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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    GLUTEN-FREE DIET REVERSES POOR LIPID PROFILES YOUNG CHILDREN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 08/10/2016 - Low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations have long been tied to increased cardiovascular risk. People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who presented complications (1) and people with untreated celiac disease also have low HDL-C levels. People with both TID and celiac disease might face a sharper lipid abnormalities and a more aggressive the atherosclerotic process. Can a gluten-free diet reverse that process?


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    A team of researchers recently set out to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet lipid on profiles of patients with Type 1 diabetes. They study was conducted on behalf of the for the Diabetes Study Group of the Italian Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED). The research team included Silvana Salardi, Giulio Maltoni, Stefano Zucchini, Dario Iafusco, Santino Confetto, Angela Zanfardino, Sonia Toni, Barbara Piccini, Maximiliano Zioutas, Marco Marigliano, Vittoria Cauvin, Roberto Franceschi, Ivana Rabbone, Barbara Predieri, Riccardo Schiaffini, Alessandro Salvatoni, Petra Reinstadler, Giulia Berioli,Valentino Cherubini and Giuseppe d'Annunzio.

    They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pediatrics, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, the Department of Pediatrics, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy, the Meyer Children's Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy, the Regional Center for Pediatric Diabetes, Clinical Nutrition & Obesity, Department of Life & Reproduction Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy, the Pediatric Unit, S. Chiara Hospital, Trento, Italy, the Department of Pediatrics, University of Turin, Turin, Italy, the Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Mothers, Children and Adults, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy, the Endocrinology and Diabetes Palidoro Unit at the University Department of Pediatric Medicine, Bambino Gesu Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy, the Pediatric Clinic, Insubria University, Varese, Italy, the Department of Pediatrics, Regional Hospital, Bolzano, Italy, the Department of Gynaecological, Obstetric and Paediatric Sciences at the University of Perugia in Perugia, Italy, the Division of Paediatric Diabetes in Children and Adolescents, Maternal-Infantile Department, Salesi Hospital, Ancona, Italy, and with the Department of Pediatrics, IRCCS Gaslini Children's Hospital at the University of Genova in Genova, Italy.

    From 13 centers within the Italian Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED), the team collected data on a large number of children with both T1D and concurrent biopsy-proven celiac disease. They collected data at the time they initiated a gluten-free diet, and again after 1 year of a gluten-free diet. They verified gluten-free status using serum tests for celiac disease-related antibodies.

    They enrolled 201 children with T1D diagnosed at age of 5.8 +/- 3.8 years, and celiac disease diagnosed at age of 7.5 +/- 4.5 years. To compensate for any metabolic derangement at diabetes onset, they included only cases in which celiac disease diagnosis was made at least 3 months after that of T1D.

    As a control group, they used 224 patients with T1D only, matched by age, sex, diabetes duration, and HbA1c.

    Before subjects began a gluten-free diet, the team found that HDL-C values were significantly lower in children with celiac disease and T1D than in the control group, with the greatest decrease found in younger children aged, 6 years. Subjects with HDL-C values below pediatric percentile cutoffs for sex and age were younger than those with normal values (6.2 +/- 4.4 vs. 8.6 +/- 4.3 years, P , 0.0001) and also had lower HbA1c (7.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 8.0 +/- 1.5%, P , 0.005).

    After a gluten-free diet the average values of HDL-C in the total study population rose sharply to 60.9 +/- 13.7, compared with 51.3 +/- 13.6 mg/dL (P , 0.0001), and returned to normal.

    The percentage of subjects with HDL-C values lower than pediatric percentile cut points fell significantly (P , 0.0001) from 42 to 16%. Subjects with complete adherence to gluten-free diet showed the most significant improvement of HDL-C, and subjects with partial adherence showed a lower, but significant, improvement of HDL-C.

    These results dovetail with other data from the past few years, but more clearly indicated the reduction in HDL-C at diagnosis, and the better recovery with a gluten-free diet. The researchers view the reduction HDL-C either as a proxy marker for intestinal inflammation, or as the result of a change in the intestinal secretion of apolipoprotein AI (5), the major HDL structural protein.

    This change is seen most sharply in the youngest children, who probably suffer more severely, as indicated by signs of malabsorption, e.g., lower HDL-C and HbA1c levels. Children with T1D and untreated celiac disease, especially young children, typically show an unfavorable lipid profile, i.e., low HDL-C values.

    Following a gluten-free diet normalizes HDL-C levels, with the greatest benefits can be seen in individuals who follow the diet strictly, and in the youngest individuals.

    Because of the possibility of increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a strict gluten-free diet is mandatory in these children.

    Source:


    Image Caption: Celiac disease triggers poor lipid profiles in young children with Type 1 diabetes. Photo: CC--Jeremy R
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/14/2014 - Early life intestinal problems have previously been shown to influence diabetes rates. There is also some evidence that a gluten-free diet can lower rates of diabetes, but just how strong is the influence of gluten-free diet on the development of diabetes?
    A recent study by a group of researchers in Denmark suggests that maternal gluten-free diet greatly reduces inflammation and rates of diabetes in the offspring of certain mice. This study led the team to hypothesize that a gluten-free diet, which is known to decrease type 1 diabetes incidence, may also offer protection against diabetes when followed during the pregnancy and lactation period.
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    Source:
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 02/10/2015 - A number of studies have shown a connection between celiac autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Doctors recommend celiac screening for T1DM patients, but screening is not always conducted.
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    Source:
    Arab J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jun;15(2):53-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajg.2014.04.004. Epub 2014 Jun 7.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2016 - Some studies have shown dietary gluten has been proven to play a role in both celiac disease and type 1 diabetes (T1D), and others have suggested as much, but stopped short of actual proof.
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/13/2016 - A really interesting study about gluten-free diets in mice just popped up over at the medical journal Diabetes, that has implications for both diabetes and celiac disease.
    The study found that a maternal gluten-free diet reduces inflammation and diabetes rates in the offspring of non-obese diabetic mice.
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
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    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center