Celiac.com 08/30/2017 - The human gut is home to a huge and diverse number of microorganisms that perform various biological roles. Disturbances in a healthy gut microbiome might help to trigger various inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS).
A team of researchers recently set out to evaluate evidence that gut commensals may be used to regulate a systemic immune response and may, therefore, have a possible role in treatment strategies for multiple Sclerosis.
The research team included Ashutosh Mangalam, Shailesh K. Shahi, David Luckey, Melissa Karau, Eric Marietta, Ningling Luo, Rok Seon Choung, Josephine Ju, Ramakrishna Sompallae, Katherine Gibson-Corley, Robin Patel, Moses Rodriguez, Chella David, Veena Taneja, and Joseph Murray.
In a recent article, the team reports on their identification of human gut-derived commensal bacteria, Prevotella histicola, which can suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II transgenic mouse model.
P. histicola suppresses disease through the modulation of systemic immune reactions. P. histicola challenge caused a reduction in pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells and an increase in CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, tolerogenic dendritic cells, and suppressive macrophages.
This study indicates that gut commensals may regulate a systemic immune response, and so may have a role in future treatments for multiple Sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease.