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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    STUDY SAYS NOT ALL PATIENTS WITH POTENTIAL CELIAC DISEASE NEED GLUTEN-FREE DIET


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 06/10/2016 - Do all patients with potential celiac disease need a gluten-free diet? The transformation of potential celiac disease to full-blown celiac disease has been described in some western clinical studies, but there is no good data on cases in Asia.


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    Recently, a team of researchers set out to study the short-term histological course of potential celiac disease in Indian patients. The research team included R Kondala, AS Puri, AK Banka, S Sachdeva, and P Sakhuja. They are variously affiliated with the Department of Gastroenterology and the Department of Pathology at Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital, New Delhi, India.

    For their study, the team identified prospective patients with potential celiac disease by screening relatives of celiac patients, patients with the diarrheal subtype of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) and patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). They conducted endoscopy with duodenal biopsy on patients who tested positive for immunoglobulin A antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (IgA anti-tTG)

    Patients a Marsh-0 to Marsh-II lesion on duodenal biopsy, along with positive IgA tTG serology met the definition of celiac disease. The team retested for serology and histology at 6-month and 12 months.

    The team diagnosed 23 male and 34 female patients with potential celiac disease. Patients ranged from 4-73 years old, averaging 28.7 years. Of these 57 patients, 28 were identified by screening 192 first-degree relatives of 55 index cases of celiac disease, while the remaining 29 had either IBS-D or IDA. Duodenal biopsy showed Marsh-0, Marsh-I and Marsh-II changes in 28 celiac patients, 27 IBS-D patients, and 2 IDA patients.

    After 6 months, 12 patients became seronegative, while the remaining 45 patients continued to be seropositive at the 12-month time point. Only four patients moved to Marsh III status, while progression from Marsh-0 to either Marsh-I or Marsh-II occurred in six patients and one patient, respectively.

    Meanwhile, 14 patients with Marsh-I did show regression to Marsh-0. Of the two patients who were initially Marsh-II, one remained so upon follow up and one showed favorable regression to Marsh-0 status.

    This study shows that, even though almost 80% of the patients diagnosed have potential celiac disease continue to remain seropositive for tTG 12 months later, only 7% slipped to Marsh-III over the same time period.

    According to this team, these observations do not justify starting a gluten-free diet in all patients with potential celiac disease, in India.

    With all due respect to the research team, I wonder what would happen to these patients if they were followed over a greater time span? Would their conditions worsen? Clearly some longer term follow-up of such patients is warranted.

    Also, how many such patients would see an even greater regression of their symptoms and Marsh status if they followed a gluten-free diet? This study doesn’t tell us much about the possible benefits of a gluten-free diet in cases of potential celiac disease, just that, absent a gluten-free diet, some patients worsen and some improve.

    Source:


    Image Caption: Image: CC--Jeff Turner
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  • Related Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/11/2015 - If you ask me, it doesn't seem that far-fetched that some people who do not have celiac disease could still have adverse reactions to gluten. However, actually proving that scientifically continues to be challenging.
    Take the case of the research team that recently conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, gluten-challenge trial of patients with suspected non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The team wanted to try to get an idea of the number of self-diagnosed patients with non-celiac gluten sensitivity.
    The team enrolled 53 women and 8 men referred to two Italian centers between October 2012 and November 2013 for suspected non-celiac gluten sensitivity. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 4.375-g gluten or rice starch per day via gastro-soluble capsules for 1 week after a 1-week run-in period, and followed by a 1-week washout period and cross-over to the other group.
    The team chose rice starch as the placebo because it is "the most readily absorbable of the complex carbohydrates, and thus less fermentable, in the intestinal tract." They used a daily questionnaire to chart any changes in overall symptom scores, and conducted analysis with a per-protocol approach. A total of 59 patients completed the trial, while two withdrew due to "intolerable symptoms."
    Overall, one week of gluten consumption increased overall symptom severity compared with one week of placebo (P = .034), including abdominal bloating (P = .04), abdominal pain (P = .047), foggy mind (P = .019), depression (P = .02) and aphthous stomatitis (P = .025).
    Perplexingly, the team found that "most patients showed approximately equal degrees of overall symptoms with either gluten or placebo, although overall symptoms were worsened significantly by gluten in comparison with placebo."
    Got that? Significant numbers of the subjects reacted to the placebo.
    The short conclusion is that these results "do not represent crucial evidence in favor of the existence of this new syndrome." However, and it's a big however, the results aren't quite as clear as they might appear.
    In an accompanying editorial, Benjamin Lebwohl, MD, from the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University, and Daniel A. Leffler, MD, MS, from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center write:
    The "overall positive result was driven by a minority of patients, whereas the rest had no (or at most a modest) worsening compared with placebo."
    They add that:
    "These findings can be a Rorschach test of sorts, in which the viewer draws interpretations that are based on his or her prior beliefs about NCGS. … It is therefore not surprising that this trial, like its predecessors, seems only to contribute to the uncertainty about NCGS."
    So, basically, there's no clear word on the existence or non-existence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity, or on the number of people who might suffer from it.
    Stay tuned for more studies, and more information as researchers attempt to sort it all out.
    Source:
    CGHJournal.org

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/30/2015 - A new study by researchers in Italy shows that only a minority of patients who meet clinical criteria for non-celiac gluten sensitivity actually show symptoms when exposed to gluten in a controlled gluten challenge. Why is that?
    Researchers haven't had much good information on whether symptoms in people who meet clinical diagnostic criteria for non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are specifically triggered by gluten. To provide better information, a team of researchers recently set out to assess gluten sensitivity in patients diagnosed with NCGS.
    The research team includes B. Zanini; R. Basché; A. Ferraresi; C. Ricci; F. Lanzarotto; M. Marullo; V. Villanacci; A. Hidalgo; and A. Lanzini. They are variously affiliated with Department of Gastroenterology, and the Department of Pathology at the University and Spedali Civili of Brescia, Brescia, Italy, and the Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences at the University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    For their in a double-blind challenge study, their team looked at 31 females and 4 males without celiac disease, who were following a gluten-free diet (GFD). Participants were randomly broken into groups that received either gluten-containing flour or gluten-free flour for 10 days, followed by a 2-week washout period, followed by a switch in gluten-free/non-gluten-free diets.
    The main outcome measure was the test subjects' ability to identify which flour contained gluten. Secondary outcome measures were based upon Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (GSRS) scores.
    Only 12 participants (34%) classified as having NCGS correctly pointed out the gluten-containing flour. These participants showed much higher average GSRS dimension scores following gluten challenge compared to baseline.
    The team measured scores for: pain, 1.7 ± 0.8 vs. 2.6 ± 1.0; reflux, 1.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2.2 ± 0.9; indigestion, 1.9 ± 0.7 vs. 3.2 ± 1.1; diarrhea, 1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 2.9 ± 1.5 and constipation, 1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 2.9 ± 1.3.
    Seventeen participants, nearly half, erroneously considered the gluten-free flour to contain gluten. Their average GSRS dimension scores were significantly higher following gluten-free flour challenge compared to baseline.
    The scores were: pain, 1.6 ± 0.9 vs. 3.0 ± 0.9; reflux, 1.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.3 ± 1.1; indigestion, 2.0 ± 1.1 vs. 3.7 ± 1.1; diarrhea, 1.6 ± 0.7 vs. 3.0 ± 1.2 and constipation, 1.6 ± 0.9 vs. 2.6 ± 1.3.
    The other six participants (17%) were unable to distinguish between the flours.
    Based on this study, only about one in three patients with clinical non-celiac gluten sensitivity showed an adverse reaction to gluten.
    Clearly, more needs to be done to determine the exact nature of non-celiac gluten-sensitivity, and to determine what, if anything, may be driving these adverse reactions that can be triggered by non-gluten containing foods.
    Source:
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015;42(8):968-976.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/06/2016 - Ultra-short celiac disease (USCD) is a type of celiac disease in which villous atrophy limited to the patient's duodenal bulb.
    The clinical effects of of ultra-short celiac disease, or gluten-sensitive enteropathy with villous atrophy limited to the duodenal bulb (D1) have not been delineated in adults with celiac disease.
    A team of researchers recently evaluated the sensitivity of D1 biopsy analysis in celiac disease detection, the number and sites of biopsies required to detect USCD, which is villous atrophy limited to the duodenal bulb, and the clinical characteristics of USCD.
    The researchers included Peter D. Mooney, Matthew Kurien, Kate E. Evans, Eleanor Rosario, Simon S. Cross, Patricia Vergani, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Joseph A. Murray, and David S. Sanders. They are variously affiliated with the University of Sheffield, UK, and with the Departments of Gastroenterology, Neurology and Histopathology at Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK.
    For their evaluation, they conducted a prospective study of 854 women and 524 men, averaging about 50 years of age, who underwent endoscopy at a tertiary medical center in the United Kingdom from 2008 through 2014. The team collected routine duodenal biopsies from D1 and D2.
    They collected quadrantic D1 biopsies from 171 consecutive patients with a high suspicion of celiac disease. This group averaged about age 46 years of age, and was 64% female.
    Using biopsy analysis, they then compared the clinical data from patients diagnosed with USCD against data from patients with conventional celiac disease damage beyond D1, and against data from a control group of patients without celiac disease. They then compared numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and immune phenotypes between D1 vs D2 in patients with celiac disease.
    Of the 1378 patients assessed, they diagnosed 268, nearly 20%, with celiac disease; 9.7% of these patients had villous atrophy confined to D1 (USCD, P<.0001). By collecting just a single additional biopsy from any D1 site, the sensitivity of celiac disease detection increased by about 10% (P<.0001).
    Overall, patients with USCD were younger, had lower levels of tissue transglutaminase antibody, and suffered less frequently with diarrhea than patients with conventional celiac disease. Both USCD and control patients had far fewer cases ferritin deficiency or folate deficiency than patients with conventional celiac disease. Patients with celiac disease averaged 50 IELs/100 enterocytes in D1, and 48 IELs/100 enterocytes in D2.
    The phenotype of IELs from patients with D1 celiac disease was no different from those of patients with D2 celiac disease.
    This study shows that the collection of a single additional biopsy from any site in the D1 intestine increases the sensitivity of detection for celiac disease by about 10%.
    Patients with USCD may have early-stage or limited celiac disease, with a mild clinical phenotype, and fewer nutritional deficiencies. This is an important thing to keep in mind when diagnosing and treating such cases.
    Source:
    Gastrojournal.org. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.01.029

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/01/2016 - People with potential celiac disease (PCD) have blood and genetic markers for celiac disease, but show little or no damage to the small intestinal mucosa.
    A research team recently conducted a prospective study to learn more about how the disease progresses in these individuals. The research team included U Volta, G Caio, F Giancola, KJ Rhoden, E Ruggeri, E Boschetti, V Stanghellini, and R De Giorgio. They are all affiliated with the departments of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Digestive System, Centro di Ricerca Biomedica Applicata at the University of Bologna, St Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy.
    For their study the team collected data from 59 women and 18 men, averaging 33 years of age. The patients were all diagnosed with potential celiac disease, based on blood tests and HLA type, at Bologna University in Italy from 2004 through 2013. All patients had either slight inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa, or normal mucosa.
    The team assessed clinical, laboratory, and histologic parameters at diagnosis and during a 3-year follow-up period. Forty-six female and 15 male patients, with an average age of 36 years, showed intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms, whereas the remaining 13 female and 3 male patients, averaging 21 years of age, showed no symptoms at diagnosis.
    All subjects tested positive for immunoglobulin A endomysial antibody and tissue transglutaminase antibody, except for 1 patient with immunoglobulin A deficiency; 95% of patients carried the HLA-DQ2 gene. Duodenal biopsies showed that 26% of patients had a Marsh score of 0, while 74% had a Marsh score of 1.
    Thirty-six percent of symptomatic patients had autoimmune disorders, and 41% had antinuclear antibodies, compared to just 5% and 12% asymptomatic patients, respectively. Symptomatic patients were generally older at diagnosis (P < .05).
    Gluten-free diet led to significant clinical improvement in all 61 symptomatic patients. The 16 asymptomatic patients continued on gluten-containing diets, and only 1 developed mucosal flattening; levels of anti-endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies fluctuated in 5 of these patients or became undetectable.
    This 3-year study of adults with potential celiac disease shows that most do have symptoms, which improved on gluten-free diet. However, asymptomatic adults with potential celiac disease do not tend to develop villous atrophy, and so do not require treatment with a gluten-free diet.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016 May;14(5):686-693.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2015.10.024. Epub 2015 Oct 30.

  • Recent Articles

    Tammy Rhodes
    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
    I have already lived through two natural disasters. Neither of which I ever want to experience again, but they taught me a very valuable lesson, which is why I created a Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag (see link below). Here’s my story. If you’ve ever lived in or visited the Los Angeles area, you’re probably familiar with the Santa Ana winds and how bitter sweet they are. Sweet for cleaning the air and leaving the skies a brilliant crystal blue, and bitter for the power outages and potential brush fires that might ensue.  It was one of those bitter nights where the Santa Ana winds were howling, and we had subsequently lost our power. We had to drive over an hour just to find a restaurant so we could eat dinner. I remember vividly seeing the glow of a brush fire on the upper hillside of the San Gabriel Mountains, a good distance from our neighborhood. I really didn’t think much of it, given that it seemed so far from where we lived, and I was hungry! After we ate, we headed back home to a very dark house and called it a night. 
    That’s where the story takes a dangerous turn….about 3:15am. I awoke to the TV blaring loudly, along with the lights shining brightly. Our power was back on! I proceeded to walk throughout the house turning everything off at exactly the same time our neighbor, who was told to evacuate our street, saw me through our window, assuming I knew that our hillside was ablaze with flames. Flames that were shooting 50 feet into the air. I went back to bed and fell fast asleep. The fire department was assured we had left because our house was dark and quiet again. Two hours had passed.  I suddenly awoke to screams coming from a family member yelling, “fire, fire, fire”! Flames were shooting straight up into the sky, just blocks from our house. We lived on a private drive with only one way in and one way out.  The entrance to our street was full of smoke and the fire fighters were doing their best to save our neighbors homes. We literally had enough time to grab our dogs, pile into the car, and speed to safety. As we were coming down our street, fire trucks passed us with sirens blaring, and I wondered if I would ever see my house and our possessions ever again. Where do we go? Who do we turn to? Are shelters a safe option? 
    When our daughter was almost three years old, we left the West Coast and relocated to Northern Illinois. A place where severe weather is a common occurrence. Since the age of two, I noticed that my daughter appeared gaunt, had an incredibly distended belly, along with gas, stomach pain, low weight, slow growth, unusual looking stool, and a dislike for pizza, hotdog buns, crackers, Toast, etc. The phone call from our doctor overwhelmed me.  She was diagnosed with Celiac Disease. I broke down into tears sobbing. What am I going to feed my child? Gluten is everywhere.
    After being scoped at Children's Hospital of Chicago, and my daughters Celiac Disease officially confirmed, I worried about her getting all the nutrients her under nourished body so desperately needed. I already knew she had a peanut allergy from blood tests, but just assumed she would be safe with other nuts. I was so horribly wrong. After feeding her a small bite of a pistachio, which she immediately spit out, nuts would become her enemy. Her anaphylactic reaction came within minutes of taking a bite of that pistachio. She was complaining of horrible stomach cramps when the vomiting set in. She then went limp and starting welting. We called 911.
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    Then, my second brush with a natural disaster happened, without any notice, leaving us once again scrambling to find a safe place to shelter. It was a warm and muggy summer morning, and my husband was away on a business trip leaving my young daughter and me to enjoy our summer day. Our Severe Weather Alert Radio was going off, again, as I continued getting our daughter ready for gymnastics.  Having gotten used to the (what seemed to be daily) “Severe Thunderstorm warning,” I didn’t pay much attention to it. I continued downstairs with my daughter and our dog, when I caught a glimpse out the window of an incredibly black looking cloud. By the time I got downstairs, I saw the cover to our grill literally shoot straight up into the air. Because we didn’t have a fenced in yard, I quickly ran outside and chased the cover, when subsequently, I saw my neighbor’s lawn furniture blow pass me. I quickly realized I made a big mistake going outside. As I ran back inside, I heard debris hitting the front of our home.  Our dog was the first one to the basement door! As we sat huddled in the dark corner of our basement, I was once again thinking where are we going to go if our house is destroyed. I was not prepared, and I should have been. I should have learned my lesson the first time. Once the storm passed, we quickly realized we were without power and most of our trees were destroyed. We were lucky that our house had minimal damage, but that wasn’t true for most of the area surrounding us.  We were without power for five days. We lost most of our food - our gluten free food.
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    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
    The team enrolled fifty adults with symptoms and indications of celiac disease in a prospective cohort without regard to the final diagnosis.  At baseline, all individuals underwent cognitive functional and psychological evaluation. The team then compared celiac disease patients with subjects without celiac disease, and with healthy controls matched by sex, age, and education.
    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764