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    Galectin-1 Expression Reflects Gluten-Free Treatment Response in Celiac Disease Patients


    Jefferson Adams


    • Galectins control several immune cell processes and influence both innate and adaptive immune responses. Researchers recently explored the role of galectins in intestinal inflammation, particularly Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease.


    Galectin-1 Expression Reflects Gluten-Free Treatment Response in Celiac Disease Patients
    Image Caption: Image: CC--Lauri Heikkinen

    Celiac.com 05/16/2018 - Galectins are a family of animal lectins marked by their affinity for N-acetyllactosamine-enriched glycoconjugates. Galectins control several immune cell processes and influence both innate and adaptive immune responses. A team of researchers recently set out to assess the role of galectins, particularly galectin-1 (Gal-1), in the treatment of celiac disease.


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    The research team included Victoria Sundblad, Amado A. Quintar, Luciano G. Morosi, Sonia I. Niveloni, Ana Cabanne, Edgardo Smecuol, Eduardo Mauriño, Karina V. Mariño, Julio C. Bai, Cristina A. Maldonado, and Gabriel A. Rabinovich.

    The researchers examined the role of galectins in intestinal inflammation, particularly in Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease patients, as well as in murine models resembling these inflammatory conditions. 

    Maintaining the fine balance between host immunity and tolerance promotes gut homeostasis, and helps to prevent inflammation. To gain insight into the role of Gal-1 in celiac patients, the team demonstrated an increase in Gal-1 expression following a gluten-free diet along with an increase in the frequency of Foxp3+ cells. 

    The resolution of the inflammatory response may promote the recovery process, leading to a reversal of gut damage and a regeneration of villi. Among other things, the team’s findings support the use of Gal-1 agonists to treat severe mucosal inflammation. In addition, Gal-1 may serve as a potential biomarker to follow the progression of celiac disease treatment.

    Gut inflammation may be governed by a coordinated network of galectins and their glycosylated ligands, triggering either anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory responses. That network may influence the interplay between intestinal epithelial cells and the highly specialized gut immune system in physiologic and pathologic settings.

    The team’s results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory and tolerogenic response associated with gluten-free diet in celiac patients is matched by a substantial up-regulation of Gal-1. This suggests a major role of this lectin in favoring resolution of inflammation and restoration of mucosal homeostasis. 

    This data highlights the regulated expression of galectin-1 (Gal-1), a proto-type member of the galectin family, during intestinal inflammation in untreated and treated celiac patients. Further study of this area could lead to better understanding of the mechanisms behind celiac disease, and potentially to a treatment of the disease.

    Source:

     

    The researchers in this study are variously affiliated with the Laboratorio de Inmunopatología, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; the Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina; the Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Córdoba, Argentina; the Laboratorio de Glicómica Funcional y Molecular, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; the Sección Intestino Delgado, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital de Gastroenterología Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo, Buenos Aires, Argentina; the Unidad de Patología, Hospital de Gastroenterología, Bonorino Udaondo, Buenos Aires, Argentina; the Instituto de Investigaciones, Universidad del Salvador, Buenos Aires, Argentina; and the Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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    Jefferson Adams
    Study Shows Celiac, Crohn's Disease Share Genetic Links
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    Their discovery may help to explain why people with celiac disease suffer Crohn’s disease at higher rates than the general population.
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    The study used a new method of analysis called a genome-wide association study, or GWAS. This allows researchers to look at hundreds of thousands of genetic variations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, that may be involved in any one disease.
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    Source:

    Jan. 27 issue of PLoS Genetics

    Betty Wedman-St Louis, PhD, RD
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    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
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    Proteins from outside our bodies are eschewed by our selective immune systems, identifying them as foreign, and mount an attack against these "aliens". So any undigested proteins from the foods we eat, if they arrive in our bloodstream, are going to result in the mobilization of antibodies aimed at the destruction of these proteins. This sounds like a process for developing an allergic response against common foods.
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    Perhaps those gluten derived opioids probably felt pretty good to people who tried gluten. Whatever the reason, the rest of the world seems to have adopted Europe's dietary choices, pursuing the "comfort" of gluten grains while developing myriad forms of autoimmune disease, neurological dysfunction, gastrointestinal complaint, and a variety of other ailments. And most of the people I encounter would rather deny the health risks than give up donuts, cake, pie, and toast (13).
    Note: I'm proud to announce that I've been given the privilege of reviewing a new book that will be published early next year, under the Touchstone imprint, by Simon and Schuster. I will be writing about some interesting new insights this exciting book offers into the world of gluten sensitivity in the next issue of the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity.
    Sources:
    Hollon J, Puppa EL, Greenwald B, Goldberg E, Guerrerio A, Fasano A. Effect of Gliadin on Permeability of Intestinal Biopsy Explants from Celiac Disease Patients and Patients with Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1565-1576. Akindolire MA, Babalola OO, and Ateba CN. Detection of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Milk: A Public Health Implication. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 10254-10275. Li S, Yu Y, Koehn celiac disease, Zhang Z, Su K. Galectins in the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2013 Sep 30;4(5). Cordain L, Toohey L, Smith MJ, Hickey MS. Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 2000 Mar;83(3):207-17. Coskun R, Gundogan K, Sezgin GC, Topaloglu US, Hebbar G, Guven M, Sungur M. A retrospective review of intensive care management of organophosphate insecticide poisoning: Single center experience. Niger J Clin Pract. 2015 Sep-Oct;18(5):644-50. Hasanato RM, Almomen AM. Unusual presentation of arsenic poisoning in a case of celiac disease. Ann Saudi Med. 2015 Mar-Apr;35(2):165-7. Signes-Pastor AJ, Carey M, Meharg AA. Inorganic arsenic in rice-based products for infants and young children. Food Chem. 2016 Jan 15;191:128-34. United States Geological Survey. 2005. Arsenic in ground water in the United States. http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/trace/arsenic/ Last Modified: Thursday, 17-Nov-2011 Hudson DA, Purdham DR, Cornell HJ, Rolles CJ. Non specific cytotoxicity of wheat gliadin components towards cultured human cells. Lancet 1976; 1: 339-341. Kagnoff M. Private communication. 2005 Dolfini E, Elli L, Roncoroni L, Costa B, Colleoni MP, Lorusso V, Ramponi S,Braidotti P, Ferrero S, Falini ML, Bardella MT. Damaging effects of gliadin on three-dimensional cell culture model. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Oct 14;11(38):5973-7. Rätsch IM, Catassi C. Coeliac disease: a potentially treatable health problem of Saharawi refugee children. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(6):541-5. Cordain L. Cereal grains: humanity's double-edged sword. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1999;84:19-73.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac Disease Linked to Nearly Every Inflammatory Disorder
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    For more on the World Congress of Gastroenterology 2017.
    Source:
    Medscape.com

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    Jefferson Adams
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    Are psychiatric reactions induced by trauma or other life stressors associated with subsequent risk of autoimmune disease? Are stress-related disorders significantly associated with risk of subsequent autoimmune disease?
    A team of researchers recently set out to determine whether there is an association between stress-related disorders and subsequent autoimmune disease. The research team included Huan Song, MD, PhD; Fang Fang, MD, PhD; Gunnar Tomasson, MD, PhD; Filip K. Arnberg, PhD; David Mataix-Cols, PhD; Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, PhD; Catarina Almqvist, MD, PhD; Katja Fall, MD, PhD; Unnur A. Valdimarsdóttir, PhD.
    They are variously affiliated with the Center of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland; the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland; the Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital, Reykjavík, Iceland; the Centre for Rheumatology Research, University Hospital, Reykjavík, Iceland; the National Centre for Disaster Psychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; the Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; the Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; the Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; the Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; the Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; and the Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
    The team conducted a Swedish register-based retrospective cohort study that included 106, 464 patients with stress-related disorders, 1,064 ,640 matched unexposed individuals, and 126 ,652 full siblings to determine whether a clinical diagnosis of stress-related disorders was significantly associated with an increased risk of autoimmune disease.
    The team identified stress-related disorder and autoimmune diseases using the National Patient Register. They used Cox model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs of 41 autoimmune diseases beyond 1 year after the diagnosis of stress-related disorders, controlling for multiple risk factors.
    The data showed that being diagnosed with a stress-related disorder, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress reaction, adjustment disorder, and other stress reactions, was significantly associated with an increased risk of autoimmune disease, compared with matched unexposed individuals. The team is calling for further studies to better understand the associations and the underlying factors.
    Source:
    JAMA. 2018;319(23):2388-2400. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.7028  

    Jefferson Adams
    Gluten-Free Bacon-Wrapped Chicken Breasts
    Celiac.com 08/11/2018 - Need a quick, easy, reliable gluten-free dish that will satisfy everyone and leave the cook with plenty of time to relax? This recipe is sure to do the trick. Best of all, it's super easy. Just grab some chicken breasts, season them, hit them with a sprig of rosemary, wrap some bacon around them, and chuck them on the grill and call it dinner. Okay, you can add some rice and veggies.
    Ingredients:
    4 skinless, boneless chicken breast halves 4 thick slices bacon 4 teaspoons garlic powder 4 small sprigs fresh rosemary salt and pepper to taste Directions:
    Heat an outdoor grill to medium-high heat, and lightly oil the grate.
    Sprinkle 1 teaspoon garlic powder on a chicken breast and season with salt and pepper. 
    Place a rosemary sprig on each chicken breast. 
    Wrap the bacon around the chicken and the rosemary. 
    Hold bacon in place with a toothpick or extra rosemary stem.
    Cook the chicken breasts until no longer pink in the center and the juices run clear, about 8 minutes per side. 
    Keep an eye out for any grill flare ups from the bacon grease. 
    Remove the toothpicks and serve with steamed rice and your favorite vegetables for a winning meal.