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    Scott Adams

    Cigarette Exposure Protects Against Adult Celiac Disease

    Scott Adams


    Reviewed and edited by a celiac disease expert.

    Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Sep;15(9):995-1000.



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    Celiac.com 08/27/2004 - Past studies have demonstrated an association, but not a causal connection, between cigarette smoking and celiac disease. Using the Bradford Hill criteria British researchers have now established a causal connection. In a matched case-control study, the researchers utilized a questionnaire to obtain the smoking histories of 138 celiacs and 276 age-matched and sex-matched controls. The subjects were then categorized according to their pre-diagnosis cigarette exposure, and it was found that 10% of celiacs, and 30% of the controls were smokers during this time. A biological gradient was demonstrated for total, recent and current cigarette exposure, and the greatest risk reduction related to current exposure. The researchers conclude:

    "This study strengthens the case for a causal relationship between smoking and coeliac disease by demonstrating a strong, temporally appropriate and dose-dependent effect, thus meeting the Bradford Hill criteria. This suggests that cigarette smoking truly protects against the development of adult coeliac disease."


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    Celiac.com's Founder and CEO, Scott was diagnosed with celiac disease  in 1994, and, due to the nearly total lack of information available at that time, was forced to become an expert on the disease in order to recover. Scott launched the site that later became Celiac.com in 1995 "To help as many people as possible with celiac disease get diagnosed so they can begin to live happy, healthy gluten-free lives."  In 1998 he founded The Gluten-Free Mall which he sold in 2014. He is co-author of the book Cereal Killers, and founder and publisher of Journal of Gluten Sensitivity.

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