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    Jefferson Adams

    Cigarette Smokers Have Lower Risk of Celiac Disease than Non-Smokers

      A meta-anaylisis of of seven studies, with 307,924 total participants, shows that current smokers have a substantially reduced risk of celiac disease compared with those who never-smoked.

    Caption: Image: CC--twentymindsomething

    Celiac.com 05/13/2019 - You might remember earlier headlines touting lower celiac disease risk in people who smoke cigarettes compared with people who never smoked. Several studies have shown a negative association between cigarette smoking and celiac disease, but results have been inconsistent. 

    A study published in 2004 in the European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, found that cigarette smoking provided protection against the development of adult celiac disease.  

    In a 2015 letter to the editors of the American Journal of Gastroenterology regarding the study "Incidence and prevalence of celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis in the UK over two decades: population-based study" by West et al., Dr. S. Veldhuyzen van Zanten, MD, PhD, of the Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, wonders whether lower rates of cigarette smoking in the preceding decades "might help explain the study findings."

    So, do cigarette smokers have a lower risk of celiac disease than non-smokers? To find a conclusive answer, a team of researchers recently set out to summarize all available data, using meta-analysis, and to demonstrate any decreased risk of celiac disease among current smokers compared with people who never smoked.

    The research team included Karn Wijarnpreecha, Susan Lou, Panadeekarn Panjawatanan, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Surakit Pungpapong, Frank J. Lukens, and Patompong Ungprasert.

    The team used MEDLINE and Embase databases to identify all group studies and case-control studies that compared the risk of celiac disease among current and/or former smokers versus people who never smoked. They then extracted the effect estimates from each study and combined them using the random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird.

    The team's meta-analysis of seven studies, with 307,924 total participants, showed that current smokers have a substantially reduced risk of celiac disease compared with those who never-smoked.

    However, they found no significant difference in celiac disease risk between former smokers and those who never smoked. The team suggests that the impact of cigarette smoking on immune system and gut permeability are the likely biological reasons for earlier findings.

    Read more at Sagepub.com

     

    The researchers are variously affiliated with the Department of Internal Medicine, Bassett Medical Center, Cooperstown, USA; the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, USA; the Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA; the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; the Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, USA; and the Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.


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    I quit smoking and changed birth control pills when I turned 40. My celiac disease symptoms manifested practically overnight. I think both had something to do with it. The birth control pills were for women over 40. I remember my sister suggesting that I start smoking again to stop my awful symptoms When I called and complained to the doctor, they told me to eat more whole grains! It took seven years to finally be diagnosed with celiac disease. It only took two weeks of eating gluten free to feel better again. I always suspected that quitting smoking had something to do with it.

     

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    2 hours ago, Guest Elaine said:

    I quit smoking and changed birth control pills when I turned 40. My celiac disease symptoms manifested practically overnight. I think both had something to do with it. The birth control pills were for women over 40. I remember my sister suggesting that I start smoking again to stop my awful symptoms When I called and complained to the doctor, they told me to eat more whole grains! It took seven years to finally be diagnosed with celiac disease. It only took two weeks of eating gluten free to feel better again. I always suspected that quitting smoking had something to do with it.

     

    Maybe.  Researchers think stress might trigger celiac disease (one of several theories).  Giving up cigarettes is stressful.  But long term, you are better off not smoking.  I have several family members with COPD.  It is a horrible way to live — struggling to breathe.  

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  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams earned his B.A. and M.F.A. at Arizona State University, and has authored more than 2,000 articles on celiac disease. His coursework includes studies in biology, anatomy, medicine, science, and advanced research, and scientific methods. He previously served as Health News Examiner for Examiner.com, and devised health and medical content for Sharecare.com. Jefferson has spoken about celiac disease to the media, including an appearance on the KQED radio show Forum, and is the editor of the book "Cereal Killers" by Scott Adams and Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.

  • Related Articles

    Scott Adams
    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Sep;15(9):995-1000.
    Celiac.com 08/27/2004 - Past studies have demonstrated an association, but not a causal connection, between cigarette smoking and celiac disease. Using the Bradford Hill criteria British researchers have now established a causal connection. In a matched case-control study, the researchers utilized a questionnaire to obtain the smoking histories of 138 celiacs and 276 age-matched and sex-matched controls. The subjects were then categorized according to their pre-diagnosis cigarette exposure, and it was found that 10% of celiacs, and 30% of the controls were smokers during this time. A biological gradient was demonstrated for total, recent and current cigarette exposure, and the greatest risk reduction related to current exposure. The researchers conclude:

    "This study strengthens the case for a causal relationship between smoking and coeliac disease by demonstrating a strong, temporally appropriate and dose-dependent effect, thus meeting the Bradford Hill criteria. This suggests that cigarette smoking truly protects against the development of adult coeliac disease."

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 01/09/2012 - Women with celiac disease face a higher risk for depression than the general population, even once they have adopted a gluten-free diet, according to U.S. researchers.
    A team of researchers recently used a Web-mediated survey to assess a range of physical, behavioral and emotional experiences in 177 U.S. adult women, who reported a physician-provided diagnosis of celiac disease.
    The team was led by Josh Smyth, professor of biobehavioral health and medicine at Pennsylvania State University, and included members from  Syracuse University and Drexel University.
    The survey gathered information about how closely people follow a gluten-free diet and assessed various symptoms of celiac disease from physical symptoms to the respondents' experience and management of stressful situations, along with charting symptoms of clinical depression and frequency of thoughts and behaviors associated with eating and body image.
    Perhaps unsurprisingly, many women with celiac disease suffer from disordered eating, given that the management of celiac disease requires careful attention to diet and food, Smyth said.
    "What we don't know is what leads to what and under what circumstances," Smyth said. "It's likely that the disease, stress, weight, shape and eating issues, and depression are interconnected."
    The findings are forthcoming in the journal of Chronic Illness.
    Source:

    http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2011/12/28/Celiac-ups-depression-risk-for-women/UPI-75401325131984/#ixzz1iQynze9k.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/07/2015 - Could population changes in smoking habits help explain the change in incidence and prevalence of celiac disease?
    Could lower rates of cigarette smoking be contributing to higher rates of celiac disease?
    It is pretty well documented that cigarette smokers have lower natural rates of celiac disease than the non-smoking population, which implies that tobacco might offer some measure of prevention with regard to celiac disease.
    Now, a gastroenterologist is asking whether a reduction in public smoking levels might be associated with a rise in rates of celiac disease.
    In a letter to the editors of the American Journal of Gastroenterology regarding the study "Incidence and prevalence of celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis in the UK over two decades: population-based study" by West et al., Dr. S. Veldhuyzen van Zanten, MD, PhD, of the Division of Gastroenterology, University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, wonders whether lower rates of cigarette smoking in the preceding decades "might help explain the study findings."
    Data from several studies regarding reduced celiac rates in cigarette smokers offer support for Dr. van Zanten’s line of thinking; including data that show a new diagnosis of celiac disease is made significantly less frequently in smokers than in non-smokers.
    Interestingly, there also is some evidence that cigarette smoking might actually mask the clinical manifestations of celiac disease rather than prevent its occurrence. Either way, Dr. van Zanten's hypothesis would cast some interesting light on celiac disease if proven correct.
    The good news is that Dr. van Zanten’s hypothesis is easy to test. Because Canada has such a large health care database, they can easily compare rates of smoking and celiac diagnosis, and adjust for necessary factors to give a better picture of any possible connection.
    Sources:
    Am J Gastroenterol. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2014.345 West J , Fleming KM , Tata LJ et al. Incidence and prevalence of celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis in the UK over two decades: population-based study . Am J Gastroenterol 2014 ; 109 : 757 – 68  Snook JA , Dwyer L , Lee-Elliott C et al. Adult coeliac disease and cigarette smoking . Gut 1996 ; 39 : 60 – 2 . Lear JT , English JSC . Adult coeliac disease, dermetitis herpetiformis and cigarette smoking. Gut 1997 ; 40 : 289 . van Zanten SJOV . Case Report: Recurrent diarrhea and weight loss associated with cessation of smoking in a patient with undiagnosed celiac disease . Gut 2001 ; 49 : 588. Office for National Statistics UK. Smoking prevalence among adults has declined by half since 1974. Part of General Lifestyle Survey, 2011. Released: 28 March 2013. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/ghs/general-lifestyle-survey/2011/sty-smoking-report.html 

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac Disease Almost Doubles Risk of Heart Disease
    Celiac.com 03/14/2016 - Compared with the general population, people with celiac disease are almost twice as likely to have coronary artery disease (CAD), and 1.4 times as likely to suffer a stroke, according to a large retrospective study presented at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) Scientific Sessions.
    The data indicate that people with celiac disease might be at higher risk of CAD, even if they do not have standard cardiovascular risk factors, said co-investigator Dr Rama Dilip Gajulapalli of the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio.
    His team is calling on primary-care physicians, gastroenterologists, and other healthcare practitioners to be "mindful of their celiac patients," and to "be on the watch for probable cardiac diseases."
    Higher risk levels were seen even in patients under 65 years old, and may be due to the gut inflammation that can damage the small intestine in people with celiac disease. According to Dr Gajulapalli, "low-grade inflammation in the gut…can spill immune mediators into the bloodstream, which can then accelerate the process of atherosclerosis and, in turn, CAD."
    These findings are important for people with celiac disease, and for the doctors treating them. They support the idea that chronic inflammation of any kind can have a negative impact on heart health. For people with celiac disease, this can lead to higher rates of CAD, among other complications.
    So, the takeaway here is for people with celiac disease to check in with their doctors, and to be aware of any potential problems.
    Source:
    American College of Cardiology (ACC) 2014 Scientific Sessions

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