• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    81,117
    Total Members
    4,125
    Most Online
    Hockeymimi
    Newest Member
    Hockeymimi
    Joined
  • 0

    Is Autoimmunity More Common in Non-celiac Wheat Sensitivity Than in Celiac Disease?


    Jefferson Adams
    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Tanakawho

    Celiac.com 06/13/2016 - Researchers Umberto Volta, Giacomo Caio, and Roberto De Giorgio, of the Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences at the University of Bologna in Bologna, Italy, recently submitted a letter to the medical journal Gastroenterology.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    In their letter, the researchers respond to a recent paper, published by Carroccio et al, reporting on the prevalence of autoimmunity (as identified by positivity of antinuclear antibodies [ANA] and associated autoimmune disorders) in non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) compared with celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). They note that the study results, based on retrospective and prospective data, showed that the prevalence of ANA in NCWS was significantly higher than in celiac disease and IBS (46% in NCWS vs 24% in celiac disease and 2% in IBS, retrospectively; and 28% in NCWS vs 7.5% in celiac disease and 6% in IBS, prospectively).

    They note also that both retrospective and prospective analysis show autoimmune disorders (mainly autoimmune thyroiditis) in a slightly higher proportion in NCWS (29% vs 24%) than celiac disease (21% vs 20%). Meanwhile, both NCWS and celiac patients showed substantially higher rates of autoimmune disorders than IBS. In both both retrospective and prospective data, ANA showed a strong relation to HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 in NCWS, whereas these autoantibodies were associated with autoimmune disorders only in the prospective arm.

    The team found these results from the Carroccio study to be scientific interesting because NCWS, more than better known autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, shows a surprisingly high autoimmune profile. They note that celiac disease is a well-established autoimmune condition often marked by different types of autoantibodies and associated autoimmune disorders. Such autoimmune features have not been seen so far in NCWS and the odds of these patients developing autoimmune dysfunction remains unknown.

    The team's data showed that only 14% of 486 patients with NCWS had an associated autoimmune disorder including thyroiditis, psoriasis, Graves disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and atrophic gastritis. In contrast, about 30% of 770 celiac patients showed the same autoimmune manifestations. These findings are in line with previously published data.

    They point out that another interesting aspect that came out of Carroccio study is the very high rate of ANA in their cohort of NCWS versus celiac disease and IBS patients. The team notes that their own experience shows ANA to be higher in celiac disease than NCWS and IBS (49% vs 37% vs 6%), which indicates a substantial autoimmune profile in celiac disease, compared with the two other conditions. They also note that evidence showing patients with NCWS to have higher rates of ANA compared with IBS is in line with the results presented by Carroccio et al.

    They conclude their letter by stating that consistent evidence supports a major role of adaptive immunity in celiac disease more than NCWS, and this peculiarity is reflected by a predominant occurrence of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies (eg, ANA).

    However, the challenging data shown by Carroccio et al provide the basis to understand whether NCWS, like celiac disease, show a wide array of autoimmune expressions mediated by adaptive mechanisms.

    They call for further studies to better understand what they term the "intriguing relationship between autoimmunity and NCWS."

    Source:


    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    There are no comments to display.



    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoji are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Ads by Google:

  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams is a freelance writer living in San Francisco. He has covered Health News for Examiner.com, and provided health and medical content for Sharecare.com. His work has appeared in Antioch Review, Blue Mesa Review, CALIBAN, Hayden's Ferry Review, Huffington Post, the Mississippi Review, and Slate, among others.

  • Popular Contributors

  • Who's Online   14 Members, 0 Anonymous, 327 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/23/2015 - There's been a bit of ping-ponging going on about the status of non-celiac gluten sensitivity as a valid medical condition. Studies have yielded conflicting results, with some supporting, and others negating, the existence of non-celiac gluten-sensitivity. 
    So what's the deal? Does non-celiac gluten sensitivity exist, or not? Researchers and clinicians continue to debate whether people without celiac disease or wheat allergy who consume gluten can experience intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms attributable to non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS).
    Taking the latest stab at the problem, a team of researchers recently conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial to determine the effects of administration of low doses of gluten to subjects with suspected NCGS. The research team included A. Di Sabatino, U. Volta, C. Salvatore, P. Biancheri, G. Caio, R. De Giorgio, M. Di Stefano, and G. R. Corazza. They are variously affiliated with the First Department of Internal Medicine at St Matteo Hospital Foundation at the University of Pavia in Pavia, Italy, and with the Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences at St Orsola-Malpighi Hospital at the University of Bologna in Bologna, Italy.
    For their study, the team enrolled 61 adults without celiac disease or wheat allergy, but who believe that eating gluten-containing food to be causing of their intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. The team randomly assigned participants to groups that received either 4.375 g/day gluten or rice starch (placebo) for 1 week, each via gastro-soluble capsules. Study subjects spend one week on a gluten-free diet, and then switched groups.
    The primary outcome was the change in overall (intestinal and extra-intestinal) symptoms, determined by established scoring systems, between gluten and placebo intake. A secondary outcome was the change in individual symptom scores between gluten vs placebo.
    Per-protocol analysis of data from the 59 patients who completed the trial shows that intake of gluten significantly increased overall symptoms compared with placebo (P=.034). Among the intestinal symptoms, abdominal bloating (P=.040) and pain (P=.047) were significantly more severe when subjects received gluten than placebo. Among the extra-intestinal symptoms, foggy mind (P=.019), depression (P=.020), and aphthous stomatitis (P=.025) were also worse when subjects received gluten than placebo.
    In this cross-over trial, subjects with suspected NCGS saw significantly more severe symptoms during 1 week of intake of small amounts of gluten, compared with placebo. So, at least for now, the NGCS ball seems to be back in the court that considers it a valid medical condition.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Feb 19. pii: S1542-3565(15)00153-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2015.01.029. Clinical trial no: ISRCTN72857280.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/27/2015 - First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases.
    A research team recently set out to assess the risk of non-celiac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac disease.
    The research team included Louise Emilsson, Cisca Wijmenga, Joseph A. Murray, and Jonas F. Ludvigsson. They are variously affiliated with the Primary Care Research Unit, Vårdcentralen Värmlands Nysäter, Värmland County, Sweden, the Department of Health Management and Health Economy, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, the Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands, the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, the Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and with the Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    The team found individuals with celiac disease by searching computerized duodenal and jejunal biopsies, collected from 1969 through 2008, at 28 pathology departments in Sweden.
    The team found 29,096 patients with celiac disease based on biopsy reports of villous atrophy of Marsh grade 3 or higher and matched individuals with celiac disease with up to 5 of 144,522 non-celiac control patients based on sex, age, county, and calendar year.
    Through Swedish health care registries, the team identified all first-degree relatives (fathers, mothers, siblings, and offspring) and spouses of 84,648 individuals with celiac disease, and 430,942 control subjects. The team used Cox regression analysis to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for non-celiac autoimmune disease, such as Crohn’s disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or ulcerative colitis, within these groups.
    Cox analysis showed that during the follow-up period averaging just under 11 years, nearly 3333, or 4%, of the first-degree relatives of patients with celiac disease, and 12,860 relatives of controls (3.0%), had an autoimmune disease other than celiac disease.
    First-degree relatives of people with celiac disease had an increased risk of non-celiac autoimmune disease, compared with controls (HR, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–1.33), as did spouses (HR, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.35).
    Risk estimates for non-celiac autoimmune disease did not differ between first-degree relatives and spouses of individuals with celiac disease (interaction test: P = .11). Hazard Ratios for non-celiac autoimmune disease were highest in the first 2 years of follow-up evaluation.
    First-degree relatives and spouses of individuals with celiac disease have a significantly higher risk of non-celiac autoimmune disease.
    In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors and better awareness, testing and diagnosis might influence rates of autoimmune disorders in first-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease.
    Source:
     Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2015.01.026

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/12/2015 - There's been a good deal of attention devoted to gluten sensitivity in people without celiac disease, but researchers still don't know much about potential risks associated with the condition.
    A research team recently looked at the prevalence of autoimmune diseases among patients with non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS), and investigated whether they carry antinuclear antibodies (ANA). The research team included A. Carroccio, A. D'Alcamo, F. Cavataio, M. Soresi, A. Seidita, C. Sciumè, G. Geraci, G. Iacono, and P. Mansueto.
    They are variously affiliated with the DiBiMIS University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; the department of Internal Medicine at Giovanni Paolo II Hospital in Sciacca, Italy; the DiBiMIS University of Palermo, in Palermo, Italy; the department of Pediatric Gastroenterology in ARNAS Di Cristina Hospital, Palermo, Italy; and the Surgery Department at the University of Palermo in Palermo, Italy.
    The research team conducted a retrospective study of 131 patients diagnosed with NCWS, 121 of whom were female. The average patient age was 29.1 years, and the study was conducted at 2 hospitals in Italy from January 2001 through June 2011.
    The team also collected data from 151 patients with celiac disease or irritable bowel syndrome, who served as control subjects. They reviewed patient medical records to identify those with autoimmune diseases. They then conducted a prospective study of 42 patients, 38 of whom were female, with an average age of 34 years, who had been diagnosed with NCWS from July 2011 through March 2014 at 3 hospitals in Italy.
    For the prospective study, one hundred age- and sex-matched subjects with celiac disease or IBS served as control subjects.
    The team collected serum samples from all subjects and measured ANA levels using immunofluorescence analysis. Participants completed a questionnaire and the team reviewed patient medical records to identify those with autoimmune diseases.
    In the retrospective analysis, about 30% of patients with either NCWS or celiac disease developed autoimmune diseases; mainly Hashimoto's thyroiditis, of which there were 29 cases. Compare this with about 4% of IBS who developed an autoimmune disease (P < .001).
    In the prospective study, 24% of patients with NCWS, 20% of patients with celiac disease, and 2% of patients with IBS developed autoimmune diseases (P < .001).
    In the retrospective study, serum samples tested positive for ANA in 46% of subjects with NCWS (median titer, 1:80), 24% of subjects with celiac disease (P < .001), and just 2% of subjects IBS (P < .001).
    In the prospective study, serum samples were positive for ANA in 28% of subjects with NCWS, 7.5% of subjects with celiac disease (P = .02), and 6% of subjects with IBS (P = .005 vs patients with NCWS).
    From these results, they conclude that positive ANA results are associated with the presence of the HLA DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes (P < .001).
    Source:
    Gastroenterology. 2015 Sep;149(3):596-603.e1. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.05.040.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 01/13/2016 - Researchers are zeroing in on markers for gluten sensitivity in people who don't have celiac disease.
    So far, there's been scant proof of what causes gluten sensitivity in people who don't have celiac disease. It's been difficult to even pin down the existence of a condition that can be tested and diagnosed.
    The results of a recent study may change that. The study, from Giovanni Barbara and his team at the University of Bologna, Italy, suggests that inflammation in gluten-sensitive individuals may result from high levels of a molecule called zonulin.
    Zonulin has been linked to inflammation, and people with celiac disease have been shown to have high levels of zonulin when consuming wheat protein. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, alternating diarrhea or constipation. And there can be other symptoms, including "brain fog," headache, fatigue and joint and muscle pain.
    Barbara's study found that zonulin levels in gluten-sensitive individuals almost matched those of celiacs.
    The researchers stress the preliminary nature of the results, but note that this information could lead to testing methods for detecting gluten sensitivity in people who don't have celiac disease.
    According to gastroenterologist Alessio Fasano of Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, about 6 percent of the global population may be sensitive to gluten, so any breakthrough in identifying and testing for non-celiac gluten sensitivity could impact tens of millions of people worldwide.
    Stay tuned for more on zonulin and it's role in non-celiac gluten sensitivity. 
     Source:
    NPR.ORG

  • Recent Articles

    Christina Kantzavelos
    Celiac.com 07/20/2018 - During my Vipassana retreat, I wasn’t left with much to eat during breakfast, at least in terms of gluten free options. Even with gluten free bread, the toasters weren’t separated to prevent cross contamination. All of my other options were full of sugar (cereals, fruits), which I try to avoid, especially for breakfast. I had to come up with something that did not have sugar, was tasty, salty, and gave me some form of protein. After about four days of mixing and matching, I was finally able to come up with the strangest concoction, that may not look the prettiest, but sure tastes delicious. Actually, if you squint your eyes just enough, it tastes like buttery popcorn. I now can’t stop eating it as a snack at home, and would like to share it with others who are looking for a yummy nutritious snack. 
    Ingredients:
    4 Rice cakes ⅓ cup of Olive oil  Mineral salt ½ cup Nutritional Yeast ⅓ cup of Sunflower Seeds  Intriguing list, right?...
    Directions (1.5 Servings):
    Crunch up the rice into small bite size pieces.  Throw a liberal amount of nutritional yeast onto the pieces, until you see more yellow than white.  Add salt to taste. For my POTS brothers and sisters, throw it on (we need an excess amount of salt to maintain a healthy BP).  Add olive oil  Liberally sprinkle sunflower seeds. This is what adds the protein and crunch, so the more, the tastier.  Buen Provecho, y Buen Camino! 

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/19/2018 - Maintaining a gluten-free diet can be an on-going challenge, especially when you factor in all the hidden or obscure gluten that can trip you up. In many cases, foods that are naturally gluten-free end up contain added gluten. Sometimes this can slip by us, and that when the suffering begins. To avoid suffering needlessly, be sure to keep a sharp eye on labels, and beware of added or hidden gluten, even in food labeled gluten-free.  Use Celiac.com's SAFE Gluten-Free Food List and UNSAFE Gluten-free Food List as a guide.
    Also, beware of these common mistakes that can ruin your gluten-free diet. Watch out for:
    Watch out for naturally gluten-free foods like rice and soy, that use gluten-based ingredients in processing. For example, many rice and soy beverages are made using barley enzymes, which can cause immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Be careful of bad advice from food store employees, who may be misinformed themselves. For example, many folks mistakenly believe that wheat-based grains like spelt or kamut are safe for celiacs. Be careful when taking advice. Beware of cross-contamination between food store bins selling raw flours and grains, often via the food scoops. Be careful to avoid wheat-bread crumbs in butter, jams, toaster, counter surface, etc. Watch out for hidden gluten in prescription drugs. Ask your pharmacist for help about anything you’re not sure about, or suspect might contain unwanted gluten. Watch out for hidden gluten in lotions, conditioners, shampoos, deodorants, creams and cosmetics, (primarily for those with dermatitis herpetaformis). Be mindful of stamps, envelopes or other gummed labels, as these can often contain wheat paste. Use a sponge to moisten such surfaces. Be careful about hidden gluten in toothpaste and mouthwash. Be careful about common cereal ingredients, such as malt flavoring, or other non-gluten-free ingredient. Be extra careful when considering packaged mixes and sauces, including soy sauce, fish sauce, catsup, mustard, mayonnaise, etc., as many of these can contain wheat or wheat by-product in their manufacture. Be especially careful about gravy mixes, packets & canned soups. Even some brands of rice paper can contain gluten, so be careful. Lastly, watch out for foods like ice cream and yogurt, which are often gluten-free, but can also often contain added ingredients that can make them unsuitable for anyone on a gluten-free diet. Eating Out? If you eat out, consider that many restaurants use a shared grill or shared cooking oil for regular and gluten-free foods, so be careful. Also, watch for flour in otherwise gluten-free spices, as per above. Ask questions, and stay vigilant.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/18/2018 - Despite many studies on immune development in children, there still isn’t much good data on how a mother’s diet during pregnancy and infancy influences a child’s immune development.  A team of researchers recently set out to assess whether changes in maternal or infant diet might influence the risk of allergies or autoimmune disease.
    The team included Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, Despo Ierodiakonou, Katharine Jarrold, Sergio Cunha,  Jennifer Chivinge, Zoe Robinson, Natalie Geoghegan, Alisha Ruparelia, Pooja Devani, Marialena Trivella, Jo Leonardi-Bee, and Robert J. Boyle.
    They are variously associated with the Department of Undiagnosed Celiac Disease More Common in Women and Girls International Health, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America; the Respiratory Epidemiology, Occupational Medicine and Public Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; the Section of Paediatrics, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; the Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; the Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; the Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; and Stanford University in the USA.
    Team members searched MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Web of Science, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) for observational studies conducted between January 1946 and July 2013, and interventional studies conducted through December 2017, that evaluated the relationship between diet during pregnancy, lactation, or the first year of life, and future risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. 
    They then selected studies, extracted data, and assessed bias risk. They evaluated data using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). They found 260 original studies, covering 964,143 participants, of milk feeding, including 1 intervention trial of breastfeeding promotion, and 173 original studies, covering 542,672 participants, of other maternal or infant dietary exposures, including 80 trials of 26 maternal, 32 infant, or 22 combined interventions. 
    They found a high bias risk in nearly half of the more than 250 milk feeding studies and in about one-quarter of studies of other dietary exposures. Evidence from 19 intervention trials suggests that oral supplementation with probiotics during late pregnancy and lactation may reduce risk of eczema. 44 cases per 1,000; 95% CI 20–64), and 6 trials, suggest that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and lactation may reduce risk of allergic sensitization to egg. GRADE certainty of these findings was moderate. 
    The team found less evidence, and low GRADE certainty, for claims that breastfeeding reduces eczema risk during infancy, that longer exclusive breastfeeding is associated with reduced type 1 diabetes mellitus, and that probiotics reduce risk of infants developing allergies to cow’s milk. 
    They found no evidence that dietary exposure to other factors, including prebiotic supplements, maternal allergenic food avoidance, and vitamin, mineral, fruit, and vegetable intake, influence risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. 
    Overall, the team’s findings support a connection between the mother’s diet and risk of immune-mediated diseases in the child. Maternal probiotic and fish oil supplementation may reduce risk of eczema and allergic sensitization to food, respectively.
    Stay tuned for more on diet during pregnancy and its role in celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS Med. 2018 Feb; 15(2): e1002507. doi:  10.1371/journal.pmed.1002507

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/17/2018 - What can fat soluble vitamin levels in newly diagnosed children tell us about celiac disease? A team of researchers recently assessed fat soluble vitamin levels in children diagnosed with newly celiac disease to determine whether vitamin levels needed to be assessed routinely in these patients during diagnosis.
    The researchers evaluated the symptoms of celiac patients in a newly diagnosed pediatric group and evaluated their fat soluble vitamin levels and intestinal biopsies, and then compared their vitamin levels with those of a healthy control group.
    The research team included Yavuz Tokgöz, Semiha Terlemez and Aslıhan Karul. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the Department of Pediatrics, and the Department of Biochemistry at Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty in Aydın, Turkey.
    The team evaluated 27 female, 25 male celiac patients, and an evenly divided group of 50 healthy control subjects. Patients averaged 9 years, and weighed 16.2 kg. The most common symptom in celiac patients was growth retardation, which was seen in 61.5%, with  abdominal pain next at 51.9%, and diarrhea, seen in 11.5%. Histological examination showed nearly half of the patients at grade Marsh 3B. 
    Vitamin A and vitamin D levels for celiac patients were significantly lower than the control group. Vitamin A and vitamin D deficiencies were significantly more common compared to healthy subjects. Nearly all of the celiac patients showed vitamin D insufficiency, while nearly 62% showed vitamin D deficiency. Nearly 33% of celiac patients showed vitamin A deficiency. 
    The team saw no deficiencies in vitamin E or vitamin K1 among celiac patients. In the healthy control group, vitamin D deficiency was seen in 2 (4%) patients, vitamin D insufficiency was determined in 9 (18%) patients. The team found normal levels of all other vitamins in the healthy group.
    Children with newly diagnosed celiac disease showed significantly reduced levels of vitamin D and A. The team recommends screening of vitamin A and D levels during diagnosis of these patients.
    Source:
    BMC Pediatrics

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 07/16/2018 - Did weak public oversight leave Arizonans ripe for Theranos’ faulty blood tests scam? Scandal-plagued blood-testing company Theranos deceived Arizona officials and patients by selling unproven, unreliable products that produced faulty medical results, according to a new book by Wall Street Journal reporter, whose in-depth, comprehensive investigation of the company uncovered deceit, abuse, and potential fraud.
    Moreover, Arizona government officials facilitated the deception by providing weak regulatory oversight that essentially left patients as guinea pigs, said the book’s author, investigative reporter John Carreyrou. 
    In the newly released "Bad Blood: Secrets and Lies in a Silicon Valley Startup," Carreyrou documents how Theranos and its upstart founder, Elizabeth Holmes, used overblown marketing claims and questionable sales tactics to push faulty products that resulted in consistently faulty blood tests results. Flawed results included tests for celiac disease and numerous other serious, and potentially life-threatening, conditions.
    According to Carreyrou, Theranos’ lies and deceit made Arizonans into guinea pigs in what amounted to a "big, unauthorized medical experiment.” Even though founder Elizabeth Holmes and Theranos duped numerous people, including seemingly savvy investors, Carreyrou points out that there were public facts available to elected officials back then, like a complete lack of clinical data on the company's testing and no approvals from the Food and Drug Administration for any of its tests.
    SEC recently charged the now disgraced Holmes with what it called a 'years-long fraud.’ The company’s value has plummeted, and it is now nearly worthless, and facing dozens, and possibly hundreds of lawsuits from angry investors. Meantime, Theranos will pay Arizona consumers $4.65 million under a consumer-fraud settlement Arizona Attorney General Mark Brnovich negotiated with the embattled blood-testing company.
    Both investors and Arizona officials, “could have picked up on those things or asked more questions or kicked the tires more," Carreyrou said. Unlike other states, such as New York, Arizona lacks robust laboratory oversight that would likely have prevented Theranos from operating in those places, he added.
    Stay tuned for more new on how the Theranos fraud story plays out.
    Read more at azcentral.com.