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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    DIGESTIVE ENZYMES DO NOT FULLY DEGRADE GLUTEN


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 06/22/2015 - Currently available digestive enzymes do not fully degrade gluten, and are thus of questionable use for people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance, say a team of researchers. Prior research had shown that post-proline cutting enzyme effectively degrade the immunogenic gluten peptides. Several existing digestive enzyme supplements claim to promote gluten degradation.


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    Photo: CC--SuperFantasticThe research team set out to assess the degradation of immunogenic gluten epitopes by currently available digestive enzymes. The team included G. Janssen, C. Christis, Y. Kooy-Winkelaar, L. Edens, D. Smith, P. van Veelen, and F. Koning. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands, DSM Food Specialties in Delft, The Netherlands, and DSM Food Specialties in South Bend, Indiana, USA.

    For their study, they assessed five commercially available digestive enzyme supplements along with purified digestive enzymes. They assessed these enzymes using enzyme assays and mass spectrometric identification. They monitored gluten epitope degradation using R5 ELISA, mass spectrometric analysis of the degradation products, and T cell proliferation assays. 

    They found that the enzyme supplements leave the nine immunogenic epitopes of the 26-mer and 33-mer gliadin fragments largely intact. This is due to the high proline content of gluten molecules, which prevents gastrointestinal proteases from fully degrading them, leaving large proline-rich gluten fragments intact, including an immunogenic 33-mer from α-gliadin and a 26-mer from γ-gliadin.

    These latter peptides can trigger pro-inflammatory T cell responses resulting in tissue remodeling, malnutrition and a variety of other complications.

    In contrast, the pure enzyme AN-PEP effectively degraded all nine epitopes in the pH range of the stomach at much lower dose.

    From these results, the team concludes that currently available digestive enzyme supplements are ineffective in degrading immunogenic gluten epitopes.

    Source:


    Image Caption: Photo: CC--SuperFantastic
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  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/14/2013 - A team of researchers recently set out to assesses the safety and efficacy of Aspergillus niger prolyl endoprotease (AN–PEP) to mitigate the effects of gluten in celiac patients.
    For their study, the researchers included celiac patients with positive serology and subtotal or total villous atrophy on duodenal biopsies, who follow a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) resulting in normalised antibodies and mucosal healing classified as Marsh 0 or I were included.
    Prior to this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study, the team measured complaints, quality-of-life, serum antibodies, immunophenotyping of T-cells and duodenal mucosa immunohistology.
    They then had patients consume approximately 7 grams of gluten per day as toast, along with AN-PEP for a two week safety phase. The team put subjects through a two week washout phase where they followed their usual gluten-free diets. The team then randomly assigned 14 patients to receive gluten, with either AN-PEP or placebo, for a two week efficacy phase.
    They also collected patient questionnaires on serum and quality of life during and after the safety, washout and efficacy phase. They conducted duodenal biopsies after both the safety phase and the efficacy phase. Change in histological evaluation according to the modified Marsh classification served as the primary endpoint.
    In all, 16 adults participated in the study. No serious adverse events occurred during the trial and no patients withdrew during the trial. The average score for the gastrointestinal subcategory of the celiac disease quality (CDQ) was relatively high throughout the study, indicating that AN-PEP was well tolerated.
    In the efficacy phase, the team saw no significant deterioration in the CDQ scores of patients consuming gluten with placebo or gluten with AN-PEP, nor did they observe any other differences between the groups. During the efficacy phase, neither the placebo nor the AN-PEP group showed significant antibody titers. IgA-EM concentrations remained negative in both groups.
    The team excluded two patients from entering the efficacy phase because their mucosa showed an increase of two Marsh steps after the safety phase, yet with undetectable serum antibodies. A total of 14 patients were considered histologically stable on gluten with AN-PEP.
    Also, after the efficacy phase, the team saw no significant deterioration in immunohistological and flow cytometric evaluation in the group consuming placebo compared to the group receiving AN-PEP.
    Furthermore, in four out of seven patients on placebo, IgA-tTG deposit staining increased after two weeks of gluten intake compared to baseline.
    In the seven patients receiving AN-PEP, one patient showed increased and one showed decreased IgA-tTG deposits.
    AN–PEP appears to be well tolerated. However, the primary endpoint was not met due to lack of clinical deterioration upon placebo, impeding an effect of AN–PEP.
    The research team included Greetje J Tack, Jolanda MW van de Water, Chris J Mulder of the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Centre in Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Engelina MC Kooy-Winkelaar, Jeroen van Bergen, and Frits Koning of the Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Centre in Leiden, The Netherlands; Petra Bonnet, B Mary E von Blomberg, and Marco WJ Schreurs from the Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Centre, in Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Anita CE Vreugdenhil, with Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital Maastricht in Maastricht, The Netherlands; and Ilma Korponay-Szabo, with the Department of Paediatrics, University of Debrecen in Hungary, and the Paediatric Research Centre, University of Tampere, in Tampere, Finland.
    Source:
    World Journal of Gastroenterology, 10/03/2013

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 02/27/2014 - For many people with celiac disease, one of the numerous downsides of the condition is the constant threat of an adverse reaction triggered by accidental gluten consumption. Because reactions to gluten ingestion can be severe for some celiac patients, many clinicians are looking to see if anything can be done to lessen the effects gluten reactions in celiac patients once they have started.
    A team of researchers sought to provide at least one possible answer by looking into the safety and efficacy of Aspergillus niger prolyl endoprotease (AN-PEP) to lessen effects gluten reactions in celiac patients. The researchers included G.J. Tack, J.M. van de Water, M.J. Bruins, E.M Kooy-Winkelaar, J. van Bergen, P. Bonnet, A.C. Vreugdenhil, I. Korponay-Szabo, L. Edens, B.M. von Blomberg, M.W. Schreurs, C.J. Mulder, and F. Koning. They are all affiliated with the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Centre, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    For their study, the team enrolled 16 adults with celiac disease as confirmed by positive blood test and biopsy-confirmed subtotal or total villous atrophy. All patients were following a strict gluten-free diet, and showed normalized antibodies and mucosal healing classified as Marsh 0 or I.
    In their randomized double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study, the team had patients consume wheat toast, totaling about 7 grams of gluten per day, with AN-PEP for a two-week safety phase. After a two-week washout period with adherence of the usual gluten-free diet, 14 patients were randomized to receive gluten with either AN-PEP or placebo for there two-week efficacy phase.
    Baseline measurements included complaints, quality-of-life, serum antibodies, immuno-phenotyping of T-cells and duodenal mucosa immuno-histology. The team collected both serum samples and quality of life questionnaires during and after the safety, washout and efficacy phase. They conducted duodenal biopsies after both safety and efficacy phases. The primary endpoint was a change in histological evaluation according to the modified Marsh classification.
    None of the sixteen adults in the study suffered serious adverse events, and no patients withdrew during the trial. Overall scores for the gastrointestinal subcategory of the celiac disease quality (CDQ) remains fairly high throughout the study, indicating that AN-PEP was well tolerated. Through the efficacy phase, CDQ scores for patients consuming gluten with placebo or gluten with AN-PEP remained largely unchanged, and researchers observed no differences between the groups. Moreover, neither the placebo group nor the AN-PEP group developed significant antibody titers, and IgA-EM concentrations remained negative for both groups.
    The team excluded two patients from entering the efficacy phase because their mucosa showed an increase of two Marsh steps after the safety phase, even though their serum antibodies remained undetectable.
    A total of 14 patients were considered histologically stable on gluten with AN-PEP. Also after the efficacy phase, the team saw no significant deterioration in immunohistological and flow cytometric values between the group consuming placebo compared to the group receiving AN-PEP.
    Furthermore, compared to baseline, after two weeks of gluten four out of seven patients on placebo showed increased IgA-tTG deposit staining. In the seven patients receiving AN-PEP, one patient showed increased and one showed decreased IgA-tTG deposits.
    AN-PEP appears to be well tolerated. However, the primary endpoint was not met due to lack of clinical deterioration upon placebo, impeding an effect of AN-PEP.
    Source:
    World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Sep 21;19(35):5837-47. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i35.5837.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/02/2014 - Despite following a gluten-free diet, many people with celiac disease continue to have symptoms, and to suffer from ongoing small intestinal inflammation. Can a drug be created to alleviate such symptoms and inflammation, and protect celiacs on a gluten-free diet against small amounts of gluten contamination?
    San Carlos California-based Alvine Pharmaceuticals is conducting a phase 2 trial to determine whether their drug, ALV003, an orally administered mixture of 2 recombinant gluten-specific proteases can protect celiac disease patients from gluten-induced mucosal damage. For this trial, Alvine is working with researchers Marja-Leena Lähdeaho, Katri Kaukinen, Kaija Laurila, Pekka Vuotikka, Olli-Pekka Koivurova, Tiina Kärjä-Lahdensuu, Annette Marcantonio, Daniel C. Adelman, and Markku Mäki.
    They are affiliated with the School of Medicine and Tampere University Hospital at the University of Tampere; the Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery at Tampere University Hospital and School of Medicine at the University of Tampere, and FinnMedi Oy in Tampere, Finland; the Department of Medicine at Seinäjoki Central Hospital in Seinäjoki, Finland; Liikuntaklinikka, Oulu Diakonissalaitos; and Terveys, Oulu Diakonissalaitos, Oulu, Finland.
    For their Phase 2 trial, the research team first established two grams of gluten per day as the optimal challenge dose for their 6-week gluten study. They then randomly assigned 20 adults with biopsy-proven celiac disease to receive ALV003, and twenty-one to receive a placebo. Both groups also received 2 grams of gluten each day. The team conducted duodenal biopsies at baseline, and after gluten challenge, focusing on the ratio of villus height to crypt depth and densities of intraepithelial lymphocytes.
    A total of seven patients dropped out due to adverse reactions. Four were receiving ALV003, and three were receiving the placebo. Sixteen patients given ALV003 and 18 given placebo were eligible for efficacy evaluation. Biopsies from subjects in the placebo group showed evidence of mucosal injury after gluten challenge, with average villus height to crypt depth ratio changed from 2.8 before challenge to 2.0 afterward. (P = .0007; density of CD3þ intraepithelial lymphocytes changed from 61 to 91 cells/mm after challenge; P = .0003).
    However, the team saw no significant mucosal deterioration in biopsies from the ALV003 group. The two groups showed no significant differences in symptoms, though they did show substantial differences in morphologic changes, and CD3þ intraepithelial lymphocyte counts differed significantly from baseline to week 6 (P = .0133 and P = .0123, respectively). This small, but important, step means that ALV003 did provide significant protection against gluten-induced gut damage for people with celiac disease on an otherwise gluten-free diet, which means that Alvine can continue to the next phases in the development process.
    If successful, glutenase ALV003 will be the first drug to protect people with celiac disease against gut damage from small amounts of gluten.
    Source:
    Clinicaltrial.gov, Numbers: NCT00959114 and NCT0125569

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/14/2014 - A new drug designed to prevent gluten uptake in the gut is showing some promise for the treatment of celiac disease.
    The drug, larazotide acetate, significantly reduced symptoms in a large double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The drug prevents gluten uptake by closing tight junctions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
    The drug is intended to supplement, rather than replace, the gluten-free diet that makes up the standard celiac disease treatment. Specifically, the drug is designed to help patients who continue to experience symptoms despite efforts to avoid gluten, and will not allow celiac patients to eat gluten with impunity.
    Some experts are cautioning celiac disease patients against high expectations. Joseph A. Murray, MD, of the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, said that, even if the drug is approved, it would not be a cure for celiac disease, but just another way to control symptoms for those already on a gluten-free diet.
    Daniel Leffler, MD, director of research at the Celiac Center of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, in Boston, called the news “exciting.” Dr. Leffler predicted that, if approved, the drug would be a useful addition to standard celiac disease treatment.
    Source:
    Gastroenterology and Endoscopy News. SEPTEMBER 2014 | VOLUME: 65:9

  • Recent Articles

    Tammy Rhodes
    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
    I have already lived through two natural disasters. Neither of which I ever want to experience again, but they taught me a very valuable lesson, which is why I created a Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag (see link below). Here’s my story. If you’ve ever lived in or visited the Los Angeles area, you’re probably familiar with the Santa Ana winds and how bitter sweet they are. Sweet for cleaning the air and leaving the skies a brilliant crystal blue, and bitter for the power outages and potential brush fires that might ensue.  It was one of those bitter nights where the Santa Ana winds were howling, and we had subsequently lost our power. We had to drive over an hour just to find a restaurant so we could eat dinner. I remember vividly seeing the glow of a brush fire on the upper hillside of the San Gabriel Mountains, a good distance from our neighborhood. I really didn’t think much of it, given that it seemed so far from where we lived, and I was hungry! After we ate, we headed back home to a very dark house and called it a night. 
    That’s where the story takes a dangerous turn….about 3:15am. I awoke to the TV blaring loudly, along with the lights shining brightly. Our power was back on! I proceeded to walk throughout the house turning everything off at exactly the same time our neighbor, who was told to evacuate our street, saw me through our window, assuming I knew that our hillside was ablaze with flames. Flames that were shooting 50 feet into the air. I went back to bed and fell fast asleep. The fire department was assured we had left because our house was dark and quiet again. Two hours had passed.  I suddenly awoke to screams coming from a family member yelling, “fire, fire, fire”! Flames were shooting straight up into the sky, just blocks from our house. We lived on a private drive with only one way in and one way out.  The entrance to our street was full of smoke and the fire fighters were doing their best to save our neighbors homes. We literally had enough time to grab our dogs, pile into the car, and speed to safety. As we were coming down our street, fire trucks passed us with sirens blaring, and I wondered if I would ever see my house and our possessions ever again. Where do we go? Who do we turn to? Are shelters a safe option? 
    When our daughter was almost three years old, we left the West Coast and relocated to Northern Illinois. A place where severe weather is a common occurrence. Since the age of two, I noticed that my daughter appeared gaunt, had an incredibly distended belly, along with gas, stomach pain, low weight, slow growth, unusual looking stool, and a dislike for pizza, hotdog buns, crackers, Toast, etc. The phone call from our doctor overwhelmed me.  She was diagnosed with Celiac Disease. I broke down into tears sobbing. What am I going to feed my child? Gluten is everywhere.
    After being scoped at Children's Hospital of Chicago, and my daughters Celiac Disease officially confirmed, I worried about her getting all the nutrients her under nourished body so desperately needed. I already knew she had a peanut allergy from blood tests, but just assumed she would be safe with other nuts. I was so horribly wrong. After feeding her a small bite of a pistachio, which she immediately spit out, nuts would become her enemy. Her anaphylactic reaction came within minutes of taking a bite of that pistachio. She was complaining of horrible stomach cramps when the vomiting set in. She then went limp and starting welting. We called 911.
    Now we never leave home without our Epipens and our gluten free food supplies. We analyze every food label. We are hyper vigilant about cross contamination. We are constantly looking for welts and praying for no stomach pain. We are always prepared and on guard. It's just what we do now. Anything to protect our child, our love...like so many other parents out there have to do every moment of ever day!  
    Then, my second brush with a natural disaster happened, without any notice, leaving us once again scrambling to find a safe place to shelter. It was a warm and muggy summer morning, and my husband was away on a business trip leaving my young daughter and me to enjoy our summer day. Our Severe Weather Alert Radio was going off, again, as I continued getting our daughter ready for gymnastics.  Having gotten used to the (what seemed to be daily) “Severe Thunderstorm warning,” I didn’t pay much attention to it. I continued downstairs with my daughter and our dog, when I caught a glimpse out the window of an incredibly black looking cloud. By the time I got downstairs, I saw the cover to our grill literally shoot straight up into the air. Because we didn’t have a fenced in yard, I quickly ran outside and chased the cover, when subsequently, I saw my neighbor’s lawn furniture blow pass me. I quickly realized I made a big mistake going outside. As I ran back inside, I heard debris hitting the front of our home.  Our dog was the first one to the basement door! As we sat huddled in the dark corner of our basement, I was once again thinking where are we going to go if our house is destroyed. I was not prepared, and I should have been. I should have learned my lesson the first time. Once the storm passed, we quickly realized we were without power and most of our trees were destroyed. We were lucky that our house had minimal damage, but that wasn’t true for most of the area surrounding us.  We were without power for five days. We lost most of our food - our gluten free food.
    That is when I knew we had to be prepared. No more winging it. We couldn’t take a chance like that ever again. We were “lucky” one too many times. We were very fortunate that we did not lose our home to the Los Angeles wildfire, and only had minimal damage from the severe storm which hit our home in Illinois.
      
    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764