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    In 1994 I was diagnosed with celiac disease, which led me to create Celiac.com in 1995. I created this site for a single purpose: To help as many people as possible with celiac disease get diagnosed so they can begin to live happy, healthy gluten-free lives. Celiac.com was the first site on the Internet dedicated solely to celiac disease. In 1998 I founded The Gluten-Free Mall, Your Special Diet Superstore!, and I am the co-author of the book Cereal Killers, and founder and publisher of Journal of Gluten Sensitivity.

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    Scott Adams
    Bardella MT, Minoli G, Radaelli F, Quatrini M, Bianchi PA, Conte D Gastrointest Endosc. 2000 Jun;51(6):714-716
    Background: Loss or reduction of duodenal folds, scalloping of Kerkring folds and a micronodular or mosaic duodenal mucosal pattern have been described in celiac disease (celiac disease), endoscopic findings that are considered reliable in the diagnosis of this disorder. However, most data have been obtained in patients with suspected or certain disease. We assessed the accuracy of the above markers in diagnosing celiac disease in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Methods: In this prospective study, in 705 consecutive dyspeptic patients (284 men, 421 women, mean age 51 +/- SD 15.8 years) duodenal biopsies were obtained only in the presence of typical endoscopic markers, whereas in another 517 (207 men, 310 women, mean age 49.9 +/- SD 16 years) duodenal biopsies were done irrespective of macroscopic findings. celiac disease was diagnosed histologically and on the basis of positive antiendomysium antibody.
    Results: Endoscopic markers were found in 4 patients of the first group but celiac disease was ruled out. In the second group 5 patients had an endoscopic pattern that was consistent and celiac disease was diagnosed in 3, whereas 3 others with normal endoscopic findings were eventually diagnosed as having celiac disease. Endoscopic markers had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 99.6% (95% CI [11.8, 88.2 and 98.6, 99.9], respectively) with positive and negative predictive values of 60% and 99.4%, respectively.
    Conclusion: The accuracy of endoscopic markers in the diagnosis of celiac disease must be reevaluated in relation to the characteristics of the population studied.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/16/2009 - Current treatment for celiac disease consists of a lifetime gluten-free diet. However, once the diagnosis is made, most people don’t really receive regular follow-up or monitoring of their treatment unless they have some obvious complaint. That’s beginning to change, and more doctors are beginning to advocate long-term celiac care, which includes regular tests to assess dietary compliance.
    To accomplish this goal, doctors are working to determine the best program of follow-up treatment. A team of Austrian researchers recently set out to determine which noninvasive test for celiac disease is best for assessing mucosal status in people with celiac disease.
    The research team was made up of doctors Andreas K. W. Vécsei, Ulrike B. Graf, and H. Vogelsang, associated with St. Anna Children's Hospital, Vienna, Austria and the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Clinic of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    The research team set out to clarify which noninvasive follow-up methods for testing blood serum or intestinal permeability (IPT) – best match the patient’s histology, and whether the accuracy of these tests is affected by the interval between diagnosis and follow-up affects.
    The team mined a computer database to compile information from adult patients, diagnosed with celiac disease between December 1989 and July 2006, who underwent follow up via biopsy, IPT, and serological testing via IgG anti-gliadin antibodies (AGA-IgG), AGA-IgA, and endomysial antibodies (EMA).
    They measured effectiveness of noninvasive test results based on the presence of villous atrophy upon biopsy. The team divided patients into two groups. The first, group A, comprised patients followed up within 24 months of diagnosis, and group B, comprising patients followed up after 24 months.
    In all, the team was able to evaluate forty-seven patients. The tests showed the following results:
    Lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio showed a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 46.2% for mucosal atrophy, while saccharose excretion showed a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 52.6%.
    AGA-IgA and AGA-IgG showed 15% and 20%, respectively, and both showed specificity of 100%. AGA was of limited usefulness due to low number of positive results. EMA assay was 50% sensitive and 77.8% specific.
    In group A (n = 23) L/M ratio performed best in terms of sensitivity (88.9%), whereas EMA achieved a higher specificity (71.4%). In group B, the sensitivity of the L/M ratio decreased to 85.7%, while the specificity of EMA increased to 91.7%.
    The team concluded that these results show that none of the non-invasive tests was an accurate replacement for follow-up biopsy in detecting severe mucosal damage.
    Until an accurate test is developed, long-term follow-up monitoring of gluten-free status in people with celiac disease will remain difficult to do reliably without biopsy.
    Endoscopy 2009; 41: 123-128
     

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/12/2009 - The latest antihuman tissue transglutaminase (tTG) IgA tests are reported to spot celiac disease with nearly 100% sensitivity and specificity. Also, a new generation of deamidated gliadin peptide (α-DGP) antibody tests is alleged to have sensitivity levels on par with the tTG IgA tests. However, in actual practice, sensitivity and specificity for these tests are often lower than claimed for trial conditions.
    A team of Columbia University researchers recently evaluated sensitivities and specificities of four commercial IgA tTG kits, along with three commercial deamidated gliadin peptide (α-DGP) kits. The team evaluated the results for four tTG IgA assays: A—Inova (Hu red blood cell); B—Binding site (rHu Ag); C—Eurospital (rHu Ag), D—Immco (rHu Ag) and three Inova α-DGP assays, E—α-DGP-IgA, F—α-DGP-IgG, and G—α-DGP-IgA+G.
    The research team was made up of Afzal J. Naiyer, MD; Lincoln Hernandez, MD; Edward J. Ciaccio, PhD; Konstantinos Papadakis, MD; John S. Manavalan, MD; Govind Bhagat, MD; Peter H. R. Green, MD, all associated with the Department of Medicine and Pathology, Columbia University, New York, NY.
    The team used blood samples from four different groups of celiac disease patients and controls: Group 1 consisting of 28 patients with active celiac disease; Group 2 consisting of 54 celiac patients following a gluten-free diet; Group 3 consisting of 40 healthy controls; Group 4 consisting of 57 disease controls—17 with Crohn's disease, and 40 with chronic hepatitis. In each case, the researchers used the manufacturer's own cut-off values. They found that sensitivities and specificities of different kits ranged from 71.4% to 96.4% and 87.5% to 100%, respectively.
    Compared with disease controls, sensitivity for Group 1 stayed the same, while specificity fell. All tests showed higher sensitivities for higher patient villous atrophy. The study showed that overall sensitivity was 90% or less, which is below figures reported in the literature.
    Recombinant and red blood cell antigen-based tTG assays performed similarly, while the α-DGP tests showed lower values. The bottom line was that a number of factors can influence the sensitivity and specificity for these test, and that doctors should keep these facts in mind when evaluating patients.
    Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology: Volume 43 (3) March 2009, pp 225-232


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/23/2010 - A team of researchers evaluated the possibility of diagnosing celiac disease using quantitative analysis of videocapsule endoscopy images.
    The team included Edward J. Ciaccioa, Christina A. Tennysonb, Suzanne K. Lewisb, Suneet, Krishnareddy, Govind Bhagat, and Peter H.R. Green. They are variously associated with the Department of Pharmacology, Department of Medicine,  Department of Pathology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York.
    Images taken with videocapsule endoscopy can be useful for diagnosing celiac disease, but their interpretation is highly subjective. Quantitative disease markers might help to determine the degree of villous atrophy and efficacy of treatment.
    The team gathered capsule endoscopy images from a group of 11 celiac patients with small bowel pathology, and from a group of 10 control patients.
    Images had a resolution of 576×576 pixels, with 256 grayscale tones, and a frame-rate of 2 s−1.  The team measured over 10×10 pixel sub-images for pixel brightness and image texture. They then averaged the results for for 56×56 sub-images per frame.
    For each patient, the team took measurements at from five locations in the proximal to distal small intestine. At each location, they figured measurements using 200 consecutive image frames (100 s).
    For classification with a nonlinear discriminant function, they computed mean frame-to-frame pixel brightness, image texture, periodicity in brightness, and estimated wall motion or intestinal motility.
    By pooling the data, the team found that images from the celiac group showed greater texture than did images from control group (p < 0.001).
    Images from the celiac disease group exhibited more frame-to-frame brightness variation as well (p = 0.032). Celiac patients showed longer dominant period of brightness in celiacs (p = 0.001), which may indicate reduced motility.
    Markers for three-dimensional nonlinear classification of celiacs versus controls showed sensitivity of 92.7% and specificity of 93.5%. Both celiac patients and control subjects showed an approximately linear association between dominant period and small intestinal transit time (r2 = 0.42 and r2 =0 .55, respectively).
    The results show that videocapsule images can be used to reveal villous atrophy throughout the small intestine, and to distinguish individuals with celiac disease from individuals without mucosal atrophy.
    Source:

    Science Direct. doi:10.1016/j.cmpb.2010.02.005

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/21/2018 - Would you buy a house advertised as ‘gluten-free’? Yes, there really is such a house for sale. 
    It seems a Phoenix realtor Mike D’Elena is hoping that his trendy claim will catch the eye of a buyer hungry to avoid gluten, or, at least one with a sense of humor. D’Elena said he crafted the ads as a way to “be funny and to draw attention.” The idea, D’Elena said, is to “make it memorable.” 
    Though D’Elena’s marketing seeks to capitalizes on the gluten-free trend, he knows Celiac disease is a serious health issue for some people. “[W]e’re not here to offend anybody….this is just something we're just trying to do to draw attention and do what's best for our clients," he said. 
    Still, the signs seem to be working. D'elena had fielded six offers within a few days of listing the west Phoenix home.
    "Buying can sometimes be the most stressful thing you do in your entire life so why not have some fun with it," he said. 
    What do you think? Clever? Funny?
    Read more at Arizonafamily.com.

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    Bakery On Main started in the small bakery of a natural foods market on Main Street in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Founder Michael Smulders listened when his customers with Celiac Disease would mention the lack of good tasting, gluten-free options available to them. Upon learning this, he believed that nobody should have to suffer due to any kind of food allergy or dietary need. From then on, his mission became creating delicious and fearlessly unique gluten-free products that were clean and great tasting, while still being safe for his Celiac customers!
    Premium ingredients, bakeshop delicious recipes, and happy customers were our inspiration from the beginning— and are still the cornerstones of Bakery On Main today. We are a fiercely ethical company that believes in integrity and feels that happiness and wholesome, great tasting food should be harmonious. We strive for that in everything we bake in our dedicated gluten-free facility that is GFCO Certified and SQF Level 3 Certified. We use only natural, NON-GMO Project Verified ingredients and all of our products are certified Kosher Parve, dairy and casein free, and we have recently introduced certified Organic items as well! 
    Our passion is to bake the very best products while bringing happiness to our customers, each other, and all those we meet!
    We are available during normal business hours at: 1-888-533-8118 EST.
    To learn more about us at: visit our site.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/20/2018 - Currently, the only way to manage celiac disease is to eliminate gluten from the diet. That could be set to change as clinical trials begin in Australia for a new vaccine that aims to switch off the immune response to gluten. 
    The trials are set to begin at Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre. The vaccine is designed to allow people with celiac disease to consume gluten with no adverse effects. A successful vaccine could be the beginning of the end for the gluten-free diet as the only currently viable treatment for celiac disease. That could be a massive breakthrough for people with celiac disease.
    USC’s Clinical Trials Centre Director Lucas Litewka said trial participants would receive an injection of the vaccine twice a week for seven weeks. The trials will be conducted alongside gastroenterologist Dr. James Daveson, who called the vaccine “a very exciting potential new therapy that has been undergoing clinical trials for several years now.”
    Dr. Daveson said the investigational vaccine might potentially restore gluten tolerance to people with celiac disease.The trial is open to adults between the ages of 18 and 70 who have clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and have followed a strict gluten-free diet for at least 12 months. Anyone interested in participating can go to www.joinourtrials.com.
    Read more at the website for Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre.

    Source:
    FoodProcessing.com.au

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.