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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    FIRST CELIAC DISEASE TREATMENT LICENSED AND SET FOR LATE-STAGE CLINICAL TRIALS


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 04/04/2016 - Any one eager to try the first approved treatment for celiac disease might not have to wait much longer.


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    Image: Larazotide--NIHAlba Therapeutics has announced that their celiac treatment, larazotide acetate, will enter the first Phase 3 clinical trials ever conducted in a celiac disease drug later this year.

    Lorazotide acetate works by improving regulation of tight junctions in the bowel. In healthy people, these junctions remain closed except to shed dead cells, but in patients with celiac disease, gluten keeps tight junctions open, triggering an inflammatory reaction that eventually destroys the intestinal villi, tiny, finger-like projections in the small intestine that are essential for nutrient absorption.

    Early research suggests larazotide acetate helps to keep the tight junctions closed when it's taken before a meal, thus stopping, or reducing the reaction and the resulting inflammation.

    Larazotide acetate recently completed during phase 2b clinical trials for efficacy, safety and tolerability in 342 patients with celiac disease. Those trials showed larazotide acetate to be safe and effective in a "real world setting" for celiac patients, according to Alba's website.

    The treatment is now headed to Phase 3 trials in "late 2016", and has received "fast track" designation from the Food and Drug Administration.

    Alba has announced that Innovate Biopharmaceuticals Inc. has licensed all of Alba Therapeutics' assets related to larazotide acetate, and that larazotide acetate has been renamed INN-202.

    If approved on schedule, INN-202 will become the first prescription medicine for treating celiac disease.

    Source:


    Image Caption: Image: Larazotide--NIH
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    Guest Heather

    Posted

    Having done some reading on this, it's important to note that this drug is not some miracle cure. It is a treatment to be used WITH a gluten-free diet, on the assumption that even the best attempts to protect one's self from ingesting gluten are not always entirely successful. It's not a pop-a-pill then return to eating gluten...so let's hope the marketing of this drug doesn't oversell its abilities.

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    Guest Jacquie

    Posted

    Great news, but does it mean, once you start taking the drug, you'll be able to eat normally again?

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    What a good news for all celiac people. I hope they finish the phase 3 phase soon this year. Furthermore, I hope there is not any side effect in the long run. Thanks Aba

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    Guest Cindy

    Posted

    I was in this clinical trial in Scottsdale Arizona many years ago. It was on the "fast track" then and it still isn't available? How can this be? How much money does it take to release a new drug? How much money do the drug companies need to make before the drug is released? I find this whole process unbelievable. It had to have been 2009 when I was in the trial in Az.

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    Guest Marie

    Posted

    I do not trust pharmaceuticals; they always mention the positives but they have not mentioned if this did not work for some people with celiac disease. If this did not work for some people, this medication is not good. They also do not talk about side effects or possible long term effects. I remember when Dr. Fasano did his trials with a new medication for celiac disease (and Crohn´s) the medication did not work on some of the subjects.

    I think the best medication for celiac would be DNA manipulation which would be a reality in the future;maybe we are not going to be here to witness it.

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    Guest Ronda

    Posted

    I have concerns regarding "treatment" of a genetic disorder. A drug could hold down symptoms but what would be the long lasting effect of holding down symptoms? I think we too often think of pharmaceutical treatment as healing when it is not. Gluten free eating is healthy and has no harm. Maybe we will be better off not to run to a pill.

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    Guest Terry

    Posted

    Sounds promising. I don't mind being on a gluten-free diet for my celiac most of the time. It would be nice to have something to take for special occasions. Looking forward to hearing more on this.

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    Guest Janet Warren

    Posted

    I really hope this works! I'm 47 and was just diagnosed 2 years ago. I really want to go back to living a normal lifestyle.

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    Sounds promising. I don't mind being on a gluten-free diet for my celiac most of the time. It would be nice to have something to take for special occasions. Looking forward to hearing more on this.

    I agree with you Terry! It would be nice to have something to take for special occasions! Although, not so sure I feel comfortable enough completely going off my gluten free diet.

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  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/10/2015 - Of course, a strict gluten free diet is still the only safe and effective treatment for celiac disease. However, new drugs in development, some of which are currently being tested on humans, might allow people with celiac disease to safely eat gluten again, at least in small amounts.
    To be fair, even if all goes smoothly, it will be a few years at least before we see such treatments on the market. Moreover, even though many early results have been encouraging, none have yet entered safety trials, the final step before Food and Drug Administration approval and commercial availability.
    Drugs currently under trial include an enzyme that splits the protein in wheat that triggers adverse reactions, into smaller harmless products, and another which promises to make the gut less leaky, and thus block potentially toxic substances from triggering inflammation.
    There are several other drugs in earlier stages of development aimed at suppressing the immune response to gluten and preventing intestinal inflammation:
    ALV003, which will protect people with celiac disease against gut damage from small amounts of gluten. BL-7010 is a novel co-polymer for the treatment of celiac disease, which significantly reduces the immune response triggered by gluten. ImmusanT’s therapeutic vaccine Nexvax2 combines three proprietary peptides that elicit an immune response in celiac disease patients who carry the immune recognition gene HLA-DQ2. Larazotide acetate (AT-1001) is Alba Therapeutics Corporation’s investigational product, a first-in-class tight junction regulator, intended for the treatment of patients with celiac disease. AVX176, from Avaxia Biologics, is an investigational oral antibody drug that is the subject of U.S. composition of matter patent 8,071,101, “Antibody Therapy for Treatment of Diseases Associated with Gluten Intolerance.” The patent, which expires on May 27 2029, provides broad coverage for treating celiac disease using orally administered antibodies produced by Avaxia’s proprietary platform technology [32]. ActoGenX is carrying out discovery research in celiac disease with its range of ActoBiotics™, which use Lactococcus lactis as an expression system to locally secrete bio-therapeutics such as cytokines, antibodies, hormones, etc. Chemocentryx’s CCR9, is also known as Traficet-EN, or CCX282B), and was originally intended for patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn’s disease. It has completed one Phase 2 trial in 67 patients with celiac disease. Meanwhile, in Europe, Dr. Falk Pharma and Zedira recently announced the start of phase I clinical trials for the drug candidate ZED1227, a direct acting inhibitor of tissue transglutaminase. The small molecule targets the dysregulated transglutaminase within the small intestine in order to dampen the immune response to gluten which drives the disease process.
    Some of these drugs may be taken right before eating gluten, while others might be more effective when taken on a regular schedule. If approved for use as intended, these drugs will likely allow people with celiac disease to eat gluten in small amounts. To my knowledge, there is no drug in current trial phases that is designed to permit unrestricted gluten consumption.
    So, the good news is that the next few years may see commercially available treatments that might actual help people manage celiac disease. The downside for people with celiac disease, at least for now, is that there is no treatment on the horizon that will allow safe, unlimited gluten-consumption. Moreover, there is no hint that a cure is coming anytime soon.
    Still, it’s good to know that researchers are working on providing helpful tools for treating celiac disease.
    Are you looking forward to seeing new treatment options for celiac disease? What kind of benefits should such treatments offer?
    Source:
    Gastroenterology Report

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/12/2015 - There are numerous pills, enzymes, and other products in development that are all designed to provide moderate protection against accidental gluten exposure to people with celiac disease to gluten-intolerance.
    Can a new pill, which uses egg yolk antibodies to coat gluten, allowing it to pass from the body without harm, find a place on the crowded roster of contenders?
    Driven by a desire to provide relief for people with celiac disease, Hoon Sunwoo, an associate professor of pharmaceutical sciences, has spent the last 10 years working on the proprietary pill.
    If Hoon has his way, people with celiac disease may soon be able to enjoy bread, pasta and other gluten products without suffering headaches, digestion problems and severe intestinal damage that come with the adverse gluten reactions of celiac disease.
    The pill works by using egg yolk antibodies to coat the gluten and allow it to pass from the body without doing any damage. While not a cure, Sunwoo's pill, now under development at the University of Alberta, may allow those people to join friends for a beer and pizza.
    Sunwoo makes it very clear that his pill is not a cure or long-term treatment solution, and the people with the disease should still follow a strict gluten-free diet.
    The pill is designed to be eaten by a person with celiac disease five minutes before eating or drinking, and would provide protection from an adverse gluten reaction for the next one or two hours.
    The pill completed safety clinical trials two months ago and is expected to begin efficacy clinical trials next year.
    Read more at CBC.CA.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/21/2015 - Here's every celiac disease treatment currently in development in a single list:
    ALV003, by Alvine Pharmaceuticals, is a combination of two enzymes that break down gluten before it can provoke an immune reaction. The drug is a powder to be dissolved in water and taken before meals.

    ALV003 most recently passed a phase 2 clinical trial, results of which appeared in the June 2014 issue of Gastroenterology. Post-trial biopsies showed that ALV003 prevented intestinal damage in 34 volunteers with celiac disease who ate 2 grams of gluten each day for six weeks and also took the drug. Phase 2b, a 12-week trial, is now underway.
      AN-PEP, by DSM Food Specialties, is another enzyme that degrades gluten. AN-PEP is believed to work best when taken while gluten is still in the stomach.

    Results from a small 2013 study showing AN-PEP to be safe, appeared in the World Journal of Gastroenterology. For the study, 16 people ate 7 grams of gluten every day for two weeks and half of them also ate AN-PEP, and half took a placebo. However, the placebo group did not get sick enough during the course of the study to show that the enzyme had any effect, so further study is under way.
      ActoBiotics by ActoGenX uses Lactococcus lactis as an expression system to locally secrete bio-therapeutics such as cytokines, antibodies, hormones, etc.

    Early pre-clinical work with a genetically altered L. lactis secreting a peptide derived from gliadin demonstrated an in vivo suppression of gluten sensitization.

    Specifically, Huigbregtse et al. engineered L. lactis to secrete a deamidated DQ8 gliadin epitope (LL-eDQ8d) and studied the induction of Ag-specific tolerance in NOD ABo DQ8 transgenic mice [34]. Although apparently not part of the ActoGenX development program, recent work by Galipeau et al. also deserves mention in this context.

    The group treated gluten-sensitive mice with elafin, a serine protease inhibitor, delivered by the L. lactis vector, and found normalization of inflammation, improved permeability, and maintained ZO-1 expression. There is speculation that this is due to reduced deamidation of gliadin peptide.
      AVX176 by Avaxia Biologics, is an investigational oral antibody drug patented to provide "Antibody Therapy for Treatment of Diseases Associated with Gluten Intolerance." The patent, which expires on May 27 2029, provides broad coverage for treating celiac disease using orally administered antibodies produced by Avaxia's proprietary platform technology.
      BL-7010, by BioLineRx, is a novel co-polymer for the treatment of celiac disease, which significantly reduces the immune response triggered by gluten.

    This drug has been shown in mice to reduce the immune system response that leads to intestinal damage and villous atrophy in celiac disease. BL-7010 actually binds to the gluten protein, reducing the protein's toxicity.The drug, with the gluten molecule attached, then passes harmlessly through the digestive system to be expelled as stool.

    BL-7010 has undergone safety testing in humans and was found to be well tolerated. According to BioLineRx, testing will begin in mid-2015 to see if the drug works as expected to diminish gluten's effects on the body.

    However, BL-7010 is designed to protect only against gluten cross-contamination; it won't allow people with celiac disease to eat large amounts of gluten.
      CCR9, by Chemocentryx, is a drug called vercirnon, which is also known as Traficet-EN, or CCX282B), and was originally intended for patients with moderate-to-severe Crohn's disease. CCR9 has completed one Phase 2 trial in 67 patients with celiac disease. However, despite the completion of the trial several years ago, no results relating to celiac disease have been made public or published.
      Egg Yolk Enzyme. Little is known about efforts to develop a celiac treatment that uses egg yolk to coat gluten and allow it to pass through the body undetected, thus preventing an adverse gluten reaction in sensitive individuals. Like most other drugs being developed, this treatment would work to prevent reactions to small amounts of gluten, rather than as a cure. 
      Larazotide Acetate by Alba Therapeutics.

    How it works: Larazotide acetate blocks a protein that carries pieces of gluten across the gut, where immune cells can see them. Fasano and his colleagues found that this carrier protein, called zonulin, is overproduced by celiac patients after they eat gluten.

    Results of the most recent phase 2 trial of larazotide acetate, published in February 2015 in Gastroenterology. The volunteers who took the drug experienced fewer days with disease symptoms during the 12 week-long study.
      Nexvax2, by ImmusanT, works much like an allergy shot. Nexvax2 exposes the immune system to gluten in a controlled way so that immune cells that are usually activated get turned off or eliminated.

    So far, Nexvax2 has completed a phase 1 trial showing it to be safe. More research is being done to test whether it is effective.

    Designed to work as a vaccine, Nexvax2 combines three proprietary peptides that elicit an immune response in celiac disease patients who carry the immune recognition gene HLA-DQ2. Similar to allergy shots, the vaccine is designed to reprogram gluten-specific T cells triggered by the patient's immune response to the protein.
      ZED1227 by Dr. Falk Pharma and Zedira recently announced the start of phase I clinical trials for the drug candidate ZED1227, a direct acting inhibitor of tissue transglutaminase. The small molecule targets the dysregulated transglutaminase within the small intestine in order to dampen the immune response to gluten which drives the disease process. Stay tuned for updates and progress reports as these drugs work their way through their various trial phases.
    Finally, share your thoughts on all these celiac drugs in the development pipeline. Are you excited, wary, both? Let us know by commenting below.
    Source:
    Gastroenterology Report

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 02/04/2016 - BL-7010, a non-absorbable, orally available co-polymer for the treatment of celiac disease, has received designation as Class IIb medical device in the European Union, according to manufacturer BioLineRx Ltd.
    This designation clears path for BioLine’s BL-7010 program, and allows the company to plan the next steps in the development of a commercial version of BL-7010.
    BL-7010 shows a high affinity for gliadins, the proteins in gluten that trigger celiac disease. BL-710 works by sequestering gliadins, effectively masking them from enzymatic breakdown, and blocks the formation of immunogenic peptides that trigger the adverse immune reactions in people with celiac disease. This results in a significantly reduced immune response triggered by gluten. Together with the gluten, BL-7010 passes harmlessly through the digestive tract and is not absorbed into the blood.
    The safety and efficacy of BL-7010 have been demonstrated in a number of pre-clinical studies, including a Phase 1/2 study completed in November 2014.
    In prepared comments, BioLineRX CEO Kinneret Savitsky, Ph.D., said that the company is "excited to receive confirmation for the medical device designation pathway in Europe for our BL-7010 program," and is now planning the next steps in the development of this product, including the next clinical efficacy study which we expect to commence in mid-2016."
    The company also continues to "evaluate the potential of BL-7010 as a food supplement," said Dr. Savitsky.
    Read more at: PRNewswire.

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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
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    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
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    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com