculated hazard ratios for suicide as recorded in the Swedish Cause of Death Register.
    The team found that people with celiac disease have a higher risk for suicide compared to general population control subjects (HR=1.55; 95%CI=1.15-2.10; based on 54 completed suicides).
    The results showed that suicide was more common among those who suffered from inflammation (HR=1.96; 95%CI=1.39-2.77), but the team found no such increase in people who showed positive celiac disease serology, but normal mucosa. (HR=1.06; 95%CI=0.37-3.02).
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    Source:

    Dig Liver Dis. 2011 Aug;43(8):616-22.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 01/09/2012 - Women with celiac disease face a higher risk for depression than the general population, even once they have adopted a gluten-free diet, according to U.S. researchers.
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    The team was led by Josh Smyth, professor of biobehavioral health and medicine at Pennsylvania State University, and included members from  Syracuse University and Drexel University.
    The survey gathered information about how closely people follow a gluten-free diet and assessed various symptoms of celiac disease from physical symptoms to the respondents' experience and management of stressful situations, along with charting symptoms of clinical depression and frequency of thoughts and behaviors associated with eating and body image.
    Perhaps unsurprisingly, many women with celiac disease suffer from disordered eating, given that the management of celiac disease requires careful attention to diet and food, Smyth said.
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    The findings are forthcoming in the journal of Chronic Illness.
    Source:

    http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2011/12/28/Celiac-ups-depression-risk-for-women/UPI-75401325131984/#ixzz1iQynze9k.

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    Jefferson Adams
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    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
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    Source:
    fdfworld.com