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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    ABNORMAL LIVER FUNCTION TESTS IN CELIAC DISEASE OFTEN NORMALIZE WITH A GLUTEN-FREE DIET


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 09/01/2015 - Current medical guidelines recommend routine screening of liver function tests (LFTs) in patients diagnosed with celiac disease. However, there isn't much good data on rates of liver disorders in celiac disease outside of Europe. A team of researchers recently set out to accurately estimate rates of LFT abnormalities in celiac disease in the USA, and to assess the effect of a gluten-free diet on LFTs.


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    Photo: CC--TobinThe research team included Natalia E Castillo, Rohini R Vanga, Thimmaiah G Theethira, Alberto Rubio-Tapia, Joseph A Murray, Javier Villafuerte, Alan Bonder, Rupa Mukherjee, Joshua Hansen, Melinda Dennis, Ciaran P Kelly and Daniel A Leffler.

    To identify adult patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease, they used a prospectively maintained database, which they matched with healthy controls. They defined abnormal LFT levels for women and men based on the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) criteria.

    The team gathered data on demographics, coexisting liver diseases, and laboratory work-ups including aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) values at the time of diagnosis and on a gluten-free diet. They later compared data from this group with data from 7,789 individuals participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010, and applied univariate logistic regression, Wilcox on signed-ranks, Student's t-test, χ2, and Fischer's exact test for statistical analysis.

    In 463 celiac disease patients with ALT or AST levels at the time of celiac disease diagnosis, 40.6% had elevated LFTs compared with 24.2% of treated celiac disease patients (P<0.001).

    Similarly, nearly forty percent of celiac disease patients on the NHANES database showed abnormal ALT values compared with less than twenty percent of non-celiac patients (P=0.03).

    Just over forty percent of individuals will show elevated LFTs at celiac disease diagnosis, but the vast majority, nearly eighty percent of those patients will show normal LFTs within a year and a half of adopting a gluten-free diet.

    The team suggests that doctors check all celiac patients for LFTs, and coexisting liver disorder be considered in patients whose LFTs have not improved within a year on a gluten-free diet.

    Source:


    Image Caption: San Diego's Normal Heights business district. Photo: CC--Tobin
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  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/13/2011 - Some people who follow a gluten-free diet due to celiac disease may develop unusually elevated levels of liver enzymes, according to researchers from Finland. The results are reported online in the American Journal of Gastroenterology.
    Contrary to some earlier studies, the results show that only a small minority of these celiac disease patients showed elevated transaminase levels.
    Dr. Markku Maki from University of Tampere points out that doctors don't routinely test transaminase levels in newly diagnosed celiac disease patients.
    With this in mind, the research team examined the prevalence and gluten dependency of hypertransaminasemia in 313 untreated and 339 treated adult celiac disease patients and in 237 nonceliac control subjects.
    They checked transaminase levels in 130 celiac disease patients at diagnosis and after one year on a gluten-free diet. They also conducted a before and after gluten challenge in 25 treated celiac patients who showed clinical remission.
    Their cross-sectional study showed elevated aspartate transaminase (AST) levels in a similar proportion of untreated celiac patients (11%), treated celiac patients (8%), and healthy controls (9%). Earlier studies showed that up to half of celiac disease patients may have elevated serum liver enzyme levels at diagnosis.
    The celiac patients showed significantly higher rates of hypertransaminasemia when their celiac symptoms were severe or moderate than when their symptoms were mild or nonexistent (23% vs 9%; P=0.03).
    The team suggests that routine investigation of liver enzymes in celiac disease patients would likely provide the same yield as in the general population--"at least in populations with high clinical prevalence of celiac disease," they say.
    They further suggest that clinicians reevaluate strategies for routine investigation of liver enzymes in celiac disease patients.
    After one year, results of the gluten-free diet trial showed that serum AST levels dropped significantly, even to normal levels, in conjunction with the disappearance of clinical symptoms.
    In the gluten-challenge study, gluten antibodies reappeared in the blood samples of nine of the 25 celiac patients who had previously been in clinical remission. 18 of the 25 developed gastrointestinal symptoms. AST and 11 patients showed elevated levels of alanine transaminase (ALT).
    When the patients resumed their gluten-free diets, their symptoms resolved, serum endomysial antibodies became undetectable, and serum transaminase levels returned to normal levels.
    Dr. Maki says that "gluten may induce liver disease in celiac disease patients. Even if the liver manifestation is infrequent and mostly mild."
    This is a potentially important discovery, because as Dr. Maki points out, when people with celiac disease regularly consume wheat, rye, and barley gluten, "the environmental insult in celiac disease, seem to trigger an autoimmune loop in genetically susceptible persons where formed autoantibodies target the autoantigen, transglutaminase 2, also in the liver."
    Dr. Maki adds that the biological implications of this can be studied further. In the meantime, he stops short of recommending routine screening with liver function tests when celiac patients are first diagnosed, saying that there is simply no evidence to support that practice.
    However, he does say that if a case finding for celiac includes elevated liver enzymes, patients should be checked for normalization of liver values once on a gluten-free diet.
    Source:

     Am J Gastroenterol 2011.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 09/09/2013 - Many people with celiac disease show slightly elevated liver enzymes, though these enzyme levels usually return to normal after gluten-free diet.
    A team of researchers recently set out to investigate the cause and prevalence of altered liver function tests in celiac patients, basally and after 1 year of gluten-free diet.
    The research team included Giovanni Casella, Elisabetta Antonelli, Camillo Di Bella, Vincenzo Villanacci, Lucia Fanini, Vittorio Baldini, and Gabrio Bassotti.
    They are affiliated with the Medical Department, and the Clinical Pathology Department of Desio Hospital in Monza and Brianza, Italy, the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Section at the University of Perugia in Perugia, Italy, and with the Department of Laboratory Diagnostics, Pathology Section, Brescia, Italy.
    The team gathered data from 245 untreated celiac disease patients, 196 women and 49 men, ranging in age from 15 to 80 years. They then analyzed the data, and assessed the results of liver function tests performed before and after diet, as well as associated liver pathologies.
    They found that 43 (17.5%) of the 245 patients, showed elevated levels of one or both aminotransferases;
    In 41 patients (95%) the elevation was mild, meaning that it was less than five times the upper reference limit. The remaining two patients (5%) showed marked elevation, meaning levels more than ten times the upper reference limit.
    After patients eliminated gluten for one year, aminotransferase levels normalized in all but four patients, who had HCV infection or primary biliary cirrhosis.
    Celiac patients who show hypertransaminaseaemia at diagnosis, and who do not show normalization of liver enzymes after 12 months of gluten-free diet, likely suffer from coexisting liver disease.
    In such cases, the research team recommends further assessment to assess the possible coexisting liver disease.
    Spotting and treating coexisting liver disease in celiac patients is important for improving liver function and preventing possible complications.
    Source:
    Liver International. 2013;33(7):1128-1131.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/16/2015 - Researchers don't really have too much data on celiac disease in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis or idiopathic noncirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH).
    In India, a research team recently set out to look for celiac disease in patients with portal hypertension. The research team included Rakhi Maiwall, Ashish Goel, Anna B. Pulimood, Sudhir Babji, J. Sophia, Chaya Prasad, K. A. Balasubramanian, Banumathi Ramakrishna, Susy Kurian, G. and John Fletcher.
    For their study, the team enrolled 61 consecutive patients with portal hypertension having cryptogenic chronic liver disease, including 14 with NCIPH, along with 59 patients with hepatitis B- or C-related cirrhosis as control subjects.
    They looked at tissue transglutaminase (tTG) antibody and duodenal histology in study patients. They found six cases of celiac disease, including two NCIPH patients, while they found none in control subjects.
    Duodenal biopsies for a significant percentage of the remaining study subjects showed villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, and lamina propria inflammation, not accompanied by raised intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), far more commonly than in controls.
    Study subjects with portal hypertension having cryptogenic chronic liver disease showed an unexpectedly high rate of tTG antibody positivity (66%), as compared to 29% in controls (p-value < 0.001), which could indicate false-positive test result.
    This study showed that 10% of patients with unexplained portal hypertension (cryptogenic chronic liver disease) had associated celiac disease. In addition, an unexplained enteropathy was seen in a significant proportion of study patients, more so in patients with cryptogenic chronic liver disease. This finding warrants further investigation.
    Source:
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology. November 2014, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp 517-523

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/29/2015 - Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a common cause of chronic liver disease. There's good data showing that celiac disease changes intestinal permeability, and that treatment with a gluten-free diet often causes weight gain, but so far there is scant documentation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with celiac disease.
    A team of researchers recently set out to assess increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease following diagnosis of celiac disease. The research team include Norelle R. Reilly, Benjamin Lebwohl, Rolf Hultcrantz, Peter H.R. Green, and Jonas F. Ludvigsson. They are affiliated with the Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and the Department of Pediatrics at Örebro University Hospital, Örebro University in Örebro, Sweden.
    The team assessed the for risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed from 1997 to 2009 in 26,816 individuals with celiac disease to 130,051 matched reference individuals.
    The team excluded patients with any liver disease prior to celiac disease. They also excluded individuals with a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol-related disorder to minimize misclassification of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. They used Cox regression estimated hazard ratios for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
    Their results showed that over 246,559 person-years of follow-up, 53 individuals with celiac disease had a diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (21/100,000 person-years).
    In comparison, in the reference group showed 85 individuals diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease during 1,488,413 person-years (6/100,000 person-years).
    This corresponded to a hazard ratio of 2.8 in the celiac group (95% CI), with the highest risk estimates of 4.6 seen in children (95% CI).
    The risk increase in the first year after celiac disease diagnosis was 13.3 (95% CI), but remained significantly elevated at 2.5 even beyond 15 years after celiac diagnosis of celiac disease (95% CI).
    Individuals with celiac disease do have an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease compared to the general population.
    Excess risks were highest in the first year after celiac disease diagnosis, but continued at least 15 years after celiac diagnosis. This much more comprehensive study provides much clearer and convincing data than any of the previous studies, and will likely serve as a baseline that clinicians have been lacking to this point.
    Source:
    Journal of Hepatology, June 2015Volume 62, Issue 6, Pages 1405–1411. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2015.01.013

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6