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    Pin-Milled Flour Could Mean Tastier Treats for Gluten-Free Eaters


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 04/22/2008 - There’s some good news on the product development front for folks on a gluten-free diet. Lest you think that companies are resting on their laurels, think again. With gluten-free products moving out of the niche segment of the market and more into the mainstream, there is tremendous interest among manufacturers in improving existing products and creating new products. Part of this interest lies in improving the functional properties of ingredients, especially the various flours that form the base of so many breads and bread-like products.


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    One problem that has stood in the way of rapid gluten-free product improvement has been a lack of knowledge about the functional properties of flours made from rice and other grains. When it comes to making tasty products, so much more is known about the functional properties of wheat than about other grains, but that is rapidly changing.

    A team from the US Agricultural Research Service and the Dale Bumper National Rice Research Centre recently set out to evaluate the ways in which different milling techniques might improve the functional properties of rice-based foods. Their findings indicate that pin-milled rice flour seems to produce products with a superior texture that the standard commercial-milling method.

    The research team used the same second-head long-grained rice in all of their tests, and compared baking results for commercial-, pin-, and Udy-milled rice. The Udy-milled flour was chemically simlar to the pin-milled flour, with similar amylose and protein levels, yet still produced inferior breads. The commercial flour was milled using a proprietary combination of a hammermill pass and a turbo mill follow-up.

    Breads made with commercially milled rice flour showed unfavorable texture and produced flatter, less fluffy loaves, often with large holes in the slices, while bread made with pin-milled rice flour produced fuller, fluffier loaves with better texture, and less holes. Pin-milling rice flour seems to result in more uniformly sized particles with less fine particles, making it superior for creating the novel rice-flour-based food products that are making up an increasing portion of the rapidly expanding market for gluten-free foods.

    Using pin-milled rice flour in place of conventionally milled rice flour, will likely result in better tasting tortillas, breads and rice-flour based products.

    The market for gluten-free foods has grown at more than 25% annually, from $210 million in 2001 to nearly $700 million in 2006. The figures for 2007 are not in yet, but analysts predict that the market will continue to sustain growth rates of 25% through 2010. This means that by the end of the decade, the gluten-free food industry will generate revenues in excess of $1 billion annually. This strong growth has been due largely to a greater awareness and improved testing methods for celiac disease. However, the creation of new and successful gluten-free products has been relatively slow, due largely to technical challenges and a lack on investment in research and development.

    Creating better gluten-free specialty foods using pin-miled rice flour might give producers who rely on rice ingredients a way to recover the costs of rice, which has risen nearly 70% since the beginning of the year. With technical breakthroughs, such as improved milling techniques, and greater investment in research and development, the market might see even greater gains that it has seen to this point. As more and more mainstream manufacturers look to tap into the ever-growing market for gluten-free foods, and as technical revelations increase, people with celiac disease and others on gluten-free diets are likely to see more appealing, better tasting gluten-free products become more widely available than before.

    Source: Effects of Milling on Functional Properties of Rice Flour
    R.S. Kadan, R.J. Bryant, and J.A. Miller
    Published article online: 11-Apr-2008
    doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00720.x

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    Guest Susan Stritar

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    This was very helpful and quite enlightening as to the texture and other problems with existing breads.

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    Guest Roxanna

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    We love bread. Yeah. Can't wait to get it.

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  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams is a freelance writer living in San Francisco. He has covered Health News for Examiner.com, and provided health and medical content for Sharecare.com. His work has appeared in Antioch Review, Blue Mesa Review, CALIBAN, Hayden's Ferry Review, Huffington Post, the Mississippi Review, and Slate, among others.

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  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Patients Diagnosed in Childhood Might Evolve toward Latency on a Normal Diet
    Celiac.com 05/23/2007 - The results of a study recently published in the journal Gut indicate that some people who suffer from celiac disease might not need to remain on a gluten free diet for their entire lives, and that some celiac patients might be able to safely introduce gluten containing foods without suffering a relapse.
    Previous Studies Showing Positive Response to Wheat Introduction in Patients with Celiac Disease are Promising, But Incomplete
    Several studies have shown that some patients diagnosed with celiac disease in childhood were able to remain on a gluten-containing diet after gluten challenge without suffering a relapse. However, most of these studies included a small number of patients, or followed the patients for only a short period after gluten was reintroduced into their diets.
    These previous studies also limited their evaluation largely to assessment of celiac disease serology and histology of duodenal biopsies, and did not attempt to identify what factors might predict the development of tolerance to gluten.
    Determining Long-term Response to Gluten Consumption in Celiac Disease Patients
    A research team made up of doctors Tamara Matysiak-Budnik (1), Georgia Malamut (1,2), Natacha Patey-Mariaud de Serre (3), Etienne Grosdidier (2), Sylvie Seguier (3), Nicole Brousse (3), Sophie Caillat-Zucman (4), Nadine Cerf-bensussan (1), Jacques Schmitz (5) and Christophe Cellier (1,2), set out to determine whether children diagnosed with celiac disease must follow a gluten free diet for life.
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    The study focused on a specific group of patients, all but two of whom were diagnosed as children and followed until adulthood in the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology in Necker Hospital and thereafter at the Georges Pompidou European Hospital in Paris; after which, they were entered into a local register of adult celiac patients and were recruited for the study based on two criteria: celiac disease diagnosed in childhood; and adherence to a normal diet.
    The patients in the study were from 18 to 65 years old, and had been diagnosed with celiac disease in childhood. The research team recorded data in the following categories: biological parameters of malabsorption; bone mineral density; clinical celiac status; gluten intake; HLA genotype; serological markers of celiac disease; as well as histological and immuno-histochemical parameters in duodenal biopsies.

    Results Show 20% Long-term Latency in Celiac Patients who Eat Normal Diet
    Of those studied, 61 patients had returned to a normal diet, and were asymptomatic. 48 showed various degrees of villous atrophy (silent celiac disease), and 13 had no detectable atrophy (latent celiac disease) on duodenal biopsies. Compared to those with silent celiac disease, patients with latent celiac disease showed markedly less osteopenia/osteoporosis [1/9 (11%) versus 23/33 (70%), p<0.001)], and lower TcR- + intraepithelial T cell counts (38±20 vs. 55±15, p<0.01).
    Patients with latent celiac disease had a lower mean age at the time of their first gluten free diet compared to patients with silent celiac disease (14.4±5 vs 40.1±47 months, p<0.05).
    Compared to the seven control patients on a long-term gluten free diet, the latent patients did not differ significantly, except for a higher frequency of celiac disease-specific serum antibodies. However, a follow-up found that two of the patients with latent celiac disease had suffered a clinical and histological relapse.
    Results showed that of those patients who remained asymptomatic after the reintroduction of gluten, 20% showed long-term latency.
    The study concludes that some patients with celiac disease may not need to remain on a life-long gluten free diet, and that some may indeed be able to safely reintroduce gluten into their diets with no adverse effects. However, the latency patients may experience may be transient, and therefore a regular follow-up is necessary. Also, patients with silent celiac disease should remain on a gluten free diet.
    Participating hospitals:
    (1) INSERM, U793, Faculté de Médecine René Descartes, IFR94, Paris, France.
    (2) AP-HP, H&OCIRC;pital Européen Georges Pompidou, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology,
    Paris, France.
    (3) AP-HP, H&OCIRC;pital Necker-Enfants Malades, Department of Pathology, Paris, France.
    (4) INSERM, Equipe Avenir, Faculté de Médecine René Descartes, Paris, France.
    (5) AP-HP, H&OCIRC;pital Necker-Enfants Malades, Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Paris, France.
    Gut 2006;13(10).
    Comments on this Study by Ron Hoggan
    This is dressed up like a new finding, but it isn't. There are a number of studies that show similar findings. Part of that problem lies in the interpretation of the biopsies, and part of the problem arises out of failing to recognize the variable nature of the disease. It has long been known to wax and wane for reasons beyond our ken. Samuel Gee (1888) and Gibbons (1889) both reported the cyclic nature of their patients symptoms. They cited a study to support the idea of a two year rule saying that relapse would usually occur within two years, yet Kuitunen P, Savilahti E, Verkasalo M., in Late mucosal relapse in a boy with coeliac disease and cows milk allergy. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1986 Mar;75(2):340-2. reported one patient who at 4.3 years on a normal diet showed normal villous architecture. It was not until a follow-up biopsy at more than 8 years of eating a gluten-containing diet that he showed villous atrophy. These findings, along with all the other studies that have shown long delays in some patients before relapsing, argue strongly for Michael N. Marsh's position that we should concentrate on treating any immune system that is sensitized to gluten with a gluten-free diet. His rectal challenge is an excellent tool for identifying such sensitized immune systems. Dr. Fines fecal antibody test probably fits into the same category. The underlying assumption is that the biopsy will identify all cases of intestinal lesion regardless of the possibility of patchy lesions that are well documented in the literature. They deal with increased IEL counts as if they were a feature of latent celiac disease when that is not the case. There are several other points on which this study falters. They admit that the latency can be transient. Unfortunately, they have not exchanged emails with people where they have returned to eating gluten and have developed an abdominal cancer. I exchanged emails with such a young man who blamed himself for having killed himself with his carelessness about his diet. How awful that was for him! Yet these authors seem to think it is quite acceptable for patients to indulge during their latency periods and only consider a diet if there is a relapse of intestinal lesion.
     

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 09/17/2009 - Just after the turn of this century, researchers at the University of Maryland School of Medicine discovered that a mysterious human protein called zonulin played a key role in celiac disease and other autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and diabetes.
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    Dr. Fasano is a professor of pediatrics, medicine and physiology and director of the Mucosal Biology Research Center and the Center for Celiac Research at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
    Haptoglobin is a molecule that has been known to scientists for many years. It was identified as a marker of inflammation in the body. Haptoglobin 1 is the original form of the haptoglobin molecule, and scientists believe it evolved 800 million years ago. Haptoglobin 2 is a version found only in humans. Scientists believe the mutation occurred in India about 2 million years ago, spreading gradually among increasing numbers of people throughout the world.
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 02/13/2014 - A team of researchers recently set out to assess the validity and effectiveness of near-patient celiac immunological testing in dietician-led celiac disease follow-up clinics, and to compare the results against standard laboratory immunological techniques.
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    Disclosure: The team noted the receipt of a £2250 (approximately $3,750.00) bursary award from Dr. Falk Pharma and Core.
    Source:
    Frontline Gastroenterol. 2014;5(1):20-25.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/06/2014 - Although the role of human digestive proteases in gluten proteins is quite well known, researchers don’t know much about the role of gut bacteria in the metabolism of these proteins. A research team recently set out to explore the diversity of the cultivable human gut microbiome involved in gluten metabolism.
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    Source:
    FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Volume 88, Issue 2, pages 309–319, May 2014. DOI: 10.1111/1574-6941.12295

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    Bakery On Main started in the small bakery of a natural foods market on Main Street in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Founder Michael Smulders listened when his customers with Celiac Disease would mention the lack of good tasting, gluten-free options available to them. Upon learning this, he believed that nobody should have to suffer due to any kind of food allergy or dietary need. From then on, his mission became creating delicious and fearlessly unique gluten-free products that were clean and great tasting, while still being safe for his Celiac customers!
    Premium ingredients, bakeshop delicious recipes, and happy customers were our inspiration from the beginning— and are still the cornerstones of Bakery On Main today. We are a fiercely ethical company that believes in integrity and feels that happiness and wholesome, great tasting food should be harmonious. We strive for that in everything we bake in our dedicated gluten-free facility that is GFCO Certified and SQF Level 3 Certified. We use only natural, NON-GMO Project Verified ingredients and all of our products are certified Kosher Parve, dairy and casein free, and we have recently introduced certified Organic items as well! 
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
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    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.