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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    PREVALENCE OF CELIAC DISEASE IN THE UNITED STATES IS FOUND TO BE 1 IN 133


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    Celiac.com 2/13/2003 - According to a recently published large-scale multi-year and multi-center study, 1 in 133, or a total of 2,131,019 Americans have celiac disease. Alessio Fasano, MD, et. al., and colleagues screened 13,145 subjects using serum antigliadin antibodies and anti–endomysial antibodies (EMA). Those who had positive EMA results were screened again for human tissue transglutaminase IgA antibodies and celiac disease-associated human leukocyte antigen DQ2/DQ8 haplotypes, and when possible, intestinal biopsies were also given. Additionally, for those with biopsy-proven celiac disease, 4,508 first-degree relatives and 1,275 second-degree relatives were also screened for the disease. A total of 3,236 symptomatic patients and 4,126 not-at-risk individuals were screened.


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    The study determined the following:

    Group Prevalence
    First degree relatives 1 in 22
    Second-degree relatives 1 in 39
    Symptomatic patients 1 in 56
    Not-at-risk individuals (overall prevalence) 1 in 133

    These results are much higher than previous studies have found, and they indicate that celiac disease is perhaps the most common genetic disorder in the United States, as well as one of the most poorly diagnosed diseases.

    February 10, 2003 edition of Archives of Internal Medicine


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  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/30/2007 - Many studies over the years have supported the idea that celiac disease is a permanent condition, and that those who strayed from the strict gluten-free diet that forms the core of celiac treatment risked relapsing and suffering the telltale intestinal damage associated with celiac disease. However, it was generally assumed that symptoms of celiac disease and associated intestinal degradation occurred within two years of reintroducing gluten back into the diet.
    The medical journal GUT recently published a paper by Matysiak-Budnik et al. concerning the natural history of celiac disease, which indicates that classic celiac damage to the intestinal lining may take years or decades to develop in some cases. A team of researchers looked at 61 adults who had been diagnosed with celiac disease as children, and who felt themselves to be asymptomatic for anywhere from 3 to 21 years, with a group average of 11 years. An exam revealed that 48 of the 61 test subjects indeed showed villous atrophy with crypt hypoplasia. The 13 other patients showed no celiac-associated intestinal damage.
    Strangely, 2 of the 13 patients with no signs of damage had showed such damage a short time after gluten was reintroduced into their diets, only to return to normal as they continued to consume gluten. From this, the researchers concluded that some people might actually become truly latent and tolerate gluten with no adverse effects. It’s also possible that such people actually still have celiac disease and that the intestinal damage has yet to recur, as villous atrophy occurs only at the tail end of celiac disease.
    In fact, delayed relapse of celiac disease after gluten reintroduction supports the notion that people with normal mucosa may in fact have celiac disease. Still, it is highly uncommon for patients with celiac disease to show no clinical symptoms on a long-term gluten-inclusive diet. The level of celiac disease+ intraepithelial lymphocytes has proven to be more useful than mucosal Marsh Type 1 lymphocytes in revealing early developing celiac disease in such cases and in general.
    Reliable diagnosis of celiac disease is important, as untreated celiac disease carries a broad range of associated risks including markedly higher rates of certain cancers. A recent study also suggests celiac disease may also adversely impact both the peripheral the central nervous systems.
    However, regarding the 13 asymptomatic patients, the original diagnosis of celiac would seem to be accurate in each case, as each had celiac-type HLA, either HLA DQ2 or DQ8, and their follow-up exam results showed that 5 of those patients had positive serum antibody results and higher densities of small bowel mucosa celiac disease+ and CD3+ intraepithelial lymphocytes than did the non-celiac control groups. Two of the 13 patients developed symptoms of a relapse during the follow-up.
    The study team concluded that the “2 year rule” for reintroducing gluten is invalid and supports the view that celiac disease exists beyond villous atrophy. As villous atrophy of the small intestine is only one manifestation of genetic gluten intolerance, and that the present diagnostic guidelines based on mucosal damage and ignoring early developing celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis is only one incarnation of celiac disease.
    GUT 2007; 56:1339-1340
    Katri Kaukinen, Pekka Collin, Medical School, University of Tampere and Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland Markku Ma¨ki, Medical School, University of Tampere and Department of Paediatrics, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland

    Destiny Stone
    Celiac.com 04/28/2010 - Celiac disease primarily impacts the proximal small intestine, and the small intestine is fundamental  in maintaining zinc equilibrium within the body. Recently, zinc has been acknowledged for it's importance in upholding the integrity of intestinal mucosa, immunity and proper growth rates in children. Base-line plasma zinc levels are shown to be greatly reduced in over two-thirds of children diagnosed with celiac disease.
    A study was conducted by the Celiac Disease Clinic in the division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Post Graduate Institute Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India  between July 2006 and December 2007, to evaluate plasma levels of zinc in children with celiac disease, correlate plasma zinc levels among celiacs short in stature and with diarrhea, and to compare plasma zinc levels in deficient patients on a gluten-free diet with zinc supplementation, to patients on a gluten-free diet without zinc supplementation.
    134 total patients less than 14 years old and newly diagnosed with celiac disease, were enrolled for the study. Each subject enrolled was also evaluated for baseline demographics and social profiles which included an in-depth medical history, physical examination, and thorough blood work. All patients included in the study were placed on a gluten-free diet and  received dietary counseling from a physician and experienced dietitian.
    All patients received a 20 milligram dose of elemental zinc supplementation for 4 weeks.  Plasma zinc levels were compared at baseline and also at 4 weeks to determine zinc deficiency. Patients found to be deficient in zinc levels were randomly divided into two  groups, Group G and Group G+Z. Group G treatments included a gluten-free diet without zinc supplementation. Group G+Z received a gluten-free diet with zinc supplementation. 
    The results of this study showed that plasma zinc levels had a significant rise in Group G and Group G+Z regardless of zinc supplementation. However, a gluten-free diet alone showed a profound increase in plasma zinc levels, even when compared to gluten-free diet with zinc supplements; thereby indicating that zinc supplementation combined with  a gluten-free diet gives no additional benefits to plasma zinc levels. In fact,  all celiac patients that maintained  a gluten-free diet for this study showed that their ability to absorb zinc had significantly improved. Therefore, it can be concluded that zinc levels rise with a gluten-free diet regardless of zinc supplementation,  proving that a  completely gluten-free diet is the cure to poor zinc absorption in celiac patients.


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 03/26/2012 - People with thyroiditis and untreated celiac disease may suffer from reduced thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, a new study has found. Those people may require supplemental doses of thyroxine to normalize their thyroid-stimulating hormone levels.
    That study, which appears in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, also indicates that following a gluten-free diet seems to require less thyroxine to push thyroid hormone back toward normal levels.
    More and more, people diagnosed with celiac disease, show atypical symptoms, many without the classic gastrointestinal complaints that traditionally characterized celiac disease.
    The study team notes that the need for higher thyroxine doses may offer a clue to such atypical celiac disease.
    Leader of the study, endocrinologist Dr. Marco Centanni, of Sapienza University of Rome, in Italy, encourages doctors to consider the "possibility of the presence of other occult autoimmune disorders…every time they see a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis."
    Dr. Centanni adds that doctors should consider malabsorption, and possible celiac disease, whenever standard thyroxine doses fail to reduce thyroid-stimulating hormone levels to under 2.5mU/L. For Dr. Centanni, an individually-tailored dose of thyroxine that fails to hit the therapeutic target is a powerful "tool to unveil occult gastrointestinal disorders."
    Dr. Centanni and his team analyzed replacement T4 doses in 35 hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and atypical celiac disease. They also looked at 68 patients with Hashimoto's alone.
    After an about five months of thyroxine doses averaging 1.31 mcg/kg/day, the 68 patients without celiac disease reached target serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels of a median of 1.02 mU/L.
    After receiving similar thyroxine doses over a similar span of time, the 35 patients with celiac disease showed much higher hormone levels, averaging 4.20 mU/l, and just a single patient had reached the target level.
    The team then encouraged patients with celiac disease to adopt a gluten-free diet, and found 21 willing patients.
    When they measured those 21 patients again after an average of 11 months, they found that the patients had returned to target serum hormone levels on a average thyroxine dose of 1.32 mcg/kg/day, which is similar to the dose originally used in the non-celiacs.
    To get normal target serum hormone levels in the 14 celiac patients who did not comply with the gluten-free diet, the team had to increase the dosage substantially.
    From these results, the researchers conclude that malabsorption of thyroxine may offer an as yet undiscovered way detect celiac disease in certain cases.
    Source:

    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2012

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/02/2013 - A great deal of effort goes into determining the best procedures for screening for celiac disease. Ideally it would be great to test everyone, but that is currently too expensive on such a large scale. So, one of the things researchers study is how to get the best results with limited resources.
    To better understand the cost-effectiveness of universal screening for celiac disease versus screening only patients who are at risk for or showing symptoms of celiac disease, a team of researchers looked specifically at the high risk, and associated costs, of non-traumatic hip and vertebral fractures if celiac disease is untreated or undiagnosed. Their results appear in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.
    The team found that the current standard practice of screening adolescents who are either symptomatic or at high-risk for celiac disease proves to be more cost-effective than universal screening.
    They also found that screening helps to prevent decreased bone mineral density, which can affect up to 70 percent of untreated celiac patients, and often leads to osteoporosis and non-traumatic hip and vertebral fractures.
    Overall, blanket screening and selective screening both had similar lifetime costs and quality of life ratings, but screening only those at risk or with actual symptoms proved to be more cost effective in preventing bone loss and fractures among patients with undiagnosed or subclinical celiac disease.
    They noted that additional analyses looking at risk and cost of other potential consequences of undiagnosed and untreated celiac disease, such as anemia, infertility and malignancy, might change the cost-effectiveness balance more in favor of universal screening for celiac disease.
    Source:
    American Gastroenterological Association

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6