Celiac.com Sponsor (A1):



Celiac.com Sponsor (A1-m):


  • Join Our Community!

    Ask us a question in our celiac / gluten-free forum.

  • Leszek Jaszczak

    Chokeberry Anthocyanins: Health Aspects

    Leszek Jaszczak
    0
    Reviewed and edited by a celiac disease expert.

      Journal of Gluten Sensitivity Summer 2015 Issue - Originally published July 16, 2015


    Image: CC---Joshua Mayer
    Caption: Image: CC---Joshua Mayer

    Celiac.com 11/24/2015 - Polyphenols are a group of compounds produced by plants, highly variable in strucure, physical, chemical and biological properties. Currently science knows of several thousand natural phenolic compounds. A common feature of polyphenols is their ability to enable redox reactions. With their ability to transport protons and electrons, phenolic compounds not only readily get oxidized, but also, through the compounds called quinones that result from their oxidation, may mediate oxidation of other compounds that do not directly react with oxygen.

    Anthocyanins
    Anthocyanins are a large group of plant dyes that are soluble in water and are found in flowers, fruits, leaves and stems. In the cell they are located in the vacuoles, in the form of granules of various sizes, however, the cell walls of the pulp and tissues do not contain anthocyanins. Anthocyanins give fruits and vegetables different colors like orange, red, pink, purple and dark blue.



    Celiac.com Sponsor (A12):






    Celiac.com Sponsor (A12-m):




    Anthocyanins belong to the polyphenol organic compounds. The name “anthocyanin” was first used in 1835 by Marquart to refer to the blue dye of the cornflower. The structure of anthocyanins can be very complex and diverse. Acid hydrolysis of anthocyanins leads to decay into sugars and anthocyanidins, called aglycones. The anthocyanins are natural products usually in the form of mono-, di- or tri-glycosides.

    Hundreds of natural anthocyanins are known, and over 100 could be produced synthetically. These dyes can be extracted from plants and are used as food additives to impart or reinforce the color of drinks, juices, candies and jellies.

    Anthocyanins determine the hue and color stability, for example, in strawberries the dominant dye is pelargonidin 3-glucoside. Anthocyanin synthesis is a photochemical process because the fruit which is directly irradiated by solar radiation has a more full coloration compared to fruit picked early and ripened in storage.

    Health Aspects
    The healing properties of anthocyanins have long been known in folk medicine, and now they are increasingly being used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Anthocyanin’s name was derived from the Latin name of the plant from which the particular compound was extracted: cyanine flowers or cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.). Anthocyanins are unstable compounds and reside in an aqueous environment and depend on pH levels that trigger changes in the color of products from which they were isolated. In acidic conditions they have a red color, in nutral conditions violet, and in alkaline they are blue.

    The structure of anthocyanin molecules has a significant impact on the hue, intensity and color stability. Irreversible changes of anthocyanin pigments are mainly due to oxidative polymerization processes and cause changes in natural red color of fruits to red-brown which is characteristic of long storage. The rate of these changes depends mainly on the presence of factors in the raw material, temperature and time.

    Chokeberry - Aronia
    The addition of these compounds to food does not raise concerns of consumers, and they are accepted. An example of a source of anthocyanins is the chokeberry, which contains a lot of polyphenol (above 20 mg/g), including anthocyanins. With a considerable amount of polyphenols, the chokeberry has a significant level of antioxidant activity. Its distinctive tart flavor comes from the high content of tannins which reduces the possibility of direct consumption of the fruit and its products. Generally it is used in combination with other fruits, or in a diluted form.

    Chokeberry fruit is used for the manufacture of nectars, drinks, wines, jams, as well as food dyes and bioactive compounds. Anthocyanins isolated from chokeberry have antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity, and chokeberry juice has antioxidant properties. Chokeberry juice is more and more relevant in the food industry as a source of natural red color for products that are poor in stable color.

    Products made from chokeberries are mainly aronia juice that is mixed with other fruit juices. Other applications include food coloring additives teas and syrups. In Russia, aronia and apple juices are combined and fermented to produce red wine. In Lithuania, dessert wines are produced with the use of chokeberry or chokeberry juice, which is mixed with other fruit juices. Commercial juices are produced by pressing ripe berries, then fining and filtering the juice. To reduce the tannin content gelatin may be added prior to filtration.

    Tannins sometimes form complexes, which cause clouding of clear juice. Reducing the level of tannins also makes juice have a less tart taste. Clear juice can then be bottled and pasteurized or concentrated and used as a food ingredient. The whole fruit can be used for the production of a puree that is a highly colored product of uniform consistency once the seeds and skins are removed. The product can be frozen and used as a food ingredient in sauces.

    Antioxidant Effect
    In the scientific literature, we can find a number of studies on the antioxidant properties of chokeberry, chokeberry extracts or phenolic components. Fresh chokeberry fruits have the highest antioxidant capacity of the fruit measured by ORAC method. Literature reports that chokeberry juice has the highest antioxidant capacity of beverages rich in polyphenols—four times higher than other berry juice, cranberry juice, or red wine. Anthocyanidins and procyanidins containing o-dihydroxyphenyl group are excellent metal chelators and form complexes with, for example iron (III) and copper (II). The presence of free iron and copper in biological systems catalyzed free radical reactions, such as the Fenton reaction. The ability of the phenolic components to bind divalent metal effectively reduces the concentration of these cations, and therefore their oxidative properties.

    It should be noted that the in vitro data does not say a lot about the role they can play in in vivo systems for prevention of oxidative stress. The literature also describes the antioxidant effects in animals, where chokeberry anthocyanins reduce lipid peroxidation and increase the activity of enzymes that are involved in the antioxidant defense system. It was also observed that the fraction of the red dye from chokeberry, both in vitro and in vivo. is able to prevent damage to the gastric mucosa. Antioxidant effects observed in humans, with chokeberry juice supplementation reduces oxidative damage to red blood cells produced during exercise.

    0

    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    There are no comments to display.



    Join the conversation

    You are posting as a guest. If you have an account, sign in now to post with your account.
    Note: Your post will require moderator approval before it will be visible.

    Guest
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Restore formatting

      Only 75 emoji are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • About Me

    Leszek Jaszczak is a freelance writer living in Poland. His interests are gluten-free food, raw gluten-free materials and quality management. His writings appear in Polish confectionery magazines.


  • Celiac.com Sponsor (A17):
    Celiac.com Sponsor (A17):





    Celiac.com Sponsors (A17-m):




  • Related Articles

    Anne Marie Dunphy
    Celiac.com 03/11/2009 - I recently had an unfortunate health experience related to celiac disease.  I learned long ago that it’s my responsibility to manage my own health, so I came up with a strategy that was successful.  Along the way, I also learned some important information that really helped me understand the problem and the eventual solution.  Perhaps this information will help you avoid a similar health crisis.  I’ve included links that can give you additional information.  Disclaimer: I’m not a medical doctor.  This is information that I have gathered based on my own experiences and research.
    Celiac Disease
    I have celiac disease. I ...

    Sayer Ji
    Celiac.com 07/17/2009 - The globe-spanning presence of wheat and its exalted status among secular and sacred institutions alike differentiates this food from all others presently enjoyed by humans.  Yet the unparalleled rise of wheat as the very catalyst for the emergence of ancient civilization has not occurred without a great price.  While wheat was the engine of civilization’s expansion and was glorified as a “necessary food,” both in the physical (staff of life) and spiritual sense (the body of Christ), those suffering from celiac disease are living testimony to the lesser known dark side of wheat.  A study of celiac disease may help unlock the myst...

    Paul Smith
    Celiac.com 10/30/2009 - The major concern in producing gluten and allergen-free foods is always that of cross contamination. In my view, the only safe way to produce gluten-free meals and products is in a rigorously controlled and totally gluten-free environment where all ingredients are strictly gluten-free and all benches, utensils and equipment, etc. are dedicated and remain in a totally gluten-free condition at all times. It must always be remembered that gluten-free should mean “ totally and absolutely gluten-free,” and that there should always be an uncompromising zero tolerance for any form of gluten contamination, no matter how slight.
    In my ...

    Rick Lenger
    Celiac.com 10/12/2009 - It has been 9 months since my celiac diagnosis. It seems hard for me to believe that until January 23, 2009 I had never even heard of celiac disease. I have made up for lost time in the past few months. Hopefully, my story will help others who are newly diagnosed with celiac disease to hang on to hope and be encouraged that things are going to get better – much better as they move into a gluten free lifestyle. 
    In 1971 I had a panic attack. I have never been the same since that day. I won’t go into the details of it because most people know what a panic attack is like.  So I had a complete physical which included blood panel...

    Yvonne (Vonnie) Mostat, RN
    Celiac.com 03/01/2016 - Did you know that even products all scientists agree to be safe may not be because when researchers experiment in a contained laboratory, they find the product to be safe...and we believe them don't we? The reality is, several of those products, like quinoa and buckwheat can often be cross-contaminated because they are processed and packaged in plants that also process regular wheat. If you visit one of these facilities and see the flour dust everywhere you will notice workers in white coats and masks to prevent dust inhalation. The employees look like they are walking around in astronaut suits, and it becomes clear that anything...