• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    77,691
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    JHAllen
    Newest Member
    JHAllen
    Joined
  • 0

    Adults with Complicated Celiac Disease Show Reduced Numbers of Paneth Cells


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 06/30/2008 - In the crypts of the small bowel, there is a group of small, granular epithelial cells, called Paneth cells, which play an important part in innate immune system. There has been some controversy about what role Paneth cells might play in complicating celiac disease, so team of Italian researchers set out to examine the distribution, proliferation, and function of paneth cells in adults with uncomplicated and complicated celiac disease.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    The research team was made up of P. Biancheri , Cdel V. Blanco, L. Cantoro, M. De Vincenzi, A. Di Sabatino, W. Dhaliwal, E. Miceli, R. Salerno, A. Vanoli,  T.T. Macdonald, and G.R. Corazza. The team is affiliated with the Celiac Specialty Center at the First Department of Medicine at University of Pavia in Pavia, Italy.

    Seeking to better understand the function and the numbers of Paneth cell adults with celiac disease (celiac disease), the team measured Paneth cells and human alpha-defensin (HD)-5 and HD-6 in 28 adults with uncomplicated celiac disease, 8 patients with complicated celiac disease (3 with ulcerative jejunoileitis, 2 with refractory sprue, and 3 with enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma), and 14 control subjects.

    Subjects with uncomplicated untreated and treated celiac disease showed similar numbers of Paneth cells, with similar cell proliferation, compared to the control group, while subjects with complicated celiac disease showed much fewer Paneth.

    Subjects with uncomplicated untreated celiac disease, and those with treated celiac disease showed similar levels of mucosal HD-5 and HD-6 compared to the control group, while cells taken from the biopsies of subjects with treated celiac disease and challenged with gliadin proteins showed no change in mucosal HD-5 and HD-6 transcripts.

    Furthermore, those subjects with uncomplicated celiac disease showed no reduction in mucosal Paneth cell numbers and alpha-defensins.

    Clearly, a small study such as this will not tell us exactly how a reduction in the numbers of Paneth cells might complicate celiac disease, but since the role of Paneth cells is so vital to healthy innate immune function, it does point to the need for further examination.

    Am J Clin Pathol. 2008 Jul;130(1):34-42.

    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    Guest rick midkiff

    Posted

    I read and and usually always get valuable information. Keep up the good work.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Kristin Jordan

    Posted

    Thanks! I have "complicated" celiac disease, so it is nice to get some insight into why it may be happening.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites


    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoji are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Ads by Google:

  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams is a freelance writer living in San Francisco. He has covered Health News for Examiner.com, and provided health and medical content for Sharecare.com. His work has appeared in Antioch Review, Blue Mesa Review, CALIBAN, Hayden's Ferry Review, Huffington Post, the Mississippi Review, and Slate, among others.

  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   2 Members, 0 Anonymous, 291 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/08/2007 - For people with celiac disease, accurate and comprehensive information on maintaining a healthy, high-level quality of life can be difficult to find. Research is particularly sketchy with respect to factors that have a negative impact on health and quality of life for adults with celiac disease.
    Factors that have a negative impact on health and quality of life are often modifiable through changes in diet, or adjustments in treatment. Thus researchers are motivated to identify which celiac patient groups are at risk of being impacted in a negative way, and to determine which adjustments might bring positive results.
    In an effort to refine treatment approaches and improve the lives of patients with celiac disease, clinical researchers in Gastroenterology have become increasingly interested in health-related quality of life issues as primary or secondary endpoints in their studies.
    A recent study published online in Medscape Today suggests that, in addition to physical and mental co-morbidities, a failure to sustain a gluten-free diet and disappointment with doctor-patient communication are also important factors associated with health-related quality of life concerns in people with celiac disease.

    Motivated by inconsistencies in available data, a team of German researchers made up of Drs. W. Häuser, A. Stallmach, W. F. Caspary, and J. Stein, set out to evaluate the various predictors for reduced health-related quality of life in adult patients with celiac disease.
    Using logistic regression analysis, the researchers catalogued responses to medical and socio-demographic questionnaires by 1000 adult celiac disease patients who were members of the German Coeliac Society.
    The subjects responded to the following three survey questionnaires, which were administered by post:
    1) the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36); 2) the Celiac Disease Questionnaire; 3) the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
    The results showed that physical co-morbidities (ß = -0.41; OR = 0.66, P < 0.001) and mental disorder (ß = 0.88; OR = 2.4, P = 0.03) were associated with a reduced physical summary score of the SF-36 Scale.
    Mental disorder (ß = 2.5; OR = 11.9, P < 0.001), physical co-morbidities (ß = -0.26; OR = 0.77, P = 0.004) and younger age at diagnosis (ß = -0.10; OR = 0.91, P = 0.05) predicted a reduced mental summary score of the SF-36 Scale.
    Mental disorder (ß = 0.90; OR = 2.5, P = 0.03), non-compliance with gluten-free diet (ß = 0.44; OR = 1.6, P = 0.009), active medical co-morbidities (ß = -0.28; OR = 0.76, P = 0.007) and dissatisfaction with doctor–patient communication (ß = 0.55; OR = 1.7, P = 0.03) were associated with reduced Celiac Disease Questionnaire scores.
    In adult patients with celiac disease, the following factors were associated with reduced health-related quality of life: female gender, younger age at diagnosis, newly diagnosed patients, latency of diagnosis, failure to follow a gluten-free diet, anxiety and somatic and psychiatric co-morbidity.
    Until this study, attempts to measure health status in patients with celiac disease relied on generic health-related quality of life methods, rather than validated, disease specific instruments, and thus the relative predictive value of these variables had not been fully assessed.
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;25(5):569-578.
     

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/30/2008 - The results of a Hungarian study published recently in the June issue of Pediatrics suggest that people with untreated celiac disease show abnormal resistance to the hepatitis B (HBV) vaccine, while celiac patients on a gluten-free diet show a near normal response to the vaccine.
    A team of doctors led by Dr. Eva Nemes, at the University of Debrecen, administered 2 to 3 doses of recombinant HBV vaccine to 128 patients with celiac disease and an age matched control group of 113 non-celiac patients within a 6-month period. Twenty-two of the celiac patients were following a gluten-free diet when they received the vaccine.
    One month after the last HBV vaccination, the team took blood samples to look for anti-HBV antibodies. The group of 22 patients who received the vaccination while on a gluten-free diet had a sero-conversion rate of 95.5%, which means that more than 9 out of 10 patients developed the desired resistance to hepatitis B.
    The other 106 patients with celiac disease, as well as the control group, were vaccinated at approximately 14 years of age, and their immune response was evaluated by measuring anti-HBV titers about two years later. Of the 106 subjects with celiac disease, seventy had been diagnosed and were maintaining a strict gluten-free diet when they were vaccinated, twenty-seven were undiagnosed and untreated, and nine were diagnosed, but not following a gluten-free diet.
    The seventy subjects with celiac disease that was diagnosed and treated showed a sero-conversion rate of 61.4%. Given the size of the study samples, that’s not significantly different from the 75.2% sero-conversion rate for the control group.
    The big difference arose in those subjects with undiagnosed celiac disease, who showed a response rate of just below 26%, which was substantially lower than the control group and the treated celiac patients. The nine patients with active celiac disease who were not faithfully following a gluten-free diet showed a response rate of 44.4%. The thirty-seven subjects with celiac disease who had failed to respond to the vaccine were placed on a gluten-free diet and given a follow-up vaccine. One month later 36 of them (over 97%) showed a positive response to the vaccine.
    The team concluded that the positive response to the vaccine by celiac patients who were following a gluten-free diet, and the high resistance shown by subjects with undiagnosed celiac disease, and those not following a gluten-free diet, indicates that active celiac disease may play a major role in a failure to respond to the vaccine.
    The team recommends that newly diagnosed patients be checked for resistance to the HBV vaccine, and that those showing resistance be placed on a gluten-free diet before receiving a follow-up dose. They did not go so far as to suggest that those showing resistance to the HBV vaccine be screened for celiac disease, but that would not seem unreasonable, given their results.
    Pediatrics 2008; 121:e1570-e1576.


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/13/2009 - A recent study confirms that celiac disease affects adults with Turner Syndrome at rates of up to 5%, compared to 1% for the general population.
    A team of researchers recently set out to assess rates of celiac disease in adults with Turner Syndrome. Led by doctor A. Frost of the Department of Endocrinology at University College Hospital in London, UK, the research team included doctors M. Band, G. Conway.
    The researchers enlisted 256 adults with clinically proven Turner Syndrome. Five turned out to have existing diagnosis of celiac disease. The team conducted IgA endomysium antibody (EMA) screening for celiac disease on the remaining 251 Turner Syndrome patients.  Eight patients (3.2%) showed positive EMA screens. Doctors offered those eight patients endoscopy with duodenal biopsy.
    Seven patients committed to duodenal biopsy, and all seven (2.8%) showed positive histological confirmation for celiac disease. Thus, the doctors reasonably estimate the rate of sub-clinical celiac disease to be between 2.8% and 3.2%. When the existing cases are factored in, the total population shows rates between 4.7% and 5.1%.
    The team conducted human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing in the existing celiac disease cases and new EMA-positive cases. Ten of those 13 patients submitted to HLA typing. Eight showed positive results for HLA-DQ2, one for HLA-DQ8, while one showed negative results for both HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8.
    The study demonstrates that celiac disease affects adults with Turner Syndrome at rates of up to 5 times those of the general population, and the results are consistent with previous data published in pediatric populations.
    European Journal of Endocrinology. 2009 Feb 10


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/19/2010 - Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gut triggered by an adverse immune response to dietary gluten proteins in genetically susceptible individuals. One of the first ways the body responds to offending proteins in an adverse celiac disease response is by producing mucous via IgA secretion in an effort to neutralize offending antigens and pathogens.
    A team of researchers recently sought to better document the relationships between immunoglobulin-coated bacteria and bacterial composition in feces of celiac disease patients, untreated and treated with a gluten-free diet (GFD) and healthy controls. The research team included Giada De Palma, Inmaculada Nadal, Marcela Medina, Ester Donat, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Miguel Calabuig,  and Yolanda Sanz.
    They observed that intestinal dysbiosis and reduced immunoglobulin-coated bacteria are associated with celiac disease in children. Both untreated and treated celiac disease patients showed markedly lower levels of IgA, IgG and IgM-coated fecal bacteria compared to healthy controls.
    Celiac disease patients showed substantially reduced ratio of Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacteria compared to control subjects. Untreated celiac disease patients showed less abundant group proportions (P<0.050) of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium histolyticum, C. lituseburense and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii than did healthy controls.
    Untreated celiac disease patients showed more abundant group proportions (P<0.050) of Bacteroides-Prevotella than in control subjects. Both untreated and treated celiac disease patients showed significantly impoverished (P<0.050) levels of IgA coating the Bacteroides-Prevotella compared with healthy controls.

    From these results, the research team concluded that intestinal dysbiosis plays a role in reduced IgA-coating bacteria in celiac disease patients. This offers a fresh perspective into the possible relationships between the gut microbiota and the host defenses in celiac disease patients.
    Source:

    BMC Microbiology 2010, 24 February

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/21/2018 - Would you buy a house advertised as ‘gluten-free’? Yes, there really is such a house for sale. 
    It seems a Phoenix realtor Mike D’Elena is hoping that his trendy claim will catch the eye of a buyer hungry to avoid gluten, or, at least one with a sense of humor. D’Elena said he crafted the ads as a way to “be funny and to draw attention.” The idea, D’Elena said, is to “make it memorable.” 
    Though D’Elena’s marketing seeks to capitalizes on the gluten-free trend, he knows Celiac disease is a serious health issue for some people. “[W]e’re not here to offend anybody….this is just something we're just trying to do to draw attention and do what's best for our clients," he said. 
    Still, the signs seem to be working. D'elena had fielded six offers within a few days of listing the west Phoenix home.
    "Buying can sometimes be the most stressful thing you do in your entire life so why not have some fun with it," he said. 
    What do you think? Clever? Funny?
    Read more at Arizonafamily.com.

    Advertising Banner-Ads
    Bakery On Main started in the small bakery of a natural foods market on Main Street in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Founder Michael Smulders listened when his customers with Celiac Disease would mention the lack of good tasting, gluten-free options available to them. Upon learning this, he believed that nobody should have to suffer due to any kind of food allergy or dietary need. From then on, his mission became creating delicious and fearlessly unique gluten-free products that were clean and great tasting, while still being safe for his Celiac customers!
    Premium ingredients, bakeshop delicious recipes, and happy customers were our inspiration from the beginning— and are still the cornerstones of Bakery On Main today. We are a fiercely ethical company that believes in integrity and feels that happiness and wholesome, great tasting food should be harmonious. We strive for that in everything we bake in our dedicated gluten-free facility that is GFCO Certified and SQF Level 3 Certified. We use only natural, NON-GMO Project Verified ingredients and all of our products are certified Kosher Parve, dairy and casein free, and we have recently introduced certified Organic items as well! 
    Our passion is to bake the very best products while bringing happiness to our customers, each other, and all those we meet!
    We are available during normal business hours at: 1-888-533-8118 EST.
    To learn more about us at: visit our site.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/20/2018 - Currently, the only way to manage celiac disease is to eliminate gluten from the diet. That could be set to change as clinical trials begin in Australia for a new vaccine that aims to switch off the immune response to gluten. 
    The trials are set to begin at Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre. The vaccine is designed to allow people with celiac disease to consume gluten with no adverse effects. A successful vaccine could be the beginning of the end for the gluten-free diet as the only currently viable treatment for celiac disease. That could be a massive breakthrough for people with celiac disease.
    USC’s Clinical Trials Centre Director Lucas Litewka said trial participants would receive an injection of the vaccine twice a week for seven weeks. The trials will be conducted alongside gastroenterologist Dr. James Daveson, who called the vaccine “a very exciting potential new therapy that has been undergoing clinical trials for several years now.”
    Dr. Daveson said the investigational vaccine might potentially restore gluten tolerance to people with celiac disease.The trial is open to adults between the ages of 18 and 70 who have clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and have followed a strict gluten-free diet for at least 12 months. Anyone interested in participating can go to www.joinourtrials.com.
    Read more at the website for Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre.

    Source:
    FoodProcessing.com.au

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.