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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    GUT MICROORGANISMS CAUSE GLUTEN-INDUCED PATHOLOGY IN MOUSE MODEL OF CELIAC DISEASE


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 01/18/2016 - How come only 2% to 5% of genetically susceptible individuals develop celiac disease?


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    Photo: National Cancer InstituteResearchers attempting to answer that question have turned their focus to environmental factors, including gut microorganisms, that may contribute to the development of celiac disease.

    In a recent study, published in The American Journal of Pathology, researchers using a humanized mouse model of gluten sensitivity found that the gut microbiome can play an important role in the body's response to gluten.

    Their data show that the rise in overall celiac disease rates over the last 50 years may be driven, at least partly, by variations in gut microbiota. If this proves to be true, then doctors may be able to craft "specific microbiota-based therapies" that "aid in the prevention or treatment of celiac disease in subjects with moderate genetic risk," says lead investigator Elena F. Verdu, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada).

    For their study, the team used mice that express the human DQ8 gene, which makes them genetically susceptible to inflammatory responses to gluten, researchers compared immune responses and pathology in the guts of mice that differed in their gut microorganisms.

    The three groups included germ-free mice, clean–specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice with microbiota free of opportunistic pathogens and Proteobacteria, and conventional SPF mice that were colonized with a mixture of microorganisms including opportunistic pathogens and Proteobacteria.

    For example, the microbial profile of conventional SPF mice included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Helicobacter, while the clean SPF had none. Researchers already know that growth and activation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) is an early sign of celiac disease.

    This research team saw that gluten treatment led to increased IEL counts in germ-free mice, but not in clean SPF mice. The gluten-induced IEL response in germ-free mice was accompanied by increased cell death in the cells lining the gastrointestinal tract (enterocytes), as well as anatomical changes in the villi lining the small intestine.

    The germ-free mice also developed antibodies to a component of gluten, known as gliadin, and displayed pro-inflammatory gliadin-specific T-cell responses. A non-gluten protein, zein, did not affect IEL counts, indicating that the response was gluten specific. Meanwhile, the mice colonized with limited opportunistic bacteria (clean SPF), did not develop gluten-induced pathology, compared to germ-free mice or conventional SPF mice with a more diverse microbiota.

    Interestingly, this protection was suppressed when clean SPF mice were supplemented with an enteroadherent E. coli isolated from a patient with celiac disease. These results are preliminary, and other researchers stress that the specific role of Proteobacteria in celiac disease should not be over interpreted.

    In an accompanying Commentary, Robin G. Lorenz, MD, PhD, of the Department of Pathology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, writes that these findings "implicate opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Proteobacteria phylum in celiac disease; however, this does not indicate that Proteobacteria cause celiac disease."

    Instead, Dr. Lorenz suggests, there may be numerous possible avenues by which Proteobacteria enhance the exposure and immune response to gluten or gliadin.

    So, the takeaway here is that, while these early results are highly interesting and certainly merit follow-up, it's way too early to say that certain types of gut bacteria may be driving celiac disease, and any types of bacterial treatments that might prevent celiac disease from developing are just the stuff of imagination.

    Still, this is an important discovery that might pave the way for exactly such types of therapy in the future, so stay tuned.

    Source:


    Image Caption: Lab mice are proving helpful in the search for a cure to celiac disease. Photo: National Cancer Institute
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    I'm definitely not a fan of animal testing when there is already a way to control celiac by diet choices. Too much money is made doing animal testing. It usually starts out on mice so no will will care, but it happens to dogs, rabbits, monkeys, and other animals. It's barbaric and although it may occasionally seem to be the only avenue (this is argued by many, including scientists), in this case it definitely seems like it's just lining someone's pockets at the expense of animals. As a celiac (technically now just gluten-intolerant since the diet change remedied the "celiac condition"), I will stay on a gluten free diet for life, since it has worked for me. No need for me to be lining the pockets of the huge pharmaceuticals, and the animal testing industry.

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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 02/20/2013 - Scientific evidence indicates that the risk of developing celiac disease cannot be explained solely by genetic factors. There is some evidence to support the idea that the season in which a child is born can influence the risk for developing celiac disease. It is known that babies born in summer months are likely to be weaned and introduced to gluten during winter, when viral infections are more frequent.
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    Arch Dis Child. 2013 Jan;98(1):48-51. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2012-302360.

    Jefferson Adams
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 02/09/2015 - Do you suffer from persistent celiac symptoms in spite of following a strict gluten-free diet and having normal small bowel mucosa? Many celiac patients do. Moreover, typical explanations, such as accidental gluten-intake or the presence of other gastrointestinal disease, do not account for all of the symptoms in these patients.
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    Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109(12):1933-1941.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/14/2015 - Recently, several studies have set out to determine how intake of gluten during infancy influences later risk of celiac disease.
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    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
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    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
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    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764