• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    77,584
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    Ran M
    Newest Member
    Ran M
    Joined
  • 0

    Researchers Use RNA-amplicon Sequencing to Spot Differences in Celiac Disease Epitopes in Durum Wheat Varieties


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 02/04/2014 - According to a new article by a team of researchers, not all gluten protein is created equal. That is, not all gluten proteins trigger an immune response in people with celiac disease.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    Photo: CC--antonella_baccariaThe research team included Elma M.J. Salentijn, Danny G. Esselink, Svetlana V. Goryunova, Ingrid M. van der Meer, Luud J.W.J. Gilissen, and Marinus J.M. Smulders. They are variously affiliated with the Plant Research International in Wageningen, The Netherlands, and the Vavilov Institute of General Genetics at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, Russia.

    Gluten proteins are the source of peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease patients, leading to inflammatory responses in the small intestine. Various peptides with three major T cell epitopes involved in celiac disease are derived from alpha-gliadin fraction of gluten. Numerous factors are known to influence the immunogenicity of individual gene family members, as alpha-gliadins are encoded by a large multi-gene family and amino acid variation in the celiac disease epitopes. That means that some wheat strains are more likely to trigger celiac disease, and other are less likely.

    Current commercial methods of gluten detection cannot tell the difference between immunogenic and non-immunogenic celiac epitope variants, and thus cannot accurately measure the overall celiac epitope load of a given wheat strain. Being able to tell the difference between what types of wheat have a lower likelihood to cause or trigger celiac disease is important to commercial wheat growers and producers.

    The team developed a 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method for alpha-gliadin transcripts that includes the three major celiac disease epitopes and their variants. They used the method to screen 61 different durum wheat cultivars and accessions. They found a total of 304 unique alpha-gliadin transcripts, corresponding to a total of 171 ‘unique deduced protein fragments’ of alpha-gliadins.

    They used the numbers of these fragments obtained in each plant to calculate quantitative and quantitative differences between the celiac epitopes expressed in the endosperm of these wheat plants. A small number of wheat plants showed a lower ratios of celiac epitope-encoding alpha-gliadin transcripts, though none were entirely free of celiac epitopes.

    Dedicated 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing allows researchers to group wheat plants according to the genetic variation in alpha-gliadin transcripts, and to screen for plants which are potentially less likely to trigger or promote celiac disease.

    The alpha-gliadin sequence database the team constructed will provide an important reference in proteomics analysis regarding the immunogenic potential of mature wheat grains.

    Source: 

    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    Guest vazzzao

    Posted

    Provides a great understanding why this disease kicked in at age 50.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites


    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoji are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Ads by Google:

  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams is a freelance writer living in San Francisco. He has covered Health News for Examiner.com, and provided health and medical content for Sharecare.com. His work has appeared in Antioch Review, Blue Mesa Review, CALIBAN, Hayden's Ferry Review, Huffington Post, the Mississippi Review, and Slate, among others.

  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   3 Members, 0 Anonymous, 232 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    Roy Jamron
    Celiac.com 02/10/2008 - Researchers have found a 10mer durum wheat peptide capable of shifting a Th1 gluten-intolerant T cell response to a Th2 gluten-tolerant T cell response in intestinal T cell cultures derived from celiac disease children and incubated with deamidated gliadin peptides.  Durum wheat peptides could potentially treat celiac disease by causing celiac disease associated T cells to react tolerantly to gluten.
    In the study, incubation of the T cell cultures with deamidated gliadin peptides resulted in a significant increase in T cell proliferation and interferon-gamma release.  Simultaneous exposure to duram wheat peptides totally abolished the cell proliferation and cytokine release while maintaining an elevated release of interleukin-10 (IL-10).
    The workings of the immune system are too complex to discuss here in detail.  Basically when a "pre-helper" CD4-type T cell is presented with an epitope from an antigen (gliadin), the T cell becomes activated and responds to the stimulus by becoming either a type 1 or type 2 helper T cell which in turn releases different subsets of cytokines.  The Th1 path promotes mucosal tissue destruction in celiac disease while the Th2 path initiates proliferation of gluten and tTGase antibodies.  Th1 and Th2 cytokines each have properties which act in a feedback loop to suppress, limit, and regulate each other's cytokine secretions, i.e. Th1 cytokines suppress Th2 cytokine secretion and vice vesa.
    Overactivity of either a Th1 or a Th2 response can result in an autoimmune condition.  Researchers theorize that balancing Th1/Th2 response can ameliorate and control symptoms and disease progression in at least some autoimmune diseases.  Th1 response includes release of the cytokine interferon-gamma which differentiates and activates macrophages.  Th2 response can include the release of IL-10, a cytokine which suppresses inflammation and promotes antigen tolerance.  Various molecules have been demonstrated to shift Th1/Th2 response in various autoimmune disorders.  In the durum wheat study, the presence of the durum wheat peptide in the gliadin peptide incubated celiac intestinal T cell culture increased Th2 IL-10 release and stopped T cell proliferation and Th1 interferon-gamma release.  Hence, this durum wheat peptide may be useful as a celiac disease therapy.  How effective this treatment may be is unknown at this time. 
    Below is an example of sodium benzoate being used to shift Th1 to Th2 response in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis which improved symptoms and disease progression when fed to the mice orally.  This suggests that the durum wheat peptide could potentially treat celiac disease by simply being administered as an oral supplement.  However, if a probiotic bacteria could be genetically engineered to continuously secrete a form of this durum wheat peptide in the gut, this could result in essentially a "cure" for celiac disease if the durum wheat peptide proves effective.
    ----------
    Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;87(2):415-23.
    A 10-residue peptide from durum wheat promotes a shift from a Th1-type response toward a Th2-type response in celiac disease.
    Silano M, Di Benedetto R, Maialetti F, De Vincenzi A, Calcaterra R, Trecca A, De Vincenzi M.
    Division of Food Science, Human Nutrition and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy.
    http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/87/2/415
    ----------
    J Immunol. 2007 Jul 1;179(1):275-83.
    Sodium benzoate, a food additive and a metabolite of cinnamon, modifies T cells at multiple steps and inhibits adoptive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.
    Brahmachari S, Pahan K.
    Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, 1735 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
    http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/abstract/179/1/275
    * * *

  • Recent Articles

    Advertising Banner-Ads
    Bakery On Main started in the small bakery of a natural foods market on Main Street in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Founder Michael Smulders listened when his customers with Celiac Disease would mention the lack of good tasting, gluten-free options available to them. Upon learning this, he believed that nobody should have to suffer due to any kind of food allergy or dietary need. From then on, his mission became creating delicious and fearlessly unique gluten-free products that were clean and great tasting, while still being safe for his Celiac customers!
    Premium ingredients, bakeshop delicious recipes, and happy customers were our inspiration from the beginning— and are still the cornerstones of Bakery On Main today. We are a fiercely ethical company that believes in integrity and feels that happiness and wholesome, great tasting food should be harmonious. We strive for that in everything we bake in our dedicated gluten-free facility that is GFCO Certified and SQF Level 3 Certified. We use only natural, NON-GMO Project Verified ingredients and all of our products are certified Kosher Parve, dairy and casein free, and we have recently introduced certified Organic items as well! 
    Our passion is to bake the very best products while bringing happiness to our customers, each other, and all those we meet!
    We are available during normal business hours at: 1-888-533-8118 EST.
    To learn more about us at: visit our site.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/20/2018 - Currently, the only way to manage celiac disease is to eliminate gluten from the diet. That could be set to change as clinical trials begin in Australia for a new vaccine that aims to switch off the immune response to gluten. 
    The trials are set to begin at Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre. The vaccine is designed to allow people with celiac disease to consume gluten with no adverse effects. A successful vaccine could be the beginning of the end for the gluten-free diet as the only currently viable treatment for celiac disease. That could be a massive breakthrough for people with celiac disease.
    USC’s Clinical Trials Centre Director Lucas Litewka said trial participants would receive an injection of the vaccine twice a week for seven weeks. The trials will be conducted alongside gastroenterologist Dr. James Daveson, who called the vaccine “a very exciting potential new therapy that has been undergoing clinical trials for several years now.”
    Dr. Daveson said the investigational vaccine might potentially restore gluten tolerance to people with celiac disease.The trial is open to adults between the ages of 18 and 70 who have clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and have followed a strict gluten-free diet for at least 12 months. Anyone interested in participating can go to www.joinourtrials.com.
    Read more at the website for Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre.

    Source:
    FoodProcessing.com.au

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/16/2018 - Summer is the time for chips and salsa. This fresh salsa recipe relies on cabbage, yes, cabbage, as a secret ingredient. The cabbage brings a delicious flavor and helps the salsa hold together nicely for scooping with your favorite chips. The result is a fresh, tasty salsa that goes great with guacamole.
    Ingredients:
    3 cups ripe fresh tomatoes, diced 1 cup shredded green cabbage ½ cup diced yellow onion ¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro 1 jalapeno, seeded 1 Serrano pepper, seeded 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar 2 garlic cloves, minced salt to taste black pepper, to taste Directions:
    Purée all ingredients together in a blender.
    Cover and refrigerate for at least 1 hour. 
    Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper, as desired. 
    Serve is a bowl with tortilla chips and guacamole.