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  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams is a freelance writer living in San Francisco. He has covered Health News for Examiner.com, and provided health and medical content for Sharecare.com. His work has appeared in Antioch Review, Blue Mesa Review, CALIBAN, Hayden's Ferry Review, Huffington Post, the Mississippi Review, and Slate, among others.

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    Kim Hopkins
    Celiac.com 06/05/2009 - Recently, the British Journal of Nutritionreported that following a gluten-free diet may be detrimental to guthealth, which may also affect immune health, according to a new studyfrom the Spanish National Research Council. The Spanish researchersanalyzed the gut microflora of ten healthy subjects with an average ageof 30 assigned to consume a gluten-free diet for one month.   Analysisof the participants’ feces showed that populations of healthy gutbacteria decreased following the gluten-free diet, while populations ofunhealthy bacteria increased.

    It has been previously documented that gluten can cause leaky gut, evenwithout celiac disease.  Chronic gluten exposure has been shown toactivate zonulin resulting in increased intestinal permeability (orleaky gut) even in the absence of celiac disease. Intestinalpermeability with malabsorption has been described in celiac patientsand their relatives who don’t have atrophy of the intestine on biopsybut only increased inflammatory cells.  An imbalance of intestinalbacteria has been cited as one of the main causes of leaky gutsyndrome.  This study could be the beginning of discovering the missingcomponents of the known link between celiac disease (and foodsensitivities), leaky gut syndrome, inflammation, and immune health.

    If you have celiac disease and/or other food sensitivities, your riskfor a bacteria imbalance is high.  What can you do to protect yourhealth?

    Know the signs of bacteria imbalance: abdominal pain, asthma, chronic joint pain, chronic muscle pain,confusion, fuzzy or foggy thinking, gas, indigestion, mood swings,nervousness, poor immunity, recurrent vaginal infections, skin rashes,diarrhea, bed-wetting, recurrent bladder infections, poor memory,shortness of breath, constipation, bloating, aggressive behavior,anxiety, fatigue, feeling toxic. Consider dietary changes: Limit foods that feed bad bacteria – all forms of sugar, vinegars, andmoldy foods like mushrooms.  Eat foods that promote intestinal healing,including high fiber foods rich in antioxidants (cabbage, cauliflower,beets, and onions) and omega-3 fatty acids found in salmon andflaxseed.  Healthy bacteria found in yogurt (read the label to ensurethat it contains live cultures) has also been recommended. Think about chemical exposure: Eliminating or reducing substances that promote intestinalpermeability, such as avoiding antibiotics, nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drugs, pesticides, herbicides, and meat contaminatedwith hormones. Talk to your doctor: More research needs to be done, but it seems as though probiotics maybe protective against leaky gut and bowel inflammation.  Clinicalresearch shows that oral supplementation of probiotics enhances theimmune system's ability to fight foreign organisms.  Digestive Enzymescan also help to restore intestinal permeability.  Herbs and botanicalswith anti-inflammatory properties, and those that reduce congestionand/or eliminate waste may also be helpful.
    Sources
    autoimmunedisease.suite101.com About.com   Leaky Gut Syndrome/Intestinal Permeability, Cathy Wong, July 23, 2007 www.Foodnavigator-usa.com Crook, William; Dean, C.; Crook, E (2003).  The Yeast Connection and Women’s Health Author's Note:  I apologize for the confusion a poorly-worded sentence caused - it has since been removed.  Obviously, this study is very flawed - it can barely be called a study.  What prompted me to write about it was the very small glimmer of hope it gave me, and many of the people I work with...so many celiacs feel good on the diet for a long time, then don't feel good anymore.  Many are told that it's in their heads, or they must be consuming gluten.  Come to find out, it's a yeast overgrowth due to bacteria imbalance.  The relief that I, and many that I know, have felt from the suggested steps in the article has been incredible.  I'm just glad this connection is being looked at!  I'm hopeful more in-depth, meaningful research is to come!

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/06/2009 - A study by a team of Spanish researchers puts the world on notice that gluten may trigger adverse reactions in both celiacs and non-celiacs alike. The research team was made up of E. Arranz, D. Bernardo, L. Fernandez-Salazar, J. A. Garrote and their colleague S. Riestra, all doctors based in Spain.
    According to the current medical wisdom, innate immunity to gluten plays a critical role in the development of celiac disease (celiac disease).
    This innate immune response is caused by a reaction to the ‘toxic’ gluten peptides that is mediated by interleukin (IL) 15, like the 19-mer through a DQ2-independent mechanism, and which causes epithelial stress and triggers the intraepithelial lymphocytes to turn into natural killer (NK)-like cells, which then causes enterocyte apoptosis and a compromised permeability of the cells lining of the gut…and, violà, celiac disease!
    It is by breaching this lining that immuno-dominant peptides, such as the 33-mer peptide, come into contact with the lamina propria, which triggers adaptive immunity.
    The innate specific response in celiac disease has been pretty well documented, but until recently, no one had described any differential factors between people with celiac disease and those without.
    Since the toxic 19-mer triggers its damaging effects through a DQ2-independent mechanism, doctors wondered whether the innate immune response was common in both people with and without celiac disease, and whether the adaptive response is emblematic only of susceptible people with celiac disease.
    A team of researchers recently set out to determine just that, beginning with biopsies from at least three patients with celiac disease who were observing a gluten-free diet and three patients who are free of celiac disease. The research team consisted of D. Bernardo, L. Fernandez-Salazar, J. A. Garrote and their colleague S. Riestra, all based in Spain.
    The team applied crude gliadin, the gliadin synthetic 19-mer and deaminated 33-mer peptides to the biopsy tissue after discarding the presence of lipopolysaccharide.
    They did this at concentrations of 100 mg/ml for 3 hours to mimic what are considered the standard timing and concentration in the digestive tract after a routine meal.
    The research team then washed the specimens and cultured them for 21 hours in new clean culture medium to assess whether an innate stimulus is reflected by an adaptive response.
    Here’s some technical jargon:
    Each sample cultured in basal medium served as an internal control. Innate immune mediators IL15 and nitrites were measured by western blot in the biopsy protein extract along with a Griess reagent system in the 3 h supernatants respectively. mRNA levels of adaptive immunity mediators like signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 1, STAT3, tumour necrosis factor a, interferon (IFN) c, IL23 (p19), IL27 (p28) and IL12 (p35) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction using b actine levels as house-keeping.
    Compared with the basal culture, all of the patients were challenged with the gliadin solution, and all of the patients, both those with and those without celiac disease on a gluten free diet, showed IL15 production, which indicates an immune reaction is taking place.
    More importantly, the IL15-mediated response in patients without celiac disease was triggered, in three of six cases, by the same toxic 19-mer gliadin peptide and, in five of six cases, by the 33-mer gliadin peptide as in those with celiac disease.
    Significantly, none of the basal cultures showed this result, though the ‘‘non-toxic’’ immuno-dominant 33-mer did induce an innate response that was un-foreseen.
    Interestingly, one patient with celiac disease and on a gluten-free diet, and three patients without celiac disease, who were also on gluten-free diets, all showed the IL15 response, which was confirmed by western blot analysis. This discounts an intracellular and non-biologically active IL15 response in patients without celiac disease.
    The gliadin-challenged patients with celiac disease who were on a GFD, showed increased nitrite levels, which those without celiac disease did not show. Following the biopsy mRNA isolation, only patients with celiac disease showed modifications to what are called adaptive mediators (STAT1, STAT3, IFNc).
    The basal samples of those celiac patients on a gluten-free diet showed
    IFNc mRNA levels that were 80 times higher than basal samples of those without celiac disease (p value 0.002), along with a slightly higher production of nitrites (p value 0.052).
    This appears to be the first time that researchers have described an IL15-mediated innate response to gliadin and gliadin peptides in people without celiac disease, as well as the first time they have described an IL15-mediated innate response to the ‘non-toxic’ deaminated immuno-dominant 33-mer peptide.
    What this all means is that, for the first time, scientists have documented harmful effects of gluten on people without celiac disease. This hypothesis seems to be born out by the fact that all individuals who took place in the study, both those with and those without celiac disease, showed an innate immune response to gluten, though only those with celiac disease showed an adaptive immune response to gluten.
    Clearly, before doctors can draw any hard and fast conclusions, they will need to do more studies on larger groups.
    The research team also suggests that people with celiac disease have a lower threshold for triggering an adaptive TH1 response than do non-celiacs, and that people with celiac disease need to be DQ2 positive.
    The reason for the differences in threshold levels between celiacs and non-celiacs might be tied to the fact that celiac patients show higher basal levels of immune mediators, such as IFNc mRNA, compared to those without celiac disease. That’s one possibility.
    The difference in threshold levels might also have to do with some kind of defect in permeability of the gut membrane in those with celiac disease, or even a greater IL15-sensitivity response under equal stimulus, which might be mediated by a higher density of IL15 receptor in patients with celiac disease.
    Gut 2007;56:889–890


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/15/2010 - A small study in Swedish children has found no association between early childhood psychological stress and later development of celiac disease. Previous studies have shown links between psychological stress and a number immunological diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.
    A team of researchers sought to look more closely at the connection between psychological stress in families and biopsy-proven celiac disease in children. The team included Karl Mårild, Anneli Sepa Frostell, and Jonas F. Ludvigsson.
    Their measure of psychological stress included factors such as serious life events, parenting stress, and parental worries. Using a questionnaire data from the ABIS study (All Babies In southeast Sweden), the team collected data on 11,000 children at one-year, and on 8,800 at two-years old. They confirmed celiac disease though observing of villous atrophy in small intestinal biopsy, and confirmed the diagnosis through patient chart data.
    Their data showed that no association between future celiac disease and a serious life event in the family in the child's first 1 or 2.5 years after childbirth (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.01–2.65; P = 0.72; and OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.43–3.05; P = 0.64, respectively).
    They also found no association between celiac disease and parenting stress at age 1 year and at 2.5 years (OR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.01–2.38; P = 0.73 and OR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.01–4.56; P = 1.00, respectively).
    No children exposed to parental worries at 2.5 years were diagnosed with celiac disease before end of follow-up, compared to 25 diagnosed out of 8082 children not exposed to parental worry (OR = 0.00; 95% CI = 0.00–2.34; P = 0.64).
    Nor was there any associations between the combined measures of stress and celiac disease.
    This particular study found no association between celiac disease in Swedish children and psychological stress early in life. However, a wider and more statistically robust study is needed to entirely rule out any possible associations between early psychological stresses in children and later development of celiac disease.
    Source:

    BMC Gastroenterology. 2010;10(106)

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/08/2013 - A team of researchers recently set out to test determine if an interactive online intervention might help to improve gluten free diet adherence in adults with celiac disease.
    The research team included Kirby Sainsbury BA/BEd, DCP (candidate), Barbara Mullan PhD and Louise Sharpe PhD. They are affiliated with the School of Psychology, and the Clinical Psychology Unit at the University of Sydney in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    For their controlled trial, the researchers recruited 189 adults with biopsy-confirmed celiac disease. They randomly assigned 101 adults to receive the intervention, and 88 adults to a wait-list control condition.
    They retrieved post-intervention data for 70 intervention subjects and 64 wait-list participants, along with three month follow-up data for 46 of 50 who completed the intervention period.
    The team first measured overall gluten-free diet adherence, then measured gluten-free diet knowledge, quality of life and psychological symptoms.
    The researchers based their results on intention-to-treat analysis, which bases their calculations on initial treatment assignment and not on the treatment eventually received.
    ITT analysis helps avoid various misleading factors that can color intervention research, such as non-random attrition of participants from the study or crossover.
    Overall, the intervention group showed strong improvement in gluten-free diet adherence, and gluten-free diet knowledge following the treatment period compared to the wait-list control group.
    However, changes in knowledge had no effect on adherence. These improvements continued through the 3-month’ follow-up period.
    The results show that the online intervention program helped improve adherence to a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease. Such a program can be developed into a valuable resource for celiacs who are struggling with gluten-free diet adherence.
    Source:
     Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication 5 March 2013;

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/21/2018 - Would you buy a house advertised as ‘gluten-free’? Yes, there really is such a house for sale. 
    It seems a Phoenix realtor Mike D’Elena is hoping that his trendy claim will catch the eye of a buyer hungry to avoid gluten, or, at least one with a sense of humor. D’Elena said he crafted the ads as a way to “be funny and to draw attention.” The idea, D’Elena said, is to “make it memorable.” 
    Though D’Elena’s marketing seeks to capitalizes on the gluten-free trend, he knows Celiac disease is a serious health issue for some people. “[W]e’re not here to offend anybody….this is just something we're just trying to do to draw attention and do what's best for our clients," he said. 
    Still, the signs seem to be working. D'elena had fielded six offers within a few days of listing the west Phoenix home.
    "Buying can sometimes be the most stressful thing you do in your entire life so why not have some fun with it," he said. 
    What do you think? Clever? Funny?
    Read more at Arizonafamily.com.

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    Bakery On Main started in the small bakery of a natural foods market on Main Street in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Founder Michael Smulders listened when his customers with Celiac Disease would mention the lack of good tasting, gluten-free options available to them. Upon learning this, he believed that nobody should have to suffer due to any kind of food allergy or dietary need. From then on, his mission became creating delicious and fearlessly unique gluten-free products that were clean and great tasting, while still being safe for his Celiac customers!
    Premium ingredients, bakeshop delicious recipes, and happy customers were our inspiration from the beginning— and are still the cornerstones of Bakery On Main today. We are a fiercely ethical company that believes in integrity and feels that happiness and wholesome, great tasting food should be harmonious. We strive for that in everything we bake in our dedicated gluten-free facility that is GFCO Certified and SQF Level 3 Certified. We use only natural, NON-GMO Project Verified ingredients and all of our products are certified Kosher Parve, dairy and casein free, and we have recently introduced certified Organic items as well! 
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/20/2018 - Currently, the only way to manage celiac disease is to eliminate gluten from the diet. That could be set to change as clinical trials begin in Australia for a new vaccine that aims to switch off the immune response to gluten. 
    The trials are set to begin at Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre. The vaccine is designed to allow people with celiac disease to consume gluten with no adverse effects. A successful vaccine could be the beginning of the end for the gluten-free diet as the only currently viable treatment for celiac disease. That could be a massive breakthrough for people with celiac disease.
    USC’s Clinical Trials Centre Director Lucas Litewka said trial participants would receive an injection of the vaccine twice a week for seven weeks. The trials will be conducted alongside gastroenterologist Dr. James Daveson, who called the vaccine “a very exciting potential new therapy that has been undergoing clinical trials for several years now.”
    Dr. Daveson said the investigational vaccine might potentially restore gluten tolerance to people with celiac disease.The trial is open to adults between the ages of 18 and 70 who have clinically diagnosed celiac disease, and have followed a strict gluten-free diet for at least 12 months. Anyone interested in participating can go to www.joinourtrials.com.
    Read more at the website for Australia’s University of the Sunshine Coast Clinical Trials Centre.

    Source:
    FoodProcessing.com.au

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.