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    Jefferson Adams is a freelance writer living in San Francisco. He has covered Health News for Examiner.com, and provided health and medical content for Sharecare.com. His work has appeared in Antioch Review, Blue Mesa Review, CALIBAN, Hayden's Ferry Review, Huffington Post, the Mississippi Review, and Slate, among others.

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    Roy Jamron
    Celiac.com 07/31/2006 - A two-year study in the July 2006 Endoscopy showed older celiac patients on a gluten-free diet have an incomplete histological recovery even after two years. Only the younger patients (5 - 30 years) showed significant improvement of histology within 12 months (P < 0.034); older patients (>30 years) showed histological improvement but this was not statistically significant, even after 24 months on a gluten-free diet. This study was also previously discussed in an article by Dr. Antonio Tursi in the Spring 2006 Celiac.com Scott-Free Newsletter. This also means increased intestinal permeability and associated problems such as liver damage may continue to be a lasting problem in older patients beyond two years on a gluten-free diet. Below is the abstract:
     

    Endoscopy 2006 July; 38(7): 702-707
    Endoscopic and histological findings in the duodenum of adults with celiac disease before and after changing to a gluten-free diet: a 2-year prospective study
    Tursi, A.; Brandimarte, G.; Giorgetti, G. M.; Elisei, W.; Inchingolo, C. D.; Monardo, E.; Aiello, F.
     


    Background and study aims: Published follow-up data on small-intestinal recovery in patients with celiac disease are scarce and contradictory. This is especially the case for adult patients, who often show incomplete histological recovery after starting a gluten-free diet (GFD). We conducted a 2-year prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of a GFD in improving the endoscopic and histological duodenal findings in adults with celiac disease.
    Patients and methods: We studied 42 consecutive adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease (13 men, 29 women; mean age 32.7 years, range 15 - 72 years). All the patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and small bowel biopsy. We devised our own grading system for the endoscopic appearance of the duodenum, which ranged from "normal" appearance to "mild", "moderate", or "severe" alterations. Small bowel biopsies were obtained from the second part of the duodenum (and from the duodenal bulb when it had a micronodular appearance). The histopathological appearances were described according to modified Marsh criteria.
    Results: A normal endoscopic appearance in the duodenum was found in 5/42 patients (11.9 %) at entry and in 32/42 patients (76.2 %) after 2 years on a GFD. Subdividing the patients according to age, patients aged from 15 years to 60 years showed significant improvement within 12 months (P < 0.0001 for patients aged from 15 years to 45 years; P < 0.003 for patients in the 46 years to 60 years group), whereas the improvement in endoscopic findings in patients older than 60 years was not statistically significant, even 24 months after starting the GFD. "Normal" histology was reported in none of the patients at entry, but in 25 patients (59.5 %) after 24 months on a GFD, but this parameter did not show a significant improvement until the patients had been on the GFD for 12 months (P < 0.0001). Only the younger patients (5 - 30 years) showed significant improvement of histology within 12 months (P < 0.034); older patients (>30 years) showed histological improvement but this was not statistically significant, even after 24 months on a GFD.
    Conclusions: This study shows for the first time that endoscopic recovery is faster than histological recovery in adults with celiac disease who go on a GFD. Moreover, older patients showed incomplete endoscopic and histological recovery even 24 months after starting a GFD. We therefore advise, as a minimum recommendation, that follow-up biopsies should be taken 1 - 2 years after starting a GFD in adults with celiac disease.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 02/23/2011 - In most adults with celiac disease, clinical symptoms disappear with a gluten-free diet. However, the exact effects of a gluten-free diet on rates of mucosal recovery in adults with celiac disease is less certain.
    A group of clinicians recently set out to assess rates of mucosal recovery under a gluten-free diet in adults with celiac disease, and to gauge the clinical prospects of ongoing mucosal damage in celiac patients who follow a gluten-free diet.
    The study group included Alberto Rubio-Tapia, MD; Mussarat W. Rahim, MBBS; Jacalyn A. See, MS, RD, LD; Brian D. Lahr, MS; Tsung-Teh Wu, MD; and Joseph A. Murray, MD.
    Each patient in the study had biopsy-proven celiac disease, and was assessed at the Mayo Clinic. Also, each patient received duodenal biopsies at diagnosis. After beginning a gluten-free diet, each patient had at least one follow-up intestinal biopsy to assess mucosal recovery.
    The study team focused on mucosal recovery and overall mortality. Of 381 adult patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease, a total of 241 (175 women - 73%) had both a diagnostic and follow-up biopsy available for re-review.
    Using the Kaplan–Meier rate of confirmed mucosal recovery to assess these 241 patients, the study group found that 34% of the patients enjoyed mucosal recovery at 2 years after diagnosis (95% with a confidence interval (CI): 27–40 % ), and 66% of patients enjoyed mucosal recovery at 5 years (95% CI: 58–74 % ).
    More than 80% of patients showed some clinical response to the gluten-free diet, but clinical response was not a reliable marker of mucosal recovery ( P = 0.7). Serological response was, by far, the best marker for confirmed mucosal recovery ( P = 0.01).
    Patients who complied poorly with a gluten-free diet ( P < 0.01), those with severe celiac disease defined by diarrhea and weight loss ( P < 0.001), and those with total villous atrophy at diagnosis ( P < 0.001) had high rates of persistent mucosal damage.
    With adjustments for gender and age, patients who experienced confirmed mucosal recovery had lower mortality rates overall (hazard ratio = 0.13, 95 % CI: 0.02 – 1.06, P = 0.06).
    One of the most important findings from this study was that a large number of adults with celiac disease have no mucosal recovery, even after treatment with a gluten free diet.
    Compared to those patients who suffered persistent damage, patients who experienced confirmed mucosal recovery had lower rates of mortality independent of age and gender.
    The group notes that systematic follow-up via intestinal biopsy may be advisable for adults with celiac disease.
    Source:

     Am J Gastroenterol. 9 February 2010; doi: 10.1038/ajg.2010.10

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/02/2012 - Doctors and researchers are still debating the usefulness of active blood screening for spotting celiac disease in older populations. Studies do suggest that many cases of celiac disease go undetected, especially in the older population. One unanswered question is whether screening does any good for older people who have been eating gluten many decades.
    A team of researchers recently studied the clinical benefit of a gluten-free diet in screen-detected older celiac disease patients. The research team included Anitta Vilppula, Katri Kaukinen, Liisa Luostarinen, Ilkka Krekelä, Heikki Patrikainen, Raisa Valve, Markku Luostarinen, Kaija Laurila, Markku Mäki, and Pekka Collin.
    They are affiliated with the Department of Neurology, the Department of Internal Medicine and the Department of Surgery at Päijät-Häme Central Hospital, and the University of Helsinki's Department of Education and Development in Lahti, Finland, the Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery the School of Medicine, and the Paediatric Research Centre at the University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    For their study, the researchers evaluated the benefit of active detection and implementation of a gluten-free diet in elder populations with for celiac disease.
    The team evaluated thirty-five biopsy-proven celiac patients over 50 years of age, each of whom had celiac disease detected by mass blood screening.
    They looked at bone mineral density, dietary compliance, disease history, quality of life, and symptoms at baseline and after 1-2 years of a gluten-free diet. They also looked at small bowel biopsy, serology, laboratory parameters assessing malabsorption, and bone mineral density.
    Using surveys, the team established gastrointestinal symptom ratings and quality of life by psychological general well-being. The used this information to rate symptoms.
    They found patient dietary compliance to be good overall.  Initial tests on the patients showed reduced serum ferritin levels, pointing to subclinical iron deficiency. This trend reversed after patients followed a gluten-free diet.
    Initially low vitamin B12, vitamin D and erythrocyte folic acid levels increased significantly on a gluten-free diet.
    Patient histories showed that those with celiac disease had sustained more low-energy fractures, and sustained such fractures more frequently than the general population. A gluten-free diet brings with it a beneficial increase in bone mineral density.
    The team also noticed that many gastrointestinal symptoms disappeared, even though though many patients reported only subtle symptoms upon diagnosis.
    Quality of life remained unchanged. According to the study team, two out of three patients would have been diagnosed even without screening if the family history, fractures or concomitant autoimmune diseases had been factored in.
    Results showed that patients who had celiac disease detected by mass blood screen did, in fact, benefit from a gluten-free diet. For doctors evaluating older patients, the team advocates a high index of suspicion and active case-finding in celiac disease as an alternative to mass screening.
    Source:
    BMC Gastroenterology 2011, 11:136. doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-136

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/15/2014 - A team of researchers recently set out to assess the benefits of a gluten-free diet for people whose blood screens show markers for celiac disease, but who show no physical symptoms. Specifically, they investigated whether screen-detected and apparently asymptomatic adults with endomysial antibodies (EmA) benefit from a gluten-free diet.
    The research team included K. Kurppa, A. Paavola, P. Collin, H. Sievänen, K. Laurila, H. Huhtala, P. Saavalainen, M. Mäki, and K. Kaukinen. They are variously associated with the Tampere Center for Child Health Research, the Tampere School of Health Sciences of the University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, the Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery at Tampere University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Tampere, the UKK Institute in Tampere, Finland, the Research Program Unit of the Immunobiology and Haartman Institute at the Department of Medical Genetics of the University of Helsinki in Helsinki, Finland, and the Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland and Seinäjoki Central Hospital, Seinäjoki, Finland.
    For their study, they conducted a prospective trial of 3031 individuals at risk for celiac disease based on screens for EmA. They found 40 of 148 seropositive individuals who fulfilled inclusion criteria. They randomly assigned the 40 patients to groups receiving either a gluten-free diet, or a gluten-containing diet.
    They then evaluated ratios of small-bowel mucosal villous height:crypt depth, serology and laboratory test results, gastrointestinal symptom scores, physiologic well-being, perception of health by a visual analog scale, bone mineral density, and body composition at baseline and after 1 year. From that point on, they switched the group on the gluten-containing diet to a gluten-free diet, evaluated them a third time. Patients in the first gluten-free diet group remained on that diet.
    After 1 year on the gluten-free diet, the mean mucosal villous height:crypt depth values increased (P < .001), levels of celiac-associated antibodies decreased (P < .003), and gastrointestinal symptoms improved compared to patients on gluten-containing diets (P = .003).
    The gluten-free diet group showed less indigestion (P = .006), reflux (P = .05), and anxiety (P = .025), and better overall health, based on the visual analog scale (P = .017), compared gluten-containing diet group.
    Only social function scores improved more in the gluten-containing diet group than in the gluten-free diet group (P = .031). There were no differences between groups in terms of lab test results, bone mineral density, or body composition.
    Most measured parameters improved when patients in the gluten-containing diet group were placed on gluten-free diets.
    No subjects considered their experience to be negative and most expected to continue eating gluten-free.
    The results show that a gluten-free diet benefits asymptomatic EmA-positive patients, and show the benefits of actively screening patients at risk for celiac disease.
    Source:
    Gastroenterology. 2014 Sep;147(3):610-617.e1. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.05.003. 

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/21/2018 - These easy-to-make tortilla wraps make a great addition to your lunchtime menu. Simply grab your favorite gluten-free tortillas, a bit of cream cheese, some charred fresh sweet corn, creamy avocado and ripe summer tomato. Add a bit of sliced roast beef and some mayonnaise and hot sauce, and you’re in business. And it's all ready in about half an hour. If you cook the corn the night before, they can be ready in just a few minutes.
    Ingredients:
    12 ounces thinly sliced cooked beef, sliced 6 burrito-sized gluten-free tortillas 1 ripe medium avocado, diced 1 large tomato, diced ½ medium red onion, thinly sliced ¼ cup mayonnaise 2 ears sweet corn, husks and silk removed 1 teaspoon olive oil ¾ cup soft cream cheese spread 1-2 teaspoons gluten-free hot sauce of choice Sprouted pea greens, as desired fresh salsa, as desired Directions:
    Heat grill to medium-hot. 
    Brush corn with olive oil. 
    In a small dish, blend mayonnaise and hot sauce. Adjust mixture, and add fresh salsa, as desired.
    Grill corn for 8 to 12 minutes, turning as it browns and lowering heat as needed until corn is tender and charred in some places. 
    Cool slightly; cut kernels from cobs.
    Spread 2 tablespoons cream cheese on one side of each tortilla to within ½-inch of edge; arrange beef slices to cover.
    Spread beef with mayonnaise hot sauce mixture as desired.
    Place a bit of grilled corn kernels, avocado, tomato and red onion in a 3-inch strip along one edge of each tortilla. 
    Fold ends and roll into a burrito shape, and serve. I like to add sweet, crunchy pea greens for some extra crunch and nutrition.

    Christina Kantzavelos
    Celiac.com 07/20/2018 - During my Vipassana retreat, I wasn’t left with much to eat during breakfast, at least in terms of gluten free options. Even with gluten free bread, the toasters weren’t separated to prevent cross contamination. All of my other options were full of sugar (cereals, fruits), which I try to avoid, especially for breakfast. I had to come up with something that did not have sugar, was tasty, salty, and gave me some form of protein. After about four days of mixing and matching, I was finally able to come up with the strangest concoction, that may not look the prettiest, but sure tastes delicious. Actually, if you squint your eyes just enough, it tastes like buttery popcorn. I now can’t stop eating it as a snack at home, and would like to share it with others who are looking for a yummy nutritious snack. 
    Ingredients:
    4 Rice cakes ⅓ cup of Olive oil  Mineral salt ½ cup Nutritional Yeast ⅓ cup of Sunflower Seeds  Intriguing list, right?...
    Directions (1.5 Servings):
    Crunch up the rice into small bite size pieces.  Throw a liberal amount of nutritional yeast onto the pieces, until you see more yellow than white.  Add salt to taste. For my POTS brothers and sisters, throw it on (we need an excess amount of salt to maintain a healthy BP).  Add olive oil  Liberally sprinkle sunflower seeds. This is what adds the protein and crunch, so the more, the tastier.  Buen Provecho, y Buen Camino! 

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/19/2018 - Maintaining a gluten-free diet can be an on-going challenge, especially when you factor in all the hidden or obscure gluten that can trip you up. In many cases, foods that are naturally gluten-free end up contain added gluten. Sometimes this can slip by us, and that when the suffering begins. To avoid suffering needlessly, be sure to keep a sharp eye on labels, and beware of added or hidden gluten, even in food labeled gluten-free.  Use Celiac.com's SAFE Gluten-Free Food List and UNSAFE Gluten-free Food List as a guide.
    Also, beware of these common mistakes that can ruin your gluten-free diet. Watch out for:
    Watch out for naturally gluten-free foods like rice and soy, that use gluten-based ingredients in processing. For example, many rice and soy beverages are made using barley enzymes, which can cause immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Be careful of bad advice from food store employees, who may be misinformed themselves. For example, many folks mistakenly believe that wheat-based grains like spelt or kamut are safe for celiacs. Be careful when taking advice. Beware of cross-contamination between food store bins selling raw flours and grains, often via the food scoops. Be careful to avoid wheat-bread crumbs in butter, jams, toaster, counter surface, etc. Watch out for hidden gluten in prescription drugs. Ask your pharmacist for help about anything you’re not sure about, or suspect might contain unwanted gluten. Watch out for hidden gluten in lotions, conditioners, shampoos, deodorants, creams and cosmetics, (primarily for those with dermatitis herpetaformis). Be mindful of stamps, envelopes or other gummed labels, as these can often contain wheat paste. Use a sponge to moisten such surfaces. Be careful about hidden gluten in toothpaste and mouthwash. Be careful about common cereal ingredients, such as malt flavoring, or other non-gluten-free ingredient. Be extra careful when considering packaged mixes and sauces, including soy sauce, fish sauce, catsup, mustard, mayonnaise, etc., as many of these can contain wheat or wheat by-product in their manufacture. Be especially careful about gravy mixes, packets & canned soups. Even some brands of rice paper can contain gluten, so be careful. Lastly, watch out for foods like ice cream and yogurt, which are often gluten-free, but can also often contain added ingredients that can make them unsuitable for anyone on a gluten-free diet. Eating Out? If you eat out, consider that many restaurants use a shared grill or shared cooking oil for regular and gluten-free foods, so be careful. Also, watch for flour in otherwise gluten-free spices, as per above. Ask questions, and stay vigilant.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/18/2018 - Despite many studies on immune development in children, there still isn’t much good data on how a mother’s diet during pregnancy and infancy influences a child’s immune development.  A team of researchers recently set out to assess whether changes in maternal or infant diet might influence the risk of allergies or autoimmune disease.
    The team included Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, Despo Ierodiakonou, Katharine Jarrold, Sergio Cunha,  Jennifer Chivinge, Zoe Robinson, Natalie Geoghegan, Alisha Ruparelia, Pooja Devani, Marialena Trivella, Jo Leonardi-Bee, and Robert J. Boyle.
    They are variously associated with the Department of Undiagnosed Celiac Disease More Common in Women and Girls International Health, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; the Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; the Section of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; the Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; the Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; and Stanford University in the USA.
    Team members searched MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Web of Science, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) for observational studies conducted between January 1946 and July 2013, and interventional studies conducted through December 2017, that evaluated the relationship between diet during pregnancy, lactation, or the first year of life, and future risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. 
    They then selected studies, extracted data, and assessed bias risk. They evaluated data using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). They found 260 original studies, covering 964,143 participants, of milk feeding, including 1 intervention trial of breastfeeding promotion, and 173 original studies, covering 542,672 participants, of other maternal or infant dietary exposures, including 80 trials of 26 maternal, 32 infant, or 22 combined interventions. 
    They found a high bias risk in nearly half of the more than 250 milk feeding studies and in about one-quarter of studies of other dietary exposures. Evidence from 19 intervention trials suggests that oral supplementation with probiotics during late pregnancy and lactation may reduce risk of eczema. 44 cases per 1,000; 95% CI 20–64), and 6 trials, suggest that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and lactation may reduce risk of allergic sensitization to egg. GRADE certainty of these findings was moderate. 
    The team found less evidence, and low GRADE certainty, for claims that breastfeeding reduces eczema risk during infancy, that longer exclusive breastfeeding is associated with reduced type 1 diabetes mellitus, and that probiotics reduce risk of infants developing allergies to cow’s milk. 
    They found no evidence that dietary exposure to other factors, including prebiotic supplements, maternal allergenic food avoidance, and vitamin, mineral, fruit, and vegetable intake, influence risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. 
    Overall, the team’s findings support a connection between the mother’s diet and risk of immune-mediated diseases in the child. Maternal probiotic and fish oil supplementation may reduce risk of eczema and allergic sensitization to food, respectively.
    Stay tuned for more on diet during pregnancy and its role in celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS Med. 2018 Feb; 15(2): e1002507. doi:  10.1371/journal.pmed.1002507

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/17/2018 - What can fat soluble vitamin levels in newly diagnosed children tell us about celiac disease? A team of researchers recently assessed fat soluble vitamin levels in children diagnosed with newly celiac disease to determine whether vitamin levels needed to be assessed routinely in these patients during diagnosis.
    The researchers evaluated the symptoms of celiac patients in a newly diagnosed pediatric group and evaluated their fat soluble vitamin levels and intestinal biopsies, and then compared their vitamin levels with those of a healthy control group.
    The research team included Yavuz Tokgöz, Semiha Terlemez and Aslıhan Karul. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the Department of Pediatrics, and the Department of Biochemistry at Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty in Aydın, Turkey.
    The team evaluated 27 female, 25 male celiac patients, and an evenly divided group of 50 healthy control subjects. Patients averaged 9 years, and weighed 16.2 kg. The most common symptom in celiac patients was growth retardation, which was seen in 61.5%, with  abdominal pain next at 51.9%, and diarrhea, seen in 11.5%. Histological examination showed nearly half of the patients at grade Marsh 3B. 
    Vitamin A and vitamin D levels for celiac patients were significantly lower than the control group. Vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies were significantly more common compared to healthy subjects. Nearly all of the celiac patients showed vitamin D insufficiency, while nearly 62% showed vitamin D deficiency. Nearly 33% of celiac patients showed vitamin A deficiency. 
    The team saw no deficiencies in vitamin E or vitamin K1 among celiac patients. In the healthy control group, vitamin D deficiency was seen in 2 (4%) patients, vitamin D insufficiency was determined in 9 (18%) patients. The team found normal levels of all other vitamins in the healthy group.
    Children with newly diagnosed celiac disease showed significantly reduced levels of vitamin D and A. The team recommends screening of vitamin A and D levels during diagnosis of these patients.
    Source:
    BMC Pediatrics