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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    IS IT TIME TO REVISE THE CRITERIA USED TO DIAGNOSE CELIAC DISEASE?


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 06/03/2008 - Among the main things doctors look for when they’re trying to make a classic diagnosis of celiac disease are small intestinal mucosal membrane villous atrophy and inflammation. However, the latest research indicates that these criteria are possibly too narrow, leading to a lack of diagnosis and treatment of people with celiac disease. If this turn out to be the case, then far more people than previously imagined may suffer from celiac disease and not even know it.


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    In an effort to find out if present current diagnostic criteria are in fact too narrow, Finnish researchers led by Markku Maki, MD, professor of pediatrics at the University of Tampere, Celiac Disease Study Group, Tampere, Finland, evaluated 145 patients who were presumed to have celiac disease. Just under half (71) of the patients showed positive endomysial antibodies, and out of these only 48 patients met the textbook definition for celiac disease.

    The research team then split the 23 patients left into two groups. They put the first group on a gluten-free diet for one year, and the second group on a on a standard gluten-inclusive diet for one year. At the end of the year, the doctors conducted follow-up biopsies on all 23 patients. The doctors discovered that the patients who had been on the gluten-free diet did in fact have celiac disease (even though they didn't have any obvious symptoms), and any symptoms that they did have disappeared—they lost their endomysial antibodies and any inflammation that was detected in their intestinal mucosa.

    On the other hand, the patients in the second group whose diets included gluten showed no such positive changes, and their symptoms continued. The still showed positive endomysial antibodies, along with inflammation of intestinal mucous membrane, and gluten-induced lesions in the small intestine.

    The study director said that each of the patients on the gluten-free diet had chosen to remain gluten-free thereafter, and that the patients on the gluten-inclusive diet had chosen to eliminate gluten from their diets and over time also became symptom-free—endomysial antibody-free and showed signs of healing of the mucous membrane.

    Other studies have shown that over time untreated patients who show positive endomysial antibodies may develop the gut injury that is currently required as part of the criteria for diagnosing celiac disease. A greater understanding of the negative effects of untreated or undiagnosed celiac disease, coupled with better testing methods have led to a new strategy that allow doctors to detect celiac disease as early as possible—before any serious damage can occur—this new strategy is likely to be resoundingly welcome among celiac disease sufferers.

     Hopefully the results of this study and others like it will lead to a new awareness among doctors, and will ultimately lead to better methods for diagnosing celiac disease at an earlier stage. This could ultimately mean less suffering and long term physical damage for many people.

    Presented at 2009 Digestive Disease Week in San Diego, CA by Dr. Kurppa, a member of Dr. Maki’s research team, on Tuesday, May 20 at 10:30 a.m. Pacific Time in room 10 (San Diego Convention Center).


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    Guest krista

    Posted

    This was a good article, I just wish the doctors would get their minds out of just the gut. I thought I was going to see that they were finding that celiac is a systemic disorder, which it is, and that they were recognizing the neurological impact. Unfortunately that is not the case but it is wonderful to see that they are recognizing the idiocy of us having to be almost dead before diagnosis. I feel really sorry for the group that had to eat gluten for a year but also know they most likely volunteered for the research. It's also unfortunate for us in the US that this research most likely will be ignored by US doctors for at least 10 years.

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    Guest lcarter

    Posted

    'The doctors discovered that the patients who had been on the gluten-free diet did in fact have celiac disease (even though they didn't have any obvious symptoms), and any symptoms that they did have disappeared—they lost their endomysial antibodies and any inflammation that was detected in their intestinal mucosa.' What criteria did the researchers use then to conclude that this group had Celiac Disease? Why can't that criteria be used to diagnose the disease now?

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    Guest brian

    Posted

    Eat gluten=get symptoms

    Don't eat gluten=don't get symptoms

     

    Is there something else the doctors need? Just because the doctor or I know that I have a particular antibody or intestinal swelling does not change the fact that I am healthier without gluten. Who needs them anyway! You don't need a diagnosis or a medical degree to discover if gluten makes you sick! Don't get me wrong, I work in the medical field, and doctors can do a lot of great things. But they have absolutely missed the ball on this one. How about studying why our bodies are rejecting gluten and fix that. I'll buy the first round of beer to that discovery! But that requires more than just 'watching and waiting' , doesn't it?

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    Guest Ursa Major

    Posted

    I am glad that it was determined that those people had celiac disease after all. But what about those people who did NOT have antibodies? I feel that many (if not most) of them have celiac disease as well. Yet nobody gave them the chance of having a biopsy and trying the diet as well. That is a shame.

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    Seriously! I was indeed half dead before I was diagnosed, and, four years into the gluten-free diet, I still suffer from the neurological problems, which my doctor says may actually never resolve completely.

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    The other question is, how long will it take for the FDA to get this information? In just a few months we will know if they are going to side with making it easy for manufacturers having so many parts per million of gluten or will they protect us from these crazy manufacturing practices of allowing so many part per million of gluten and rule for zero parts per million gluten.

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    Guest Roxanna

    Posted

    In my family myself and my daughter were taken off of gluten after having seizures not long after being born. We both grew progressively worse over time. By the time I found out that I could not eat gluten I was almost dead. As our daughter, we have a son that was born with the picture perfect symptoms of a gluten problem. After suffering through not being able to talk, seizures, not having feeling all over his body, the list goes on, he is now gluten free. He is 26 yrs old. A little to late. Our daughter was not given meds to help with her seizures until she was 15. Recently my husband was put in a trauma center for a brain injury. He has thrown up for years. Since we dated. He was held over in the hospital because he wouldn't stop throwing up. Finally, (you guessed it) the doctor put him on a gluten free diet. He is beginning to recover. We have a new grand child. He will NOT be introduced to gluten until he is about 2 yrs. A that time it will only be to test him. We hope and pray that he doesn't accidentally get poisoned with it before then. That probably is impossible because people love to kiss babies in the mouth.

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    I submitted a stool sample and a DNA cheek swab (to Enterlab.com) for my 22 month old son who had 'unexplained' chronic diarrhea that would likely 'turn into IBS' as an adult. Within 2 weeks I learned he has food intolerances to gluten, milk, soy, egg, and yeast. I was determined to find the cause of the 'unexplained diarrhea'. I removed the poisons and his stool is totally normal. The doctors continue to buck this type of testing only because it leaves them out of the $$ loop. I thank GOD every day that I stumbled across this very impressive and professional lab in Dallas TX... that works directly with the public!!

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    Guest carolyn

    Posted

    I'm glad at least some are taking seriously that the current standards for diagnosing celiac disease are not working. Repeat: They are definitely not working. It's rather infuriating that so many, many celiacs in the U.S. still will not be diagnosed until they are literally dying from it, already have resulting cancer or other serious, irreversible complications. The blood test is not infallible, and the endoscopy test (as this article proves) only catches the latest stages of the disease. This standard is no way for doctors to fulfill their promise to 'do no harm' to their patients. When a gluten-free diet reverses the often life-disrupting symptoms, that should be a neon-lit red flag that just maybe this person has celiac disease. What other causes of gluten intolerance are there?

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    admin

    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2003 Nov-Dec;37(5):387-91
    Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM.
    Celiac.com 11/18/2003 - According to the results of an Italian study neither anti-transglutaminase (tTG) nor Anti-endomysium (EMA) antibody levels should be used to determine the state of recovery of gluten-free celiacs. The study looked at 42 consecutively biopsy and blood antibody diagnosed celiac disease patients who went on gluten-free diets, and were then evaluated at 6, 12, and 18 months using anti-transglutaminase (tTG) antibodies and EGDscopy (multiple bioptic samples). For comparison sorbitol H2-breath tests (H2-BT) and anti-endomysium (EMA) antibody tests were also carried out. The results:

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    Pediatrics 2005;115:1341-1346.
    Celiac.com 05/31/2005 – According to Canadian researchers, the use of Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody (tTG) Screening may soon replace the use of the small bowel biopsy to diagnose celiac disease in children. The researchers reviewed the charts of 103 children who were screened for celiac disease using both small bowel biopsy and tTG. Fifty-eight of the children were found to have positive biopsy results, and out of these, 48 had very high tTG levels (over 100 U), 7 had middle tTG levels (20-100 U), and 3 had low levels (less than 20 U). Out of the 49 children with the highest tTG levels, all but one of them had a positive biopsy result. There were 3 biopsy-positive children who had low tTG levels, two who were found to be IgA negative, and one who had a duodenal ulcer.
    According to the researchers, using tTG values of greater than 100 U and less than 20 U, and knowing the patients IgA status, tTG testing was "98% sensitive and 97% specific in detecting celiac disease." The researchers also point out that the cost of diagnosis could be cut by 30% by utilizing tTG screening. The researchers conclude that children with high tTG titers can proceed straight to a gluten-free diet--if they respond well then their diagnosis is confirmed—if not they can proceed to a biopsy.
    Although the authors dont address this issue specifically, this method would likely lead to an increase in the diagnosis rate of celiac disease, as many people are unwilling to undergo a biopsy--or have their children undergo one.

    admin

    Celiac.com 03/14/2006 - Alba Therapeutics Corporation announced today successful completion of Phase Ib proof-of-concept studies for its lead compound, AT1001. In a 21-patient cohort of celiac disease sufferers, the oral administration of AT1001 versus placebo control induced a significantly positive result in the trials primary target endpoint. "We anticipated a strong signal, however, the magnitude of the response surpassed our expectations," stated Blake Paterson, M.D., President and CEO of Alba. "We are particularly excited, as to the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a desired and systemic immunological effect resulting from a physiological event at a mucosal surface."
    AT1001 is an antagonist to the zonulin system -- a signaling pathway discovered by Alessio Fasano, M.D., Professor of Pediatrics, Medicine and Physiology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, and the basis of Albas extensive intellectual property portfolio.
    About Zonulin
    Zonulin is a signaling protein that transiently and reversibly opens the tight junctions ("tj") between the cells of epithelial and endothelial tissues such as the intestinal mucosa, blood brain barrier and pulmonary epithelia. Zonulin appears to be involved in many diseases in which leakage occurs via paracellular transport across epithelial and endothelial tight junctions (tj), and thus may play an important potential role in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
    About Celiac Disease
    Celiac disease (celiac disease) is a T-cell mediated auto-immune disease that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and is characterized by small intestinal inflammation, injury and intolerance to gluten. According to the National Institutes of Health, celiac disease affects approximately 3 million Americans, although the diagnosis is rarely made. The only current treatment for celiac disease is complete elimination of gluten from the diet, which results in remission for some patients.
    About Alba
    Alba Therapeutics Corporation is a privately held biopharmaceutical company based in Baltimore, Maryland. Alba is dedicated to commercializing disease-modifying therapeutics and drug delivery adjuvants based on the zonulin pathway. Albas lead molecule, AT-1001, is targeted towards the treatment of celiac disease and other auto-immune illnesses.
    Contact: Heather Bakalyar, 410-522-8708 x1106

    admin

    Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101(7):1597-1600. Celiac.com 08/14/2006 – In an effort to increase the diagnosis rate of celiac disease, researchers in Italy conducted a study to determine the accuracy of two of the new "at home" type rapid commercial celiac disease test kits--both of which require only one drop of whole blood to gain results. Both of the kits detect IgA-IgG anti-human-transglutaminase antibodies (anti-h-tTG) in serum and IgA anti-h-tTG antibody in a single drop of whole blood. The researchers analyzed the serum samples of 114 biopsy-confirmed celiacs, 120 healthy controls, 20 first-degree relatives of celiacs, and 75 diseased controls, and compared them to the standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing method. Whole blood samples were taken in 51 of the biopsy-confirmed celiacs and 100 controls.
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    Given the high degree of accuracy of the two commercial test kits that were evaluated the researchers conclude that general practitioners should utilize these low cost kits during standard office visits whenever celiac disease is suspected.

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    Jefferson Adams
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    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
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    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com