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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    CELIAC PATIENTS ALSO REACT TO NON-GLUTEN WHEAT PROTEINS


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 12/29/2014 - While the immune response to gluten proteins in celiac disease has been well researched, and is pretty well understood, researchers really don’t know much about the immune response to non-gluten proteins in wheat. A team of researchers recently set out to determine the level and molecular specificity of antibody response to wheat non-gluten proteins in celiac disease.


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    Photo: CC--Duncan HullThe research team included Sina Huebener, Charlene K. Tanaka, Melanie Uhde, John J. Zone, William H. Vensel, Donald D. Kasarda §, Leilani Beams, Chiara Briani, Peter H. R. Green, Susan B. Altenbach, and Armin Alaedini. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Medicine at Columbia University in New York, New York, USA, the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University in New York, New York, USA, the Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture in Albany, California, USA, the Department of Dermatology at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, the Department of Neurosciences at the University of Padova, in Padova, Italy, and the Institute of Human Nutrition at Columbia University in New York, New York, USA.

    Together, the team screened blood samples from celiac patients and control subjects for IgG and IgA antibody reactivity to a non-gluten protein extract taken from the wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Butte 86.

    They also analyzed the antibodies for reactivity to specific non-gluten proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. They used tandem mass spectrometry to identify any immuno-reactive molecules.

    They found that, compared with healthy control subjects, celiac patients showed significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to non-gluten proteins. The main immuno-reactive non-gluten antibody culprit proteins were serpins, purinins, α-amylase/protease inhibitors, globulins, and farinins.

    Assessment of reactivity toward purified recombinant proteins further confirmed the presence of antibody response to specific antigens.

    These results show that, in addition to the well-understood immune reaction to gluten, people with celiac disease experience reactions to a number of non-gluten proteins of wheat.

    The short take away is that the bodies of people with celiac disease show clear immune responses, not just to gluten proteins in wheat, but to non-gluten proteins, as well.

    Source:


    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Dean Hochman
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    It would be interesting to know if these other non-gluten proteins found in wheat were found in non-gluten foods, and if so whether there is a benefit to celiacs from omitting those foods from our diets.

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  • Related Articles

    admin
    This approach has great promise for improving the quality of future gluten-free products--here is a related article.
    Celiac.com 10/11/2005 - Arcadia Biosciences, an agricultural biotechnology company focused on products that benefit the environment and human health, today announced that it has received a Small Business Technology Transfer Program (STTR) grant from the National Institutes of Health in partnership with Washington State University (WSU) to research novel lines of wheat with reduced celiac disease-causing proteins. The grant will be split equally between Arcadia and its academic collaborator at WSU, Dr. Diter von Wettstein, the R.A. Nilan Distinguished Professor in the Department of Crop and Soil Science.
    Nearly 1 percent of American people and 4 percent of European people are estimated to suffer from celiac disease, or gluten intolerance. This genetic disorder can create symptoms that range from chronic diarrhea to malnutrition. Studies also indicate that celiac disease sufferers who continue to eat gluten are between 40 and 100 times more likely to develop gastrointestinal cancer than non-celiac disease sufferers. The only known treatment for celiac disease is adherence to a gluten-free diet, which includes complete abstinence from wheat, rye, barley, and their derivatives.
    "New diagnostic tests continue to identify people who suffer from celiac disease and who need to make extreme dietary adjustments," said Eric Rey, president of Arcadia Biosciences. "This grant is the first step in our effort to identify and develop wheat varieties that can significantly expand the dietary options for people on gluten-free diets. Our goal is to help enable people who suffer from celiac disease to enjoy wheat-based products, like bread and cookies, and not experience an adverse reaction."
    Working with Dr. von Wettstein and his colleagues at WSU, Arcadia will use its proprietary TILLING® technology to identify wheat plants in which harmful gluten proteins are minimized.
    Arcadias current product pipeline includes six technologies that either protect the environment or improve human health. The company expects to launch its first product, GLA-enriched safflower oil, to the nutritional supplement market in 2008. Other technologies include higher-yielding plants that use less nitrogen fertilizer, salt-tolerant plants, and fresh produce with high levels of antioxidants such as lycopene. These products are being developed using both genetic engineering and advanced breeding technologies.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/22/2011 - Research has shown that infants with celiac disease have microscopic changes to the intestinal tract, as compared to adults with the disease.
    A research team recently examined bacterial differences in the upper small intestine in healthy adults with untreated celiac disease, healthy adults with celiac disease treated with a gluten-free diet, and children with untreated celiac disease, and children with celiac disease treated with a gluten-free diet.
    The research team included E. Nistal, A. Caminero, A. R.  Herrán, L. Arias, S. Vivas, J. M. de Morales, S. Calleja, L. E. de Miera, P. Arroyo, J. Casqueiro. They are affiliated with the Área de Microbiología, Facultad de Biología y Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de León, León, Spain.
    The team used 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from duodenal biopsies to identify the status of their subjects. The gene sequences from adults and children showed that this intestinal region is colonized by bacteria of three different phyla: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes.
    In total, the team identified 89 different bacterial genera in adults and 46 in children. Children showed significantly lower bacterial richness than did adults. Analysis of the bacterial communities of both healthy and untreated celiac disease patient groups (including both children and adults) showed age to have a strong effect on principal component 1 (clustering all adults and children separately), as well as a possible separate clustering in adults with untreated celiac disease.
    The study revealed bacterial differences in the upper small intestine between untreated children with celiac disease and untreated celiac adults due to age. There are differences in the upper small bacteria microbiota between treated and untreated celiac disease adults due to treatment with a gluten-free diet.
    Source:

    Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; Aug 8. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21830.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/02/2012 - Doctors and researchers are still debating the usefulness of active blood screening for spotting celiac disease in older populations. Studies do suggest that many cases of celiac disease go undetected, especially in the older population. One unanswered question is whether screening does any good for older people who have been eating gluten many decades.
    A team of researchers recently studied the clinical benefit of a gluten-free diet in screen-detected older celiac disease patients. The research team included Anitta Vilppula, Katri Kaukinen, Liisa Luostarinen, Ilkka Krekelä, Heikki Patrikainen, Raisa Valve, Markku Luostarinen, Kaija Laurila, Markku Mäki, and Pekka Collin.
    They are affiliated with the Department of Neurology, the Department of Internal Medicine and the Department of Surgery at Päijät-Häme Central Hospital, and the University of Helsinki's Department of Education and Development in Lahti, Finland, the Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery the School of Medicine, and the Paediatric Research Centre at the University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    For their study, the researchers evaluated the benefit of active detection and implementation of a gluten-free diet in elder populations with for celiac disease.
    The team evaluated thirty-five biopsy-proven celiac patients over 50 years of age, each of whom had celiac disease detected by mass blood screening.
    They looked at bone mineral density, dietary compliance, disease history, quality of life, and symptoms at baseline and after 1-2 years of a gluten-free diet. They also looked at small bowel biopsy, serology, laboratory parameters assessing malabsorption, and bone mineral density.
    Using surveys, the team established gastrointestinal symptom ratings and quality of life by psychological general well-being. The used this information to rate symptoms.
    They found patient dietary compliance to be good overall.  Initial tests on the patients showed reduced serum ferritin levels, pointing to subclinical iron deficiency. This trend reversed after patients followed a gluten-free diet.
    Initially low vitamin B12, vitamin D and erythrocyte folic acid levels increased significantly on a gluten-free diet.
    Patient histories showed that those with celiac disease had sustained more low-energy fractures, and sustained such fractures more frequently than the general population. A gluten-free diet brings with it a beneficial increase in bone mineral density.
    The team also noticed that many gastrointestinal symptoms disappeared, even though though many patients reported only subtle symptoms upon diagnosis.
    Quality of life remained unchanged. According to the study team, two out of three patients would have been diagnosed even without screening if the family history, fractures or concomitant autoimmune diseases had been factored in.
    Results showed that patients who had celiac disease detected by mass blood screen did, in fact, benefit from a gluten-free diet. For doctors evaluating older patients, the team advocates a high index of suspicion and active case-finding in celiac disease as an alternative to mass screening.
    Source:
    BMC Gastroenterology 2011, 11:136. doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-136

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/25/2014 - Numerous people without celiac disease claim to suffer from celiac-like gastrointestinal symptoms when they consume wheat, rye or barley products, and claim that avoiding these products makes them feel better. However, even though many people make this claim, this is largely a self-reported condition. Some data have supported the idea of gluten sensitivity, but the most recent and more complete data seem to indicate that the real culprit might not be gluten, but fermentable, poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates known as FODMAPs.
    In fact the same researcher whose early data supported the idea of non-celiac gluten sensitivity also headed the follow-up study that showed no effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates.
    In this third study, that researcher, Peter Gibson at Monash University in Canada set out to assess patients who believe they have NCGS. The study team included Jessica R. Biesiekierski, PhD, RN; Evan D. Newnham, MD, FRACP; Susan J. Shepherd, PhD, APD; Jane G. Muir, PhD, APD; and Peter R. Gibson, MD, FRACP. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Gastroenterology, Eastern Health Clinical School, and the Department of Gastroenterology, Central Clinical School at Monash University, The Alfred Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, and with the Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders, Herestraat in Leuven, Belgium.
    The team put out advertisements calling for adults who believed they had non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and were willing to participate in a clinical trial. Respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire about symptoms, diet, and celiac investigation. They received 248 responses, and completed surveys on a total of 147 people. There were 17 men and 130 women, averaging 43.5 years of age.
    The team eliminated seventy-two percent of the respondents for inadequate exclusion of celiac disease (62%), uncontrolled symptoms despite gluten restriction (24%), and not following a GFD (27%), alone or in combination. A full 15% of respondents had received no testing or examination for celiac disease.
    Gluten avoidance was self-initiated in nearly half of respondents; while it was prescribed by alternative health professionals in 21%, by dietitians in 19%, and by general practitioners in 16%.
    Of 75 respondents who had received duodenal biopsies, nearly one-third had no gluten intake, or inadequate gluten intake, at the time of endoscopy. Inadequate celiac investigation was most common if gluten-avoidance was self-initiated (69%), alternative health professionals (70%), general practitioners (46%), or dietitians (43%).
    A total of 40 respondents fulfilled criteria for NCGS. Those folks showed excellent knowledge of and adherence to a gluten-free diet. However, a full 65% of those who met criteria for NCGS showed intolerance to other foods.
    Just over 1 in 4 respondents self-reporting as NCGS fulfill criteria for its diagnosis, while gluten-avoidance without adequate exclusion of celiac disease is common.
    In 75% of respondents, symptoms are poorly controlled despite gluten avoidance. These results also stress the importance of testing for other food sensitivities, and of celiac screening and evaluation for those people claiming non-celiac gluten-sensitivity.
    Clearly, more study needs to be done to determine if non-celiac gluten sensitivity exists, or if there are other possible causes for the symptoms.
    Sources:
    Nutr Clin Pract August 2014 vol. 29 no. 4 504-509 doi: 10.1177/0884533614529163 Gastroenterology. 2013 Aug;145(2):320-8.e1-3. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.04.051.  
    The team put out advertisements calling for adults who believed they had non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and were willing to participate in a clinical trial. Respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire about symptoms, diet, and celiac investigation. They received 248 responses, and completed surveys on a total of 147 people. There were 17 men and 130 women, averaging 43.5 years of age.
     

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com