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    Azathioprine and Prednisone Combination Therapy to Treat Refractory Celiac Disease


    Scott Adams


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    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 18(5):487-494, 2003.
    M. S. Goerres*, J. W. R. Meijer, P. J. Wahab*, J. A. M. Kerckhaert, P. J. T. A. Groenen, J. H. J. M. Van Krieken, C. J. J. Mulder

    Celiac.com 11/18/2003 - This very important Dutch study demonstrates a new and effective way of treating a subgroup of refractory celiac disease patients, those with normal intraepithelial T-lymphocytes (IELs). Considering the very poor outcome for those in the study with abnormal IELs (phenotypically immature intraepithelial T-lymphocytes defined by a lack of characteristic T-cell markers), we must hope that future research will soon yield an equally effective treatment. Here is the abstract of the study:

    "Introduction: Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a rare syndrome with a poor prognosis, defined by malabsorption due to gluten-related enteropathy after initial or subsequent failure of a strict gluten-free diet and after exclusion of any disorder mimicking coeliac disease.

    Patients and methods: Nineteen patients were included and treated. Based on intraepithelial T-lymphocyte(IEL) phenotyping, patients were recorded as having RCD type I with normal IELs, or RCD type II with phenotypically immature IELs defined by a lack of characteristic T-cell markers. Treatment consisted of azathioprine combined with prednisone for 1 year, which was tapered and, if possible, stopped.

    Results: Clinical improvement was seen in nearly all patients in both groups. Eight of 10 RCD type I patients responded histologically, and complete normalization of villi was seen in four patients. In RCD type II, 6/8 patients developed enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) and 7/8 patients died.

    Conclusions: For the first time we report a promising therapeutic treatment option for RCD type I. In RCD type II, azathioprine and prednisone therapy (APT) is not effective, therefore we suggest that other (chemo)therapeutic agents are considered. Not all RCD type II patients presented with a monoclonal TCR?-gene rearrangement and immunohistological changes as is currently reported in the literature. Therefore, immunophenotyping seems mandatory in the work-up of RCD."

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    Scott Adams
    Collagenous Sprue is a distinctive lesion of the intestinal mucosa associated with progressive malabsorption. The intestinal pathology is initially identified with the characteristic flat lesion of untreated Celiac Sprue. Thereafter, bands of eosinophilic hyaline material within the lamina propria become increasingly apparent. As the disease progresses, the mucosa becomes progressively thinner. Therapy, including the gluten-free diet, does not help. Some cases currently designated refractory or unclassified Sprue many prove to be Collagenous Sprue.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/22/2010 - A recent evaluation of the safety and efficacy of small intestinal release mesalamine (SIRM) for symptom relief in refractory celiac disease (RCD) shows that SIRM seems to be a safe and effective treatment option, though larger tests are needed to know for certain.
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    J Clin Gastroenterol 2010 Sep 24. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e3181f42401


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 09/12/2012 - A team of researchers recently evaluated tioguanine as a treatment for refractory celiac disease type I. The very small study indicates that tioguanine, a thiopurine derivative, offers easy, efficient treatment for refractory celiac disease, compared with current treatment regimens.
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    Currently, the most common treatment for refractory celiac disease type I relies on corticosteroids, though azathioprine is also sometimes used.
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    Source:
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2012;36(3):274-281.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 01/02/2013 - Doctors use capsule endoscopy to assess the small bowel in a number of intestinal diseases, including celiac disease. The main advantage of capsule endoscopy is that it allows for complete visualization of the intestinal mucosal surface.
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    Source:
    Am J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;107(10):1546-53. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012.199. Epub 2012 Sep 11.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
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    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 06/15/2018 - There seems to be widespread agreement in the published medical research reports that stuttering is driven by abnormalities in the brain. Sometimes these are the result of brain injuries resulting from a stroke. Other types of brain injuries can also result in stuttering. Patients with Parkinson’s disease who were treated with stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, an area of the brain that regulates some motor functions, experienced a return or worsening of stuttering that improved when the stimulation was turned off (1). Similarly, stroke has also been reported in association with acquired stuttering (2). While there are some reports of psychological mechanisms underlying stuttering, a majority of reports seem to favor altered brain morphology and/or function as the root of stuttering (3). Reports of structural differences between the brain hemispheres that are absent in those who do not stutter are also common (4). About 5% of children stutter, beginning sometime around age 3, during the phase of speech acquisition. However, about 75% of these cases resolve without intervention, before reaching their teens (5). Some cases of aphasia, a loss of speech production or understanding, have been reported in association with damage or changes to one or more of the language centers of the brain (6). Stuttering may sometimes arise from changes or damage to these same language centers (7). Thus, many stutterers have abnormalities in the same regions of the brain similar to those seen in aphasia.
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    There are many reports in such journals connecting brain and neurological ailments with gluten, so it is not much of a stretch, on that basis alone, to suspect that stuttering may be a symptom of the gluten syndrome. Rodney Ford has even characterized celiac disease as an ailment that may begin through gluten-induced neurological damage (13) and Marios Hadjivassiliou and his group of neurologists and neurological investigators have devoted considerable time and effort to research that reveals gluten as an important factor in a majority of neurological diseases of unknown origin (14) which, as I have pointed out previously, includes most neurological ailments.
    My own experience with stuttering is limited. I stuttered as a child when I became nervous, upset, or self-conscious. Although I have been gluten free for many years, I haven’t noticed any impact on my inclination to stutter when upset. I don’t know if they are related, but I have also had challenges with speaking when distressed and I have noticed a substantial improvement in this area since removing gluten from my diet. Nonetheless, I have long wondered if there is a connection between gluten consumption and stuttering. Having done the research for this article, I would now encourage stutterers to try a gluten free diet for six months to see if it will reduce or eliminate their stutter. Meanwhile, I hope that some investigator out there will research this matter, publish her findings, and start the ball rolling toward getting some definitive answers to this question.
    Sources:
    1. Toft M, Dietrichs E. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease--two cases. BMC Neurol. 2011 Apr 8;11:44.
    2. Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: a case study. J Fluency Disord. 2010 Jun;35(2):141-5. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
    3. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    4. Jäncke L, Hänggi J, Steinmetz H. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 10;4(1):23.
    5. Kell CA, Neumann K, von Kriegstein K, Posenenske C, von Gudenberg AW, Euler H, Giraud AL. How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain. 2009 Oct;132(Pt 10):2747-60. Epub 2009 Aug 26.
    6. Galantucci S, Tartaglia MC, Wilson SM, Henry ML, Filippi M, Agosta F, Dronkers NF, Henry RG, Ogar JM, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain. 2011 Jun 11.
    7. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    8. [No authors listed] Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 43-1988. A 52-year-old man with persistent watery diarrhea and aphasia. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1139-48
    9. Molteni N, Bardella MT, Baldassarri AR, Bianchi PA. Celiac disease associated with epilepsy and intracranial calcifications: report of two patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Sep;83(9):992-4.
    10. http://ezinearticles.com/?Food-Allergy-and-Stuttering-Link&id=1235725 
    11. http://www.craig.copperleife.com/health/stuttering_allergies.htm 
    12. https://www.celiac.com/forums/topic/73362-any-help-is-appreciated/
    13. Ford RP. The gluten syndrome: a neurological disease. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Sep;73(3):438-40. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
    14. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/14/2018 - Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a rare complication of celiac disease that has high death rates. To diagnose RCDII, doctors identify a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). 
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    Source:
    Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/13/2018 - There have been numerous reports that olmesartan, aka Benicar, seems to trigger sprue‐like enteropathy in many patients, but so far, studies have produced mixed results, and there really hasn’t been a rigorous study of the issue. A team of researchers recently set out to assess whether olmesartan is associated with a higher rate of enteropathy compared with other angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).
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    They then assessed those patients and compared the results for olmesartan initiators to initiators of other ARBs after propensity score (PS) matching. They found unadjusted incidence rates of 0.82, 1.41, 1.66 and 29.20 per 1,000 person‐years for celiac disease, malabsorption, concomitant diagnoses of diarrhea and weight loss, and non‐infectious enteropathy respectively. 
    After PS matching comparing olmesartan to other ARBs, hazard ratios were 1.21 (95% CI, 1.05‐1.40), 1.00 (95% CI, 0.88‐1.13), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.10‐1.36) and 1.04 (95% CI, 1.01‐1.07) for each outcome. Patients aged 65 years and older showed greater hazard ratios for celiac disease, as did patients receiving treatment for more than 1 year, and patients receiving higher cumulative olmesartan doses.
    This is the first comprehensive multi‐database study to document a higher rate of enteropathy in olmesartan initiators as compared to initiators of other ARBs, though absolute rates were low for both groups.
    Source:
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics