• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    72,122
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    Michelle Zerpa
    Newest Member
    Michelle Zerpa
    Joined
  • Announcements

    • admin

      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
  • 0

    HOW GOOD IS YOUR GLUTEN-FREE DIET?


    Jefferson Adams


    • Are you fully gluten-free? How do you know?


    Celiac.com 12/08/2016 - People with celiac disease are supposed to follow a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. Celiac patients should receive regular follow-up dietary interviews and blood tests to make sure that they are successfully following the diet.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    However, none of these methods offer an accurate measure of dietary compliance. The only way to know for sure, is to test. A team of researchers recently set out to evaluate the measurement of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in stools as a marker of gluten-free diet adherence in celiac patients and compare it with traditional methods of gluten-free diet monitoring.

    The team conducted a prospective, nonrandomized, multi-center study including 188 celiac patients on gluten-free diet and 84 healthy controls. Subjects were given a dietary questionnaire and fecal GIP quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). They simultaneously measured serological anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) IgA and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide (anti-DGP) IgA antibodies.

    A total of 56 of the 188 celiac patients, about 30 percent, had detectable GIP levels in stools. There was significant association between age and GIP in stools that revealed increasing dietary transgressions with advancing age. Nearly forty percent occurred in in subjects 13 years of age or older, with 60% occurring in men 13 years of age or older.

    The team found no connection between fecal GIP and dietary questionnaire or anti-tTG antibodies. However, they did spot a connection between GIP and anti-DGP antibodies, with seven of the 53 GIP stool-positive patients testing positive for anti-DGP.

    The detection of gluten peptides in stool samples shows the limits of traditional methods for monitoring a gluten-free diet in celiac patients. The GIP ELISA provides direct and quantitative assessment of gluten exposure soon after consumption, and might improve diagnosis and clinical management of non-responsive celiac disease and refractory celiac disease.

    Basically, doctors need to take a much more hands on role in monitoring celiac patients who are following gluten-free diets.

    Source:

    The research team included Isabel Comino PhD1, Fernando Fernández-Bañares MD, PhD2, María Esteve MD, PhD2, Luís Ortigosa MD, PhD3, Gemma Castillejo MD, PhD4, Blanca Fambuena MS5, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx MD, PhD6, Carlos Sierra MD, PhD7, Alfonso Rodríguez-Herrera MD, PhD8, José Carlos Salazar MD9, Ángel Caunedo MD10, J M Marugán-Miguelsanz MD, PhD11, José Antonio Garrote MD, PhD12, Santiago Vivas MD, PhD13, Oreste lo Iacono MD, PhD14, Alejandro Nuñez BSc13, Luis Vaquero MD, PhD13, Ana María Vegas MD12, Laura Crespo MD12, Luis Fernández-Salazar MD, PhD11, Eduardo Arranz MD, PhD11, Victoria Alejandra Jiménez-García MD10, Marco Antonio Montes-Cano MD, PhD15, Beatriz Espín MD, PhD9, Ana Galera MD8, Justo Valverde MD8, Francisco José Girón MD7, Miguel Bolonio MSc6, Antonio Millán MD, PhD5, Francesc Martínez Cerezo 4, César Guajardo MD3, José Ramón Alberto MD3, Mercé Rosinach MD, PhD2, Verónica Segura BSc1, Francisco León MD, PhD16, Jorge Marinich PhD17, Alba Muñoz-Suano PhD17, Manuel Romero-Gómez MD, PhD5, Ángel Cebolla PhD17 and Carolina Sousa PhD1

    They are variously affiliated with the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville, Spain; the Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitari Mutua Terrassa, and CIBERehd, Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain; the Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de La Candelaria, Tenerife, Spain; Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Reus, Spain; the Unit for the Clinical Management of Digestive Diseases and CIBERehd and Gastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, Hospital Universitario Virgen de Valme, Seville, Spain; the Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Celiac Disease and Digestive Inmunopatology Unit, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe, Valencia, Spain; the Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, Hospital Materno-Infantil, Malaga, Spain; the Gastroenterology and Nutrition Unit, Instituto Hispalense de Pediatría, Seville, Spain; the Servicio de Gastroenterología Pediátrica, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Seville, Spain; the Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Seville, Spain; the Mucosal Immunology Laboratory, Instituto de Biología y Genética Molecular (IBGM), University of Valladolid, CSIC and Gastroenterology Unit, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; the Clinical Analysis and Pediatrics, Hospital Universitario Río Hortega, Valladolid, Spain; the Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Universitario de Leon, Leon, Spain; the Sección de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital del Tajo, Madrid, Spain; the Servicio de Inmunología, CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/IBiS/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain; with Celimmune, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, and with Biomedal SL, Seville, Spain



    Image Caption: Can your doctor do more to monitor your gluten-free diet? Photo: CC--Wellness PC
    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    Guest coloradosue

    Posted

    Never mind the doctors taking a better on-hands approach... the organizations to which these doctors are attached, i.e. HMO´s, also should require participation as well. They do a good job requiring diabetics to test on a regular basis as a way regulate a patients health. The same should be required for celiacs.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites


    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoticons maximum are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   15 Members, 1 Anonymous, 1,264 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 09/16/2016 - Great news about poop transplants: They work! And now doctors kind of understand how and why they work. This is good news about a humor provoking, but very serious matter.
    Clostridium difficile infection is one of the most common health care-associated infections, and up to 40% of patients suffer from recurrence of disease following standard antibiotic therapy. C. difficile infection has proven to be very difficult to treat. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successfully used to treat recurrent C. difficile infection. Doctors hypothesize that FMT promotes recovery of a microbiota capable of colonization resistance to C. difficile. However, they didn't really understand how it worked.
    Recently, a research team investigated changes in the fecal microbiota structure following FMT in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, and imputed a hypothetical functional profile based on the 16S rRNA profile, using a predictive metagenomic tool. After FMT, they also noted increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased abundance of Proteobacteria.
    The research team included Anna M. Seekatz, Johannes Aas, Charles E. Gessert, Timothy A. Rubin, Daniel M. Saman, Johan S. Bakken, and Vincent B. Young. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; Essentia Health, Department of Gastroenterology, Duluth, Minnesota, USA; Essentia Institute of Rural Health, Duluth, Minnesota, USA; and St. Luke's Hospital, Section of Infectious Diseases, Duluth, Minnesota, USA.
    Their results showed that, after transplantation, fecal microbiota of recipients was more diverse, and more similar to the donor profile, than the microbiota before transplantation. Additionally, they observed differences in the imputed metagenomic profile. In particular, amino acid transport systems were over-represented in samples collected prior to transplantation.
    These results Indicate that functional changes accompany microbial structural changes following this therapy. Further identification of the specific microbiota, and functions that promote colonization resistance, may help to create better treatment methods for C. difficile infection.
    Source:
    mBio. 2014 May-Jun; 5(3): e00893-14. Published online 2014 Jun 17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00893-14. PMCID: PMC4068257

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/04/2016 - Patients in the earliest stages of celiac disease have TG2-autoantibodies present in serum and small-intestinal mucosa. Many suffer abdominal symptoms long before the development of villus atrophy.
    The classic small-bowel mucosal damage that marks celiac disease develops over time and in stages; from normal villi to inflammation and finally to villus atrophy with crypt hyperplasia. Previously, researchers have shown that intraperitoneal injections of sera from celiac patients or of purified immunoglobulin fraction into mice trigger a condition mimics early-stage celiac disease.
    Those same researchers recently set out to show whether re-combinantly produced, patient-derived TG2-targeted autoantibodies are alone sufficient to trigger such condition in immune-compromised mice. The research team included Suvi Kalliokoski, Victoria Ortín Piqueras, Rafael Frías, Ana-Marija Sulic, Juha A. E. Määttä, Niklas Kähkönen, Keijo Viiri, Heini Huhtala, Arja Pasternack, Kaija Laurila, Daniele Sblattero, Ilma R. Korponay-Szabó, Markku Mäki, Sergio Caja, Katri Kaukinen, Katri Lindfors.
    They are various affiliated with the Tampere Center for Child Health Research, the Tampere School of Health Sciences, the Department of Internal Medicine, with BioMediTech at Tampere University Hospital and School of Medicine at the University of Tampere in Tampere, Finland, with the Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Bacteriology and Immunology at the University of Helsinki in Helsinki, Finland, with the Central Animal Laboratory at the University of Turku in Turku, Finland, with the Comparative Medicine Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, with the Department of Life Sciences at the University of Trieste in Trieste, Italy, and with the Celiac Disease Center, Medical and Health Science Center, Heim Pál Children’s Hospital and Department of Pediatrics at the University of Debrecen in Debrecen, Hungary.
    Interestingly, mice injected with celiac patient TG2-antibodies showed changes to small-intestinal mucosa, increased lamina propria cellular infiltration and disease-specific autoantibodies in the small bowel, but did not show any clinical signs of celiac disease.
    Thus, celiac patient-derived TG2-specific autoantibodies seem to be enough to trigger small-bowel mucosal changes in mice, but probably not enough to trigger clinical features on their own. Triggering clinical celiac features likely requires other factors, such as other antibody populations implicated in celiac disease.
    Source:
    Amino Acids, pp 1–12. DOI: 10.1007/s00726-016-2306-0

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/28/2016 - Researchers still don't know why some people develop celiac disease or gluten intolerance, but a number of studies have focused on factors including breast-feeding, dietary habits, the timing of the introduction of gluten and geographical origin.
    Sweden is a high-risk country for the development of celiac disease in early life, with rates in some areas approaching 2%, nearly double that of most population baseline levels. Carin Andrén Aronsson is a dietician and doctoral student at Sweden's Lund University. Her research, ahead of her public thesis defense, indicates that the amount of gluten matter more than breast-feeding or the timing of introduction of gluten as a trigger for celiac disease.
    This is one of the findings from several extensive studies of children with an increased genetic risk of celiac disease conducted by researchers at Lund University in Sweden. "Our findings indicate that the amount of gluten triggers the disease," says Aronsson. Her research team has also observed that the dietary habits among the children they studied vary from one country to another, and that "there are reasons to analyze the significance of this variation more closely," she added.
    All the research in Aronsson's thesis is based on small children born with an increased genetic risk of celiac disease. Some of her most important conclusions are:
    Swedish children who reported consuming more than 5 grams of gluten per day up to the age of two years had twice the risk of developing celiac disease compared to children who consumed a smaller amount, while children with celiac disease reported eating more gluten druing that period. The risk of developing the autoimmunity which gives rise to celiac disease was highest in Sweden compared to Finland, Germany and USA, which were also studied. There was no apparent connection between the duration of the period of breast-feeding and the risk of developing celiac disease. Further study could help explain why Swedish children develop celiac disease earlier than children in other countries.
    Source:
    Lund University

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/23/2016 - Researchers know that kids with celiac disease have fully responded to a gluten-free diet when symptoms resolve and serology returns to normal.
    A team of researchers recently set out to assess the rate of normalization of the TTG and EMA for children on a gluten-free diet after diagnosis. The researchers included Dominica Gidrewicz, Cynthia L Trevenen, Martha Lyon, and J Decker Butzner.
    After initiated a gluten-free diet in 228 newly diagnosed children with biopsy-proven celiac disease, the team obtained and recorded celiac serologies over a 3.5 year period.
    The team categorized patients based on serology (Group A, TTG >= 10 x upper limit of normal (ULN) and EMA >= 1:80; Group B, TTG >= 10 x ULN and EMA and EMA <= 1:40; and Group C, TTG < 10 x ULN) and by severity of histologic injury at diagnosis.
    They found that in children in Group A showed the highest serology at diagnosis. Of those, 79.7% had abnormal TTG at 12 months after diagnosis (average TTG 12 mo, 68.8 +/- 7.3, normal < 20 kU/L).
    At two years, abnormal TTG persisted in 41.7% of Group A. By contrast, in Group C, which showed the lowest serology at diagnosis, only 35% of children displayed an abnormal TTG at 12 months (average TTG 14.3 +/- 1.9 kU/L). In kids with the most severe mucosal damage, Marsh 3C, 74.2% and 33.2% had an abnormal TTG at 1 and 2 year.
    The data in this study indicate that 3 out of 4 gluten-free diet compliant kids with the highest celiac serology or most severe mucosal injury at diagnosis, took longer than one year in for serology to return to normal.
    Doctors should take serology and histology into consideration at diagnosis in order to properly assess the patient's response to the gluten-free diet. That said, it's encouraging that even the more severe cases of celiac disease will eventually return to normal when the kids follow a gluten-free diet.
    Source:
    Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition. doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001270

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com