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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    CELIAC DISEASE AND LIVER DISORDERS


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 12/06/2007 - About one person or so in every hundred has celiac disease, which means they suffer from a variety of associated symptoms along with intestinal damage and associated conditions. Research shows a connection between celiac disease and a variety of hepatic disorders. People with celiac disease have a higher instance of certain disorders of the liver. One of the most commonly presented liver problems among celiac patients is isolated hypertransaminasemia with non-specific histologic changes.


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    Following a gluten-free diet usually returns the liver enzymes and histologic function to their normal state. People with celiac disease can also have unrelated liver conditions, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis, or primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Most people don’t know much, if anything about celiac disease. Even most people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance face a long learning curve to get up to speed on all of the related issues that concern them. Many people with celiac disease understand that it is a condition in which an auto-immune mediated reaction to the presence of gluten from wheat, rye or barley cause damage to the lining of the intestine, which, if left untreated exposes them to greater risks of certain types of cancer, along with diabetes, and many other conditions.

    Even though it is well known among physicians that celiac disease is associated with a variety of other conditions, until recently, those associated with malabsorption were the best documented. Most doctors and researchers believed that these associated conditions were the direct result of, or closely associated with the malabsorption and a compromised nutrient uptake facing untreated celiac patients.  

    Recently, however, evidence has begun to emerge that shows celiac disease to be a multi-system disorder that might affect a wide array of organs, including the bones, the heart, the skin, the liver, and the nervous system. Evidence is emerging that shows that beyond damaging the liver outright, celiac disease might also compound the impact of chronic liver diseases when the two occur together.

    To better understand the relationship between celiac disease and various liver disorders, researchers Alberto Rubio-Tapia and Joseph A. Murray conducted a review aimed at exploring the spectrum and pathogenesis of liver maladies associated with celiac disease, and to better describe the connection between celiac disease and those liver maladies to better establish a baseline for diagnosis and therapy to help those with chronic liver ailments and to better diagnose and treat celiac disease.

    Study Method
    In June 2007, the researchers searched PubMed for English-language journals that included full-length articles with the following keywords: celiac disease, sprue, liver disorders, liver involvement, liver tests, hepatitis, cholangitis, and cirrhosis. The researchers looked at 259 cases of patients with chronic hepatitis C, and found that they were three times more likely than a control group of normal volunteers to have celiac disease. The rate was 1.2% versus .4% for the control group.

    A second study showed a prevalence of celiac in 534 patients with chronic hepatitis to be 1.3%. Lastly, people with celiac disease show a high rate of non-response to hepatitis B vaccine. Non-response rates were 54% in children with celiac disease and 68% in adult celiacs.

    Hemochromatosis
    Celiac’s connection to hemochromatosis is twofold. Case histories show that iron overload and diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis often follows successful celiac treatment. Also, British patients with celiac disease showed a greater occurrence of mutation in the gene (HFE) controlling hemochromatosis, which might indicate that enhanced iron production is an adaptation to the reduced nutrient absorption associated with celiac. However, a study of Italian celiac patients showed no such increase in mutations. Researchers suspect that any relationship might be coincidental, as both conditions affect large numbers of Caucasians.

    Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    About 10% to 25% of the general population will develop nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  Nearly 1 in 3 Americans diagnosed with celiac disease is overweight or obese. Two different studies have shown the number of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease in about 3.5%, or over three times that of the normal population.

    Liver Transplant
    Of 185 patients who underwent transplant, 4.3%, over 4 times the normal population, were positive for celiac disease. In nearly all cases, the cause of the end-stage liver disease requiring transplantation was autoimmune.

    Gluten Withdrawal
    In patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a gluten-free diet coincided with a normalization of liver blood test abnormalities, but the exact effects of a gluten-free diet on liver abnormalities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and other liver disorders needs to be clarified through further study.

    Conclusions
    A gluten-free diet is an effective medical therapy for most patients with celiac disease and liver disorders. The effect of a gluten-free diet on the progression of liver diseases associated with celiac disease is less clear. Clearly more studies need to be conducted to further elucidate the relationship between celiac disease and various disorders of the liver.

    HEPATOLOGY 2007; 46:1650-1658.


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    Guest Christine Phillips

    Posted

    I am so pleased to read an article which directly addresses celiac and liver disease - tragically, my family know first hand the connections. Thank you.

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    Guest Irène Mongrain

    Posted

    I didn't know I would be susceptible to liver disease just by having a diagnosis of celiac disease. I now know differently.

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    Guest Isabel Cartotenuto MD

    Posted

    The gene for hemochromatosis and the gene for celiac disease are both on chromosome six adjacent to one another.

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    Guest Wendy Nielson

    Posted

    I think any information concerning the disease is helpful. There are so many different symptoms that manifest at any given time. Thank You.

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    Guest Joyce Petree

    Posted

    We need all the latest info and research data for this disease as it is far more complex and far more damaging than what appears in most information available to patients suffering from it.

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    Guest Ann Turner

    Posted

    Five years after diagnosis with celiac sprue and faithfully on a gluten free diet my liver enzymes did return to normal with fibrosis remaining.

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    Guest Marjorie Wheeler

    Posted

    I had increased liver function for 16 years prior to being properly diagnosed with Celiac. I even had a liver biopsy and told I had auto-immune hepatitis. Great Article

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    Guest Linda Spataccino

    Posted

    My daughter was recently diagnosed with celiac so we are ever learning. Right before she was diagnosed with celiac they had found a cyst on her liver. I wonder if there is a connection. Thanks for the info

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    Guest Derrick Mayer

    Posted

    I have Meniere's disease, a auto-immune inner ear disease, and BTB a celiac, but zilos drug is now a CONTROLLED substance, so having trouble proving celiac, but my 2 year diarrhea has ended when I started gluten free diet. And dark field microscopy has confirmed malabsorption and parasites in my blood cells. I am at my wits end, gaining weight, but eat 1 or 2 meals a day and Meniere's symptoms to boot!

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    Guest Ed Yellin

    Posted

    I'm glad to see more research on the impact of celiac disease on organ systems other than the GI system. I would like to see references to all the organs cited.

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    Guest Sam Thomson

    Posted

    For approx 5 years before I was diagnosed w/ Celiac my liver enzymes we chronically elevated and the first question asked by MD's was, 'How much do you drink?' But when I started my gluten free diet the liver enzymes normalized within weeks.

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    Guest Kathleen Williams

    Posted

    Could not believe that now the liver is involved with Celiac Disease - amazing information - and information is protection for all us Celiacs. Thanks you.

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    Guest nadia alghazir

    Posted

    I am a pediatric diabetologist and wee see a lot of celiac patients and it will be good to check the liver transaminase among those celiac and diabetes.

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    Guest CAROLINE A. VERBECK

    Posted

    I HAD A LIVER TRANSPLANT JUNE 2005----ALSO CELIAC DISEASE NOTED 2003----I WAS NEVER AWARE OF ANYTHING PRIOR--

    THANK YOU FOR THIS E-MAIL---

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    Guest Patricia Roland

    Posted

    I have been diagnosed for 34 yrs and have been on and off my diet. Last 5 yrs. can't have rice or yeast. Just got diagnosed with fatty liver. It's been a blessing finding your site

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    Guest Jeff Kelly

    Posted

    After 45 years not knowing what was wrong with me started a gluten free diet. Major improvement...recently liver enzymes elevated, bowel trouble, feel lousy. There is evidently a connection with liver disease. This is very tragic. I live in a place where they don't know a darn tootin' thing about such a connection...thanks for this!!

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    I can't seem to find a definition of 'hypertransaminasemia' anywhere, but when I was 12 had elevated liver enzymes, jaundice in my eyes, and general sickness, so I was told I had a form of hepatitis. I was negative for every virus they tested me for, though, and, as far as I know, it resolved after about a month. So I'm wondering if what I had should technically be called 'hypertransaminasemia' or 'non-alcoholic fatty liver disease' or something like that.

    My sister has just had a positive blood test for celiac, and I haven't been tested yet, but I'm really curious now if I might have it to and if my liver problems were related to it. I haven't been sick the same way since then, but I don't think my liver enzymes have been tested either. I'm curious to see if anyone has any thoughts about this situation...

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    Guest Eric Young

    Posted

    My doctor has just found what appear to be problems involving my liver. I was at a loss of what would be the cause, but strongly suspected celiac. My doctor is pushing aside my questions about a possible connection (I suspect she doesn't really know that much about celiac) and has me going to a liver specialist. I plan on discussing the possible connection with that specialist, hoping that he/she will have an understanding of celiac disease. These articles from Celiac.com come at an opportune time!

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    Guest Robert L. Andrews

    Posted

    I would especially like to see a reference for the comment "Case histories show that iron overload and diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis often follows successful celiac treatment." I have celiac disease and I'm citing this article as one of the reasons why I believe I should be tested for hemochromatosis.

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    Guest Nicole

    Posted

    Upon doing some research for a paper on this subject, the url for the reference the author omitted is:

    www.ikp.unibe.ch/lab2/rubio2007.pdf

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    admin

    Author: Hagander B; Berg NO; Brandt L; Nord en A; Sj olund K; Stenstam M.
    Source: Lancet, 1977 Aug 6, 2:8032, 270-2.
    In an attempt to determine the frequency of liver injury in adult coeliac disease (A.C.D.) the case records of 74 consecutive patients were examined. In 13 cases histological sections of the liver were available and in 5 of these there were signs of reactive hepatitis. Histological signs of distinct hepatic injury with cirrhosis and/or chronic active hepatitis were found in 7 other patients. In 5 of these serum-IgA was normal, whereas 16 out of 20 control patients with liver cirrhosis not associated with A.C.D. had raised serum-IgA. Serum-aspartate-aminotransferase and serum-alanine-aminotransferase were determined in 53 patients; 29 had raised concentrations. In 19 patients serum-aminotransferases were repeatedly determined before and during the dietary regimen and there was a significant reduction in enzyme concentrations during treatment. The median concentration of serum-alkaline-phosphatase was also reduced during treatment but not significantly. The histological evidence of liver injury in 16% and the abnormal liver-function tests in 39% of the patients indicate that hepatic injury is common in A.C.D. Since liver-function tests or liver biopsy specimens were available for only about two-thirds of the patients, liver damage in A.C.D. may be more common than indicated by these results. The effect of a gluten-free diet on aminotransferase concentrations indicates that the liver injury may be reversible and suggests that in some A.C.D. patients, progressive liver damage may be prevented by suitable treatment. Since A.C.D. is not always recognized, the diagnosis should be considered in patients with liver disease of unknown aetiology.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/22/10 - A research team set out to examine gut diseases and prognostic factors tied to non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension. The team included C. E. Eapen, Peter Nightingale, Stefan G. Hubscher, Peter J. Lane, Timothy Plant, Dimitris Velissaris, and Elwyn Elias.
    The prognosis for non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is usually benign. Assessment of a cohort study followed-up at a tertiary referral center leads the research team to hypothesize that gut-derived prothrombotic factors may contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of NCIPH.
    The team conducted a retrospective analysis of celiac disease indicators in 34 NCIPH patients. They also looked for associated gut conditions.
    Survival rates for transplant-free NCIPH patients from first presentation of symptoms was 94% (SE: 4.2%) at one year, 84% (6.6%) at 5-years, and 69% (9.8%) at 10-years.
    Sixteen of the patients (53%) showed decompensated liver disease. Three (9%) patients suffered ulcerative colitis, while five of 31 (16%) had clinical celiac disease. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that celiac disease patients was a predictor of lower transplant-free survival (p = 0.018) rates.
    Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that other predictors of reduced transplant-free survival included older age at first NCIPH presentation, hepatic encephalopathy, and portal vein thrombosis.
    Just over one-third (36%) of patients with NCIPH showed substantially higher initial serum IgA anticardiolipin antibody (CLPA), compared to 6% with Budd–Chiari syndrome (p = 0.032 using Fisher’s exact test) and no celiac disease patients without concomitant liver disease (p = 0.007).
    In addition to noting factors affecting prognosis, the team found that just over half (53%) of NCIPH cases resulted in liver failure.
    Source:

    Dig Dis Sci. 2010 May 25. PMID: 20499175

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/25/2010 - Portal hypertension is high blood pressure within the portal vein and its tributaries. Non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is portal hypertension that occurs within the liver, that is not triggered by cirrhosis. NCIPH is generally regarded to have a benign prognosis.
    A research team examined whether gut-derived prothrombotic factors may contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension (NCIPH). Their results led them to conclude that gut-derived prothrombotic factors may in fact contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of NCIPH.
    The team included C. E. Eapen, Peter Nightingale, Stefan G. Hubscher, Peter J. Lane, Timothy Plant, Dimitris Velissaris, and Elwyn Elias.
    For their study, the team followed a cohort at a tertiary referral center. They analyzed prognostic indicators in 34 NCIPH patients. The team also looked for associated gut disorders.
    Survival rates for transplant-free NCIPH patients from ï¬rst presentation with NCIPH at 1, 5, and 10 years was 94% (SE: 4.2%), 84% (6.6%), and 69% (9.8%), respectively.
    Importantly, 18 patients (53%) showed decompensated liver disease.
    Three patients (9%) showed ulcerative colitis while ï¬ve of 31 patients (16%) tested had celiac disease. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the presence of celiac disease was a predictor of shorter transplant-free survival for these patients (p = 0.018).
    Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that people who were older when ï¬rst presenting with NCIPH, those with hepatic encephalopathy, and those with portal vein thrombosis had lower rates of transplant-free survival
    More than one-third (36%) of NCIPH patients showed elevated levels of initial serum IgA anticardiolipin antibody (CLPA), compared with just 6% with Budd–Chiari syndrome (p = 0.032, Fisher’s exact test) and no patients with celiac disease
    without concomitant liver disease (p = 0.007).
    Under the team's prognostic factors, 53% of NCIPH patients ultimately progress to liver failure, and their data suggest that intestinal disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of intrahepatic portal vein occlusion leading to NCIPH.
    Source:

    Dig Dis Sci. DOI 10.1007/s10620-010-1278-2

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/23/2014 - Transaminasemia develops through various pathways in patients with celiac disease. Currently, there is not much information on risk factors specifically attributable to celiac disease.
    A team of researchers recently set out to determine what factors contribute to hypertransaminasemia in patients with celiac disease. The research team included B. Zanini B, R. Baschè A., Ferraresi, M.G. Pigozzi, C. Ricci, F. Lanzarotto, V. Villanacci, and A. Lanzini.
    They analyzed data collected from consecutive patients referred from January 1997 through December 2009 to the celiac disease clinic at the Spedali Civili of Brescia, Italy. They then used serologic and biopsy analysis to assess the factors influencing hypertransaminasemia in 683 patients with celiac disease (group A), and 304 patients with functional gastrointestinal syndromes (group . Both groups were about the same average age and range.
    The research team detected hypertransaminasemia in 138 patients in group A (20%). Factors associated with the condition included malabsorption (odds ratio [OR], 2.22; P = .004), diarrhea (OR, 1.72; P = .005), and increasing severity of mucosal lesion (Marsh-Oberhuber class; OR, 1.46; P = .001), but not body mass index (BMI) or the blood levels of tissue-transglutaminase antibodies (tTG).
    The team also detected hypertransaminasemia in 22 patients from group B (7%), which they found to be associated with the World Health Organization's BMI categories (OR, 7.9; P < .001). A total of 313 patients from group A had significantly higher levels of tTG at baseline (25.2 ± 16.9 U/L aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) than a similar bunch from group B (20.6 ± 9.9 U/L AST, P < .0001). These levels were related to BMI in group B (P = .0012), but not group A.
    Patients eating gluten-free diets saw levels of AST decrease from 25.2 ± 16.9 U/L to 19.9 ± 6.6 U/L (P < .0001). This decrease was independent of the changes of duodenal histology and tTG and correlated with BMI (P = .0007). Meanwhile, the prevalence of hypertransaminasemia in gluten-free patients decreased from 13% to 4%.
    These study results show that hypertransaminasemia is more common in people with celiac disease than in patients with functional gut syndromes. Also, hypertransaminasemia is related to the severity of the duodenal lesion and malabsorption, but unrelated to BMI.
    By contrast, the control group, with functional gut syndromes, showed a positive correlation between the levels of AST and BMI. This relationship was restored when patients with celiac disease began to follow gluten-free diets.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 May;12(5):804-810.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.10.033. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/25/2018 - A team of Yale University researchers discovered that bacteria in the small intestine can travel to other organs and trigger an autoimmune response. In this case, they looked at Enterococcus gallinarum, which can travel beyond the gut to the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. The research could be helpful for treating type 1 diabetes, lupus, and celiac disease.
    In autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, lupus, and celiac disease, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues. Autoimmune disease affects nearly 24 million people in the United States. 
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    They also found that the response can be countered by using antibiotics or vaccines to suppress the autoimmune reaction and prevent the bacterium from growing. The researchers were able to duplicate this mechanism using cultured human liver cells, and they also found the bacteria E. gallinarum in the livers of people with autoimmune disease.
    The team found that administering an antibiotic or vaccine to target E. gallinarum suppressed the autoimmune reaction in the mice and prevented the bacterium from growing. "When we blocked the pathway leading to inflammation," says senior study author Martin Kriegel, "we could reverse the effect of this bug on autoimmunity."
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    This study indicates that gut bacteria may be the key to treating chronic autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus and autoimmune liver disease. Numerous autoimmune conditions have been linked to gut bacteria.
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    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com