• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    72,300
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    Maria1172
    Newest Member
    Maria1172
    Joined
  • Announcements

    • admin

      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
  • 0

    FINE MAPPING MHC REGION ADDS NEW INFO ON GENETIC RISK FOR CELIAC DISEASE


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 06/03/2015 - Although dietary gluten is the trigger for celiac disease, risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    Photo: CC--Shawn AllenA team of researchers recently set out to fine map the MHC association signal to identify additional celiac disease risk factors independent of the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles. The researchers included J. Gutierrez-Achury, A. Zhernakova, S.L. Pulit, G. Trynka, K.A. Hunt, J. Romanos, S. Raychaudhuri, D.A. van Heel, C. Wijmenga, and P.I. de Bakker.

    Their team fine mapped the MHC association signal looking for risk factors other than the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles, and the found five new associations that account for 18% of the genetic risk.

    Taking these new loci together with the 57 known non-MHC loci, genetic variation can now explain up to 48% of celiac disease heritability.

    Nailing down exactly what genetic factors influence the heritability of celiac disease will help researchers to better understand the disease, and to develop better treatments and screening options.

    Research team members are variously affiliated with the Department of Genetics, University Medical Center, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands, the Department of Medical Genetics at the Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Cambridge, UK, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK, the Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, the Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, the Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK, the Department of Medical Genetics, Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, and with the Department of Epidemiology, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    Source:


    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Shawn Allen
    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    There are no comments to display.



    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoticons maximum are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   12 Members, 1 Anonymous, 660 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 06/26/2007 - The results of a study recently published in the online science journal Nature Genetics have revealed a previously unknown genetic risk factor for celiac disease. An international team of researchers set out to study the genetic causes of intestinal inflammatory disorders. When the study began, it was well known that individuals with celiac disease have specific tissue types that identify wheat proteins. Why healthy individuals with the same tissue type failed to develop celiac symptoms or celiac disease remained unknown, and was a key question the team set out to answer. The team was led David van Heel, Professor of Gastrointestinal Genetics at Queen Mary, University of London. The Human Genome Project and the Hap Map Project played key support roles in the study.
    The results show that a protective DNA sequence in a specific gene segment, generally found in healthy individuals are missing in people with celiac disease. The research team evaluated genome data of 778 individuals with celiac disease and 1,422 controls non-celiacs within the British, Irish and Dutch populations.
    Key DNA Sequence Missing in Celiacs
    Researchers discovered that, compared to people with celiac disease, healthy people more commonly have a DNA sequence in the interleukin-2 and interleukin-21 gene region that protects against celiac disease. Interleukin-2 and interleukin-21 are cytokine proteins that are secreted by white blood cells, and which control inflammation. In people with celiac disease, the protective DNA sequence most likely leads to lesser amounts of these cytokines being produced, which weakens the defense against intestinal inflammation.
    Breakthrough in Better Understanding Risk Factors for Development of Celiac Disease
    About 1 in 133 people develop the disease, but, so far, predicting those at risk to develop the disease has been haphazard at best. Present methods of genetic testing can only narrow down the search to about 30% of the general population. These results give doctors a means to discover what further genetic risk factors leave people vulnerable to developing celiac disease.
    Queen Mary, University of London Press Release - Public release date: 10-Jun-2007
    health writer who lives in San Francisco and is a frequent author of articles for Celiac.com.

    Dr. Scot Lewey
    This article appeared in the Spring 2008 edition of Celiac.com's Scott-Free Newsletter.
    Celiac.com 08/17/2008 - Are you confused about genetic testing for celiac disease? Do you want to know what tests you should request and which laboratory to use?  Have you already had celiac DQ genetic testing but are not sure what the results mean or what your risk is of developing celiac disease or gluten sensitivity? These are the questions I will answer in the next few pages. 
    What is HLA DQ celiac genetic testing?
    To understand celiac DQ genetics and the risk estimates you must also understand how the DQ types are determined and some basic terminology.  Each of us has 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs received from our parents.  We all have two copies of chromosome 6, one from each parent.  Homozygous is when a person has two copies of the same gene, one from each parent.  Our white blood cells (leukocytes) have proteins called human leukocyte antigens or HLA proteins that are inherited from our parents.  The genetic code that determines our HLA patterns resides on chromosome 6.  We all have two DQ patterns, one from each of parents, such that we are all DQx/DQx, where x is a number between 1 and 9.  I am DQ2/DQ7 and my wife is DQ2/DQ5.  We are both therefore heterozygous for DQ2.  That is, we have only one copy of DQ2.  Scott Adams, the founder of celiac.com is DQ8/DQ8.  He is homozygous for DQ8.  There are several HLA patterns.  Some are proteins that reside within cells and others are on the outer surface of cells, and are called class II.  The class II HLA proteins have very important immune functions.  There are several class II HLA protein types but DQ have been found to be important in celiac disease, specifically DQ2 and DQ8. 
    What does it mean to be homozygous or heterozygous for celiac genes?
    Homozygous means that you have two copies e.g.  DQ2/DQ2, DQ8/DQ8 whereas heterozygous means you have one copy of DQ2 or DQ8.  Some people have one copy of DQ2 and one of DQ8 (DQ2/DQ8) and they have a greater risk for celiac disease than someone with only one copy of either DQ2 or DQ8 but not as great a risk as someone with two copies of DQ2 (DQ2/DQ2).  Since DQ2 is associated with a greater risk of celiac disease than DQ8, then one copy of DQ2 plus a DQ8 (DQ2/DQ8) indicates a higher risk than having two copies of DQ8 (DQ8/DQ8).  Hopefully, I have not lost you yet but if I have please continue to read on because the information that follows will still be helpful to you.
    What is this alpha and beta subunit typing and why is it important?
    HLA DQ typing consists of two subunits of the DQ molecule, an alpha and beta subunit.  So, both DQ types that indicate a risk of celiac disease, DQ2 and DQ8, are made up of two protein subunits designated alpha and beta.  They determine the complex letter and number combinations reported.  For example, the full DQ2 molecule is typically HLA DQA1*05xx DQB1*02xx.  The A1 is the alpha unit and the B1 is the beta subunit. 
    The beta subunit is the most important component of the DQ molecule, but the alpha subunit has also been shown to carry an increased risk for celiac disease.  Unfortunately, since testing for both is more complicated and expensive it is not always done. 
    Also, some think that since the beta subunit carries most of the risk and the alpha unit only minor risk, testing for only the beta subunit is adequate.  Several clinical laboratories have chosen this approach.  They only test for, and report on, DQ2 and DQ8 based on beta subunit types, so their results typically look like this: HLA DQB1*02 detected, DQ2 positive, etc.  This is the policy of the laboratory at Bonfils, who also does testing for Quest Diagnostics and Enterolab as well as many hospitals.  However, the alpha subunit of DQ2 also carries some risk for celiac disease. 
    What if you are positive for the beta subunit of DQ2 or DQ8 by testing from Bonfils, Enterolab or Quest?
    If the beta subunit is present then Bonfils, Enterolab and Quest tests will report DQ2 and/or DQ8 positive.  Sometimes the report will just report DQ2 negative and DQ8 negative, especially when a hospital is reporting the results obtained from Bonfils.  However, when the beta subunit is not present and they report DQ2 negative and/or DQ8 negative, it is still possible that an alpha subunit could be present.  Results reported in this manner are, in my opinion, potentially misleading.  I believe they can lead a doctor to assume that an individual is not at increased risk for, or cannot have celiac disease, when this may or may not be true.  Unfortunately, the patient in such circumstances may be told that they can not have celiac disease, yet they may not only be at risk for the disease, they may well have it while being told it is impossible or extremely improbable. 
    What does Prometheus do and how do they report their results?
    Prometheus, like Kimball and LabCorp, includes alpha and beta subunit typing.  In the past they did not indicate whether there was one or two copies of DQ2 or DQ8 if someone was positive.  If a patient was DQ2 and DQ8 positive then these labs reported their full genetic DQ type.  However, if one or the other was negative, their exact genotype was not reported.  Recently, not only has Prometheus started reporting the full DQ2 and DQ8 genotype, but they are now reporting whether someone is homozygous or heterozygous as well.  They are also reporting the relative risk for celiac disease based on the pattern shown by testing.  However, they are still not reporting the other DQ types. 
    What is the advantage of the new Prometheus reporting?
    Since Prometheus results now include a calculation of the individual’s risk of celiac disease, compared with the general population, the patient can see how high their risk of celiac disease is, as well as being able to estimate the risk for their parents and their children. 
    As you can see, the risk of celiac disease has a wide range of possibilities, which depend on the individual’s DQ results.  This risk can be below 0.1% if you do not have any portion of the high-risk genes DQ2 and DQ8.  On the other hand, the risk may be very high (more than 31 times the risk of the general population) if you have two copies of the full complement of DQ2 molecule.  Again, I would like to point out that if you have DQ2/DQ2, DQ2/DQ8, or DQ8/DQ8, then both of your parents and all of your children have to have at least one copy of an at-risk celiac gene.  Your child’s complete type will depend on the DQ contribution from their other parent. 
    What other laboratories do both alpha and beta subunit testing?
    Kimball Genetics and LabCorp also report both alpha and beta subunit results but the advantage of their testing is that they report the other specific DQ types detected.  Gluten sensitivity is found in all DQ types except DQ4.  Other DQ types, particularly DQ1, DQ5, are associated with a risk of gluten related neurological and skin problems.  Microscopic colitis, food allergies and oral allergy syndrome reactions are also found in association with other DQ types.  Though Enterolab does report other DQ types, including these markers of risk for gluten sensitivity, they do not test for, or report, alpha subunits since their DQ testing is done by Bonfils.  Based on the limited data I have accumulated so far, DQ2 and DQ8 also seem to carry a risk of mastocytic enterocolitis. 
    What if you do not have DQ2 or DQ8?
    According to data accumulated, but as of February 2008, not yet published by Dr. Ken Fine, unless you are DQ4/DQ4 you are still at risk for being sensitive to or intolerant of gluten.  According to Fine’s fecal gliadin antibody data all DQ types except for DQ4 carry a risk of gluten sensitivity.  My clinical experience supports this claim.  The presence of one copy of DQ1, DQ3, DQ5, DQ6, DQ7, or DQ9, even with one DQ4, is associated with a risk for elevated stool gliadin antibody and symptoms of gluten sensitivity that responds to a gluten free diet. 
    What if your genetic testing was done by Enterolab, Quest, Bonfils or a hospital that utilized Bonfils, and it indicated that you were DQ2 and DQ8 negative? 
    Since Bonfils does not test for the alpha subunit and they perform the testing for Enerolab and Quest, you may not be completely negative for DQ2 or DQ8.  You do not have the beta subunits associated with the highest risk for celiac disease.  For example, you could be “half-DQ2” positive and still be genetically at risk for the autoimmune form of gluten sensitivity that we know as celiac disease, along with all of its risks. 
    What if you have not yet had celiac DQ genetic testing? 
    I recommend that everyone have the testing.  I realize that most insurance companies and doctors, including some celiac experts, would disagree with me.  However, the value of DQ testing is that it can provide a great deal of information about your risk, especially if you have testing done for both alpha and beta subunits.  I recommend that you have testing done by Kimball Genetics, LabCorp or Prometheus if you have not yet had genetic testing done.  If your insurance or budget does not allow for this more expensive testing, but does cover testing by Quest or Bonfils or you can afford the $159 that Enterolab charges, then I still recommend that you get DQ testing using one of these laboratories.  You just need to be aware of the limitations of the results as I have reviewed them here.
    What are the advantages of DQ testing through Kimball Genetics?
    Kimball can perform testing on either blood or mouth swab samples.  The tests can be ordered without a doctor’s order.  You can purchase testing on mouth swab sample for $345.  The advantages of Kimball’s tests include alpha and beta subunit testing and full DQ typing to determine if you carry the other gluten sensitive DQ patterns besides DQ2 and DQ8.
    What about LabCorp?
    LabCorp also provides both alpha and beta subunit testing and they report the other DQ types.  They only provide testing on blood samples, a doctor must order the testing, and preauthorization is required. 
    Do health insurance companies cover celiac DQ genetic testing?
    Many but not all health insurance companies cover HLA DQ testing and almost all require preauthorization.  The ICD9 diagnostic codes that typically are honored are V18.5 genetic predisposition for gastrointestinal disease; V84.8, genetic predisposition for other diseases; and 579.0, celiac disease. 
    Why are the genetics so difficult to understand and why are so many doctors either unaware of the testing or reluctant to order the tests?
    I write and speak about DQ genetic testing frequently, and try to get testing for as many of my patients as possible.  However, many insurance companies will not cover the cost of these tests.  Most primary care doctors and even some GI doctors are completely unaware of the existence of a genetic test for celiac disease.  The testing is difficult to understand and the reporting by some labs is very confusing and even misleading. 
    I realize that understanding the DQ genetics is difficult for the average layperson.  Most scientists and doctors don’t understand this information, so don’t despair if you are having difficulty following this or understanding your results, and don’t be surprised if your doctor does not understand them either.  However, you do not need to completely understand the complexities of HLA typing to locate your DQ types and determine your risk of celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, etc. 
    Then what do you need to know or remember about celiac DQ genetics?
    Hopefully, you now understand enough to know that you should consider having celiac DQ testing, if possible, especially if you have symptoms, laboratory tests, or an intestinal biopsy that is suggestive of celiac disease.  You should also know that the testing can be done on blood or mouth swabs, and many insurance companies will cover the testing but most require pre-authorization.  You should also be aware that the testing is available without a doctor’s order, if you are willing to pay for it, and that some tests are better than others.  I also hope you understand that the tests can help you determine your risk for celiac disease or if you are at risk for non-celiac gluten sensitivity.  You should also know that your results, especially when combined with those of one or more family members, may help you determine, to some degree, the risks for your parents and your children.  You should also know what laboratories offer testing, what test codes your doctor should use to order the tests, and that the absence of DQ2 or DQ8 does not exclude risk of gluten sensitivity or intolerance.  Depending on what laboratory conducts your DQ testing, your results also may fail to exclude your risk of celiac disease. 
    What if I am still confused or I don’t know how to interpret my genetic results or my previous evaluation for celiac disease?
    If you are still confused by your test results or want more a personalized review of your results, symptoms or diagnostic tests I recommend that you see a physician who is an expert in celiac disease and understands these tests.  I also offer on-line consultation for a reasonable fee through a secure consultation site, www.medem.com.  You simply register (registration is free) for secure on-line communication and request a consultation.  The consultation fee is $50, and some insurance companies will cover on-line communication.  I also see many patients from outside of Colorado Springs for consultation if you are willing to travel here. 


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 09/09/2011 - A team of researchers recently set out to assess the effects of milk-feeding behavior and the HLA-DQ genotype on intestinal colonization of Bacteroides species in infants with a risk of developing celiac disease.
    The research team included E. Sánchez, G. De Palma, A. Capilla, E. Nova, T. Pozo, G. Castillejo, V. Varea, A. Marcos, J. A. Garrote, I. Polanco, A. López, C. Ribes-Koninckx, M. D. García-Novo, C. Calvo, L. Ortigosa, F. Palau, and Y. Sanz.
    They are affiliated with the Ecofisiología Microbiana y Nutrición, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC) in Valencia, Spain.
    The team studied 75 full-term newborns with at least one first-degree relative who suffered from celiac disease. They classified the newborns according to milk-feeding practice (breast-fed or formula fed) and HLA-DQ genotype, which indicates high or low genetic risk.
    The team used PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to analyze stools at 7 days, 1 month, and 4 months. They found that formula-fed infants showed greater Bacteroides species diversity than did breast-fed infants.  Breast-fed infants showed a higher prevalence of Bacteroides uniformis at 1 and 4 months of age, while formula-fed infants had a higher prevalence of B. intestinalis at all sampling times, of B. caccae at 7 days and 4 months, and of B. plebeius at 4 months.
    Infants with low genetic risk showed greater colonization of B. ovatus, B. plebeius, and B. uniformis, while those with high genetic risk showed a greater colonization of B. vulgatus.
    Among breast-fed infants, those with low genetic risk had greater colonization of B. uniformis than those with high genetic risk, who showed higher rates of B. vulgatus.
    Among formula-fed infants, the prevalence of B. ovatus and B. plebeius was increased in those with low genetic risk, while the presence of B. vulgatus was greater in those with high genetic risk.
    The results indicate that both the type of milk feeding and the HLA-DQ genotype influence the types of Bacteroides that colonize in the intestinal tract, and possibly also influence risk for developing celiac disease.
    Source:

    Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Aug;77(15):5316-23. Epub 2011 Jun 3.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/24/2013 - Researchers don't know much about the genetic history of celiac disease. They know especially little about the age of specific gene sequences that leave people at risk for developing celiac disease.
    A recent case study provides a small bit of information about that question. The information was gathered by a team of researchers looking into the case of a young, first century AD woman, found in the archaeological site of Cosa. The woman's skeleton showed clinical signs of malnutrition, such as short height, osteoporosis, dental enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia, indirect sign of anemia, all strongly suggestive for celiac disease.
    The research team included G. Gasbarrini, O. Rickards, C. Martínez-Labarga, E. Pacciani, F. Chilleri, L. Laterza, G. Marangi, F. Scaldaferri, and A. Gasbarrini. They are affiliated with the Ricerca in Medicina Foundation NGO, Falcone and Borsellino Gallery, in Bologna, Italy.
    However, initial inspection of the woman's bones did not provide answers about the genetics that might confirm that these traits were, in fact, associated directly with celiac disease.
    To do that, the team needed to examine her human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II polymorphism. That required extracting DNA from a bone sample and a tooth and genotyping HLA using three HLA-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms for DQ8, DQ2.2 and DQ2.5, specifically associated to celiac disease.
    The results showed that the woman did in fact carry HLA DQ 2.5, the haplotype associated to the highest risk of celiac disease. This is the first time that researcher have documented the presence of a celiac-associated HLA haplotype in an archaeological specimen.
    The results show that the genetic markers associated with high risk of celiac disease are at least a couple of thousand years old.
    Source:
    World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct 7;18(37):5300-4. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i37.5300.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/26/2018 - Emily Dickson is one of Canada’s top athletes. As a world-class competitor in the biathlon, the event that combines cross-country skiing with shooting marksmanship, Emily Dickson was familiar with a demanding routine of training and competition. After discovering she had celiac disease, Dickson is using her diagnosis and gluten-free diet a fuel to help her get her mojo back.
    Just a few years ago, Dickson dominated her peers nationally and won a gold medal at Canada Games for both pursuit and team relay. She also won silver in the sprint and bronze in the individual race. But just as she was set to reach her peak, Dickson found herself in an agonizing battle. She was suffering a mysterious loss of strength and endurance, which itself caused huge anxiety for Dickson. As a result of these physical and mental pressures, Dickson slipped from her perch as one of Canada's most promising young biathletes.
    Eventually, in September 2016, she was diagnosed with celiac disease. Before the diagnosis, Dickson said, she had “a lot of fatigue, I just felt tired in training all the time and I wasn't responding to my training and I wasn't recovering well and I had a few things going on, but nothing that pointed to celiac.”
    It took a little over a year for Dickson to eliminate gluten, and begin to heal her body. She still hasn’t fully recovered, which makes competing more of a challenge, but, she says improving steadily, and expects to be fully recovered in the next few months. Dickson’s diagnosis was prompted when her older sister Kate tested positive for celiac, which carries a hereditary component. "Once we figured out it was celiac and we looked at all the symptoms it all made sense,” said Dickson.
    Dickson’s own positive test proved to be both a revelation and a catalyst for her own goals as an athlete. Armed with there new diagnosis, a gluten-free diet, and a body that is steadily healing, Dickson is looking to reap the benefits of improved strength, recovery and endurance to ramp up her training and competition results.
    Keep your eyes open for the 20-year-old native of Burns Lake, British Columbia. Next season, she will be competing internationally, making a big jump to the senior ranks, and hopefully a regular next on the IBU Cup tour.
    Read more at princegeorgecitizen.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/25/2018 - A team of Yale University researchers discovered that bacteria in the small intestine can travel to other organs and trigger an autoimmune response. In this case, they looked at Enterococcus gallinarum, which can travel beyond the gut to the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. The research could be helpful for treating type 1 diabetes, lupus, and celiac disease.
    In autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, lupus, and celiac disease, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues. Autoimmune disease affects nearly 24 million people in the United States. 
    In their study, a team of Yale University researchers discovered that bacteria in the small intestine can travel to other organs and trigger an autoimmune response. In this case, they looked at Enterococcus gallinarum, which can travel beyond the gut to the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. They found that E. gallinarum triggered an autoimmune response in the mice when it traveled beyond the gut.
    They also found that the response can be countered by using antibiotics or vaccines to suppress the autoimmune reaction and prevent the bacterium from growing. The researchers were able to duplicate this mechanism using cultured human liver cells, and they also found the bacteria E. gallinarum in the livers of people with autoimmune disease.
    The team found that administering an antibiotic or vaccine to target E. gallinarum suppressed the autoimmune reaction in the mice and prevented the bacterium from growing. "When we blocked the pathway leading to inflammation," says senior study author Martin Kriegel, "we could reverse the effect of this bug on autoimmunity."
    Team research team plans to further investigate the biological mechanisms that are associated with E. gallinarum, along with the potential implications for systemic lupus and autoimmune liver disease.
    This study indicates that gut bacteria may be the key to treating chronic autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus and autoimmune liver disease. Numerous autoimmune conditions have been linked to gut bacteria.
    Read the full study in Science.

    Tammy Rhodes
    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
    I have already lived through two natural disasters. Neither of which I ever want to experience again, but they taught me a very valuable lesson, which is why I created a Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag (see link below). Here’s my story. If you’ve ever lived in or visited the Los Angeles area, you’re probably familiar with the Santa Ana winds and how bitter sweet they are. Sweet for cleaning the air and leaving the skies a brilliant crystal blue, and bitter for the power outages and potential brush fires that might ensue.  It was one of those bitter nights where the Santa Ana winds were howling, and we had subsequently lost our power. We had to drive over an hour just to find a restaurant so we could eat dinner. I remember vividly seeing the glow of a brush fire on the upper hillside of the San Gabriel Mountains, a good distance from our neighborhood. I really didn’t think much of it, given that it seemed so far from where we lived, and I was hungry! After we ate, we headed back home to a very dark house and called it a night. 
    That’s where the story takes a dangerous turn….about 3:15am. I awoke to the TV blaring loudly, along with the lights shining brightly. Our power was back on! I proceeded to walk throughout the house turning everything off at exactly the same time our neighbor, who was told to evacuate our street, saw me through our window, assuming I knew that our hillside was ablaze with flames. Flames that were shooting 50 feet into the air. I went back to bed and fell fast asleep. The fire department was assured we had left because our house was dark and quiet again. Two hours had passed.  I suddenly awoke to screams coming from a family member yelling, “fire, fire, fire”! Flames were shooting straight up into the sky, just blocks from our house. We lived on a private drive with only one way in and one way out.  The entrance to our street was full of smoke and the fire fighters were doing their best to save our neighbors homes. We literally had enough time to grab our dogs, pile into the car, and speed to safety. As we were coming down our street, fire trucks passed us with sirens blaring, and I wondered if I would ever see my house and our possessions ever again. Where do we go? Who do we turn to? Are shelters a safe option? 
    When our daughter was almost three years old, we left the West Coast and relocated to Northern Illinois. A place where severe weather is a common occurrence. Since the age of two, I noticed that my daughter appeared gaunt, had an incredibly distended belly, along with gas, stomach pain, low weight, slow growth, unusual looking stool, and a dislike for pizza, hotdog buns, crackers, Toast, etc. The phone call from our doctor overwhelmed me.  She was diagnosed with Celiac Disease. I broke down into tears sobbing. What am I going to feed my child? Gluten is everywhere.
    After being scoped at Children's Hospital of Chicago, and my daughters Celiac Disease officially confirmed, I worried about her getting all the nutrients her under nourished body so desperately needed. I already knew she had a peanut allergy from blood tests, but just assumed she would be safe with other nuts. I was so horribly wrong. After feeding her a small bite of a pistachio, which she immediately spit out, nuts would become her enemy. Her anaphylactic reaction came within minutes of taking a bite of that pistachio. She was complaining of horrible stomach cramps when the vomiting set in. She then went limp and starting welting. We called 911.
    Now we never leave home without our Epipens and our gluten free food supplies. We analyze every food label. We are hyper vigilant about cross contamination. We are constantly looking for welts and praying for no stomach pain. We are always prepared and on guard. It's just what we do now. Anything to protect our child, our love...like so many other parents out there have to do every moment of ever day!  
    Then, my second brush with a natural disaster happened, without any notice, leaving us once again scrambling to find a safe place to shelter. It was a warm and muggy summer morning, and my husband was away on a business trip leaving my young daughter and me to enjoy our summer day. Our Severe Weather Alert Radio was going off, again, as I continued getting our daughter ready for gymnastics.  Having gotten used to the (what seemed to be daily) “Severe Thunderstorm warning,” I didn’t pay much attention to it. I continued downstairs with my daughter and our dog, when I caught a glimpse out the window of an incredibly black looking cloud. By the time I got downstairs, I saw the cover to our grill literally shoot straight up into the air. Because we didn’t have a fenced in yard, I quickly ran outside and chased the cover, when subsequently, I saw my neighbor’s lawn furniture blow pass me. I quickly realized I made a big mistake going outside. As I ran back inside, I heard debris hitting the front of our home.  Our dog was the first one to the basement door! As we sat huddled in the dark corner of our basement, I was once again thinking where are we going to go if our house is destroyed. I was not prepared, and I should have been. I should have learned my lesson the first time. Once the storm passed, we quickly realized we were without power and most of our trees were destroyed. We were lucky that our house had minimal damage, but that wasn’t true for most of the area surrounding us.  We were without power for five days. We lost most of our food - our gluten free food.
    That is when I knew we had to be prepared. No more winging it. We couldn’t take a chance like that ever again. We were “lucky” one too many times. We were very fortunate that we did not lose our home to the Los Angeles wildfire, and only had minimal damage from the severe storm which hit our home in Illinois.
      
    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.