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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    CELIAC DISEASE AND ZINC DEFICIENCY


    Destiny Stone

    Celiac.com 04/28/2010 - Celiac disease primarily impacts the proximal small intestine, and the small intestine is fundamental  in maintaining zinc equilibrium within the body. Recently, zinc has been acknowledged for it's importance in upholding the integrity of intestinal mucosa, immunity and proper growth rates in children. Base-line plasma zinc levels are shown to be greatly reduced in over two-thirds of children diagnosed with celiac disease.


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    A study was conducted by the Celiac Disease Clinic in the division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Post Graduate Institute Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India  between July 2006 and December 2007, to evaluate plasma levels of zinc in children with celiac disease, correlate plasma zinc levels among celiacs short in stature and with diarrhea, and to compare plasma zinc levels in deficient patients on a gluten-free diet with zinc supplementation, to patients on a gluten-free diet without zinc supplementation.

    134 total patients less than 14 years old and newly diagnosed with celiac disease, were enrolled for the study. Each subject enrolled was also evaluated for baseline demographics and social profiles which included an in-depth medical history, physical examination, and thorough blood work. All patients included in the study were placed on a gluten-free diet and  received dietary counseling from a physician and experienced dietitian.

    All patients received a 20 milligram dose of elemental zinc supplementation for 4 weeks.  Plasma zinc levels were compared at baseline and also at 4 weeks to determine zinc deficiency. Patients found to be deficient in zinc levels were randomly divided into two  groups, Group G and Group G+Z. Group G treatments included a gluten-free diet without zinc supplementation. Group G+Z received a gluten-free diet with zinc supplementation. 

    The results of this study showed that plasma zinc levels had a significant rise in Group G and Group G+Z regardless of zinc supplementation. However, a gluten-free diet alone showed a profound increase in plasma zinc levels, even when compared to gluten-free diet with zinc supplements; thereby indicating that zinc supplementation combined with  a gluten-free diet gives no additional benefits to plasma zinc levels. In fact,  all celiac patients that maintained  a gluten-free diet for this study showed that their ability to absorb zinc had significantly improved. Therefore, it can be concluded that zinc levels rise with a gluten-free diet regardless of zinc supplementation,  proving that a  completely gluten-free diet is the cure to poor zinc absorption in celiac patients.


    Image Caption: Gluten-Free Diet and Zinc (photo courtesy of Rudner)
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    The article does not tell us which kind of zinc was used. Also, it does not mention a control group of non-celiacs on zinc supplementation. It doesn't tell us the gluten-free celiac's zinc levels compared with non-celiac's. Anyway, if zinc oxide, zinc carbonate or certain other kinds of zinc were used, it's no wonder there was no difference between those taking the supplements and those not—according to the 1998 study cited on the Wikipedia article, they would yield about the same results for non-celiacs. Zinc picolinate, zinc acetate and zinc gluconate have been shown to be more effective, although zinc picolinate is probably the most effective. Anyway, the article is interesting still; just realize it's not the final answer without more information and/or study.

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    I only use zinc supplementation when I accidentally ingest gluten. I can smell the zinc (very strong metal odor) in the urine after I ingest gluten. That is my body's first warning of gluten (and last line of defense before symptoms). I then take zinc to replenish my zinc levels. If I don't supplement and eat gluten again, my symptoms will break out.

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    admin

    Nature Immunology 2, 353 - 360 (April 2001)
    Celiac.com 04/12/2001 - According to an article published in the April issue of Nature Immunology, Dr. Marc Rothenberg and colleagues at the Childrens Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio performed a series of experiments on mice which led them to the conclusion that white blood cells called eosinophils could be the cause of many food allergies and gastrointestinal inflammation. The researchers believe that the eosinophil cells, which are present throughout the body, mistakenly identify food proteins as germs in individuals with food allergies. When the intestinal lining of an allergic person is exposed to an allergen, a substance called eotaxin is released by the cells lining the intestine, which causes the eosinophil cells and other immune cells to attack them and release powerful proteins that destroy the surrounding tissues and cause eosinophilic inflammation.
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    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 04/23/2007 - A study published in a recent issue of the journal Gut suggests that wheat gliadin might trigger pathological development in mucosal cells that are already abnormal, but otherwise tolerated, within the intestinal tracts of individuals with celiac disease.
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    Gut 2007;56:480-488.
     

    Destiny Stone
    Celiac.com 06/10/2010 - New research is currently underway in Ireland, as researchers test "pseudo-cereals" to determine the quality of  replacements for glutenous grains such as, wheat, rye and barley. Many celiacs, especially those with delayed diagnosis', suffer from malabsorbtion and malnutrition. It is therefore more important for celiacs to ingest grains that are vitamin fortified than it is for non-celiacs. Researchers at Teagasc Food Research Ashtown are attempting to address the nutritional concerns for gluten-free products. They are working to  formulate gluten-free bread products that are tasty, and have higher nutritional properties.
    Doctor Eimear Gallagher, of Teagasc Food Research Ashtown, is leading the current research project which primarily focuses on using “pseudo-cereals” such as amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat, to replace gluten containing grains,  also known as wheat, rye and barley. Dr. Gallagher suggests that the demand for new and improved gluten-free bread products is growing  rapidly due to greater public awareness of celiac disease, and the rise in positive celiac diagnoses'.
    Celiac affects approximately 1 percent of the population. Which means that 1 percent of the population must look for alternatives to favored grain products such as bread, pizza and cereals to name a few. While there is a large variety of gluten-free products on the market, many gluten-free products are described as being crumbly, brittle, bland and often rendered  inedible. Gluten-free products are not only considered inferior in texture and taste to their wheat counterparts, but they are also criticized for having inferior nutritional value. Most mainstream breads and grains are vitamin fortified and therefore contain many essential nutrients, vitamins, and fiber. However, most gluten-free grains are typically made with starches and refined flours such as rice, corn and potato starches, which are low in nutrients and are not usually fortified.
    Dr. Gallagher and researchers are studying characteristics of pseudo-cereals to replace wheat in grain products. Amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat are naturally high in nutritional values with high levels of protein and dietary fiber, which make them excellent grain alternatives  for celiacs. Dr. Gallagher's findings showed that all of the pseudo-cereal breads revealed a significant increase in antioxidant and polyphenol activity, compared to the gluten-free control group.
    Teagasc  food researchers are also working hard to create a dairy-based ingredient that can produce the same properties in bread as gluten does. So far researchers have discovered that casein aggregates and forms a protein network which can retain gas in gluten-free dough. The reactions are similar to gluten containing wheat dough, but this is a work in progress and more studies are needed.
    Dr. Gallagher's studies have revealed significant information on ingredients, formulations and technologies used to make gluten-free products, which will help provide edible and healthy alternatives to gluten-free products.
    Source:

    ScienceDaily (May 26, 2010)

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/25/2010 - The revolution in genetic studies continues to drive discoveries about the genetic triggers for celiac disease. In recent developments, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) has nearly doubled the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with celiac disease from 14 to 27, most of which contain genes related to immune functions.
    Doctors have known for some time now that people with genetic markers DQ2 and DQ8 are more susceptible to celiac disease than those without those gene markers. This fact points to the importance of histocompatibility complex presentation of gluten antigens to immune cells.
    In 2007, a landmark study established 14 celiac-associated SNPs. Recently, a team of researchers conducted a comprehensive follow-up to that study. The study team included P. C. Dubois, G. Trynka, and L. Franke. The resulting GWAS used six times more genetic samples than the 2007 study, including five European case-control data sets comprised of 4,533 celiac disease patients and 10,750 controls. In all, the team tested nearly 300,000 genes.
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    This study involved genetic assessment in a very large cohort, replication in a similarly large cohort, and multiple independent approaches at refining candidate SNPs. As a result, the number of known loci of celiac disease susceptibility genes has increased from 14 to 27. Their findings also identify several new pathways of celiac disease pathogenesis that merit further investigation.
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    Source:

    Nature Genetics 42, 295 - 302 (2010). doi:10.1038/ng.543

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/26/2018 - Emily Dickson is one of Canada’s top athletes. As a world-class competitor in the biathlon, the event that combines cross-country skiing with shooting marksmanship, Emily Dickson was familiar with a demanding routine of training and competition. After discovering she had celiac disease, Dickson is using her diagnosis and gluten-free diet a fuel to help her get her mojo back.
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    Tammy Rhodes
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    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
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    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
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