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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    AUTHENTIC FOODS STEVE'S GLUTEN-FREE BREAD FLOUR BLEND


    admin


    • Finally there is a perfect all purpose gluten-free flour!


    Celiac.com 10/30/2014 - I have always been a fan of Steve Rice and his Authentic Foods line of gluten-free products. Recently I had the opportunity to try out his new Steve's Gluten-Free Bread Flour Blend, and I must say that I'm very excited about this amazing new flour blend, and the many possibilities that if offers.


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    When Steve told me that he had been working for 20 years to perfect this mix, I knew that I was in for something very special, and my experiences with it were amazing.

    In the past I have tried many products billed as all purpose gluten-free flour mixes, but none are quite like this one. The directions are straightforward, and I only needed my own yeast packet, sugar, egg, butter and oil to make the mix.

    Authentic Foods Steve's Gluten-Free Bread Flour Blend

    I new something magical was happening at the point where you first begin to mix everything together...see below:

    Mixing Authentic Foods Steve's Gluten-Free Bread Flour Blend

    I know that Steve recommends using a mixer, but I don't have one. However, after mixing and kneading it for only a few minutes by hand it came together with the look and feel of a real gluten bread dough...it was very easy to work with, and in a very short time it looked like this:

    Raising: Authentic Foods Steve's Gluten-Free Bread Flour Blend

    I used the dough to make the outstanding pizza below, which had a spongy, delicate crust. When making it I found that I could easily pick up the dough and work with it to form the gluten-free pizza crust.

    Pizza Using Authentic Foods Steve's Gluten-Free Bread Flour Blend

    My wife used the remaining dough to make a cake, which came out light and fluffy, and it held together extremely well:

    Cake Using Authentic Foods Steve's Gluten-Free Bread Flour Blend

    Be sure to give this great new product a try. I'm sure that you too will be blown away by how great it is, and how many things you will be able to make with it using Steve's many recipes offered on his Web site.


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    Guest Lene Vallelunga

    Posted

    The Authentic Foods Steve's Gluten-Free Bread Flour Blend sounds wonderful...how do I purchase it?

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    The Authentic Foods Steve's Gluten-Free Bread Flour Blend sounds wonderful...how do I purchase it?

    Just check out the site www.authenticfoods.com

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    Guest Careen

    Posted

    Just check out the site www.authenticfoods.com

    I have Steve's Gluten Free Flour blend but I can't find the recipe for pizza crust, particularly the one you used. I know Authentic Foods also makes a pizza mix but I would like to use the gluten-free bread flour blend that I have. Do you have the recipe? Thanks

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    admin

    When I started eating gluten-free food I discovered a flour mix in a book called Living Healthy with Celiac Disease, Wendy Wark (AnAffect, 1998). In addition to the standard gluten-free flour mix of tapioca starch flour, potato starch flour and rice flour she added cornstarch and sweet rice flour. The addition of these two flours make a huge difference in the texture, flavor, and moisture content in gluten-free baking. I couldnt understand why more people werent using this superior flour mix so I made it my mission to distribute this recipe around. (If you cant tolerate corn, just substitute the cornstarch with equal parts of sweet rice flour and tapioca starch flour.)
    While Wendy gave me permission to use the flour mix and many of her recipes I failed to tell her I was naming the flour mix after her in my book. She has since told me that she found it on the internet and doesnt know the source of the recipe, she doesnt feel that she should take credit for the mix.
    Recently Authentic Foods decided to mix these flours in their factory and sell it as the Multi Blend Gluten-Free Flour, now available at The Gluten-Free Mall.
    Multi Blend Gluten-Free Flour (Wendy Warks Gluten-Free Flour Mix)
    1 cup brown rice flour (requires refrigeration)
    1¼ cup white rice flour
    ¼ cup potato starch flour
    2/3 cup tapioca starch flour
    ¾ cup sweet rice flour
    1/3 cup cornstarch
    2 teaspoons xanthan or guar gum
    I often use only brown rice flour in the mix as it is healthier and better tasting. I buy at least 5 pounds every time I order (from manufacturers that sell a lot of brown rice flour). I keep it refrigerated and highly recommend it over white rice flour. This flour mix is the basis of many of my sweets, breadsticks, tortillas, waffles etc. I also like to use pure buckwheat, amaranth, and quinoa flour to increase the flavor and healthfulness of certain items. It is important to buy these alternative flours from pure, gluten-free sources. Pure in the sense that they are grown in fields that are not adjacent to wheat fields and that they are processed in a 100% gluten-free environment from the field to your table.
    Triple this flour mix recipe and keep it on hand for all of your baking needs. Once you have the flour mix together you are ready for about a months worth of gluten-free baking.
    The Multi Blend Gluten-Free Flour mix is used cup for cup in recipes such as tortillas, pancakes/waffles, and cookies. If you plan to use this flour mix for cakes, sweet breads or brownies add an additional ½ teaspoon of xanthan gum per cup flour mix. I dont use this flour mix for bread, pizza crust, breadsticks, etc. as they require specific flour combinations for the best results (see Cooking Gluten-Free! A Food Lovers Collection of Chef and Family Recipes Without Gluten or Wheat Celiac Publishing, 2002).

    Jules Shepard
    This is a fun recipe to make with kids – they can pop popcorn and watch it transform into flour before their eyes.  No need to run to the store to get some fancy new kind of flour either: simply pop your favorite corn then grind it to a fine powder in your food processor or blender.  Measure, then add to the recipe below for a neat twist on traditional bread recipes.  In the unlikely event you have any bread leftover the next day, this recipe keeps nicely (especially the pre-mixed all purpose flour using Expandex) but also makes a divine French Toast!
    Gluten-Free Popcorn Bread (Bread Machine Recipe)
    Ingredients:
    2 eggs
    ½ cup hot water + 2 tablespoon flaxseed meal (set aside to steep for 10- 15 minutes)
    1 cup vanilla yogurt (dairy, soy, rice or coconut)
    1 teaspoon apple cider vinegar
    3 Tbs. olive oil
    3 Tbs. light agave nectar or honey
    ½ teaspoon baking soda
    2 teaspoons gluten-free baking powder
    1 teaspoon sea salt
    1 tablespoon rapid rise/bread machine yeast
    2/3 cup dry milk or buttermilk powder
    1 cup popcorn flour
    ½ cup brown rice flour
    1 ¾ cup Jules Gluten Free All Purpose Flour*
    *(As always, I cannot predict the results of this recipe with any other flour, as I have only tried it with my recipe printed in my books, Nearly Normal Cooking for Gluten-Free Eating and The First Year: Celiac Disease and Living Gluten-Free, and on various media links from my website.  A pre-mixed version of my gluten-free flour containing Expandex  is available through my website.)
    Directions:
    Stir the eggs with a fork in a small cup to mix the yolks and whites together.  Add flaxseed to hot water and set aside to steep.  Gather all other ingredients and plug in the bread machine, inserting the pan and paddle attachment.
    Gluten-Free Popcorn BreadSift dry ingredients (except yeast) together in a large bowl and set aside.
    Add all liquid ingredients to the bread machine pan first.  Add the dry ingredients next and make a well in the center for the yeast.  Add the yeast last and set the machine to the gluten-free setting or a setting with only one rise cycle.
    During the knead cycle, periodically check to see that the dry ingredients have been fully integrated into the dough, scraping down the sides with a rubber spatula if necessary.  If you want, add any toppings like sesame seeds, sea salt, poppy seeds, etc. at the conclusion of the knead cycle.  Remove pan when the baking is completed and remove the bread to a cooling rack, slicing when fully cooled (if you can wait that long!).


    Connie Sarros
    This article originally appeared in the Autumn 2002 edition of Celiac.com's Journal of Gluten-Sensitivity.
    Celiac.com 11/08/2011 - Are you a bit overweight?  If you wear the same two outfits all the time because nothing else in your closet fits, you may be a prime candidate for a “Low Calorie” Gluten-free regimen.
    The key to any weight reduction program is to concentrate on eating healthy instead of counting calories.  The more you concentrate on reducing your intake of fats, cholesterol and sugar, the more weight you will ultimately lose.  Beware of “fat free” foods; they often contain large amounts of salt and/or sugar.  Below are some hints to help you stick to a sensible diet:

    Eat what you like (within reason)…just eat smaller portions and prepare it with fewer calories.  You won’t stick to your new program if you are forced to eat foods you don’t like.  (Use some common sense with this step.  Eating smaller portions does not refer to smaller portions of butter-whipped potatoes and chocolate cream pie!) Forget the grapefruit diet!  There is no need to starve yourself or go on crash diets.  Food group elimination diets may deprive your body of necessary vitamins and minerals and affect your health after a period of time, and usually you will put the weight right back on when you start to eat “normally” again.  It is far better to lose the weight with a sensible, well-rounded diet, over a period of time.  Eat as many different foods as possible to assure that you are getting a full range of nutrients. Train yourself to sit and enjoy your meal, preferably taking at least 20 minutes to relax over your meal.  Never eat at the counter standing up; never walk out the door holding a sandwich or snack in your hand; and, when you clear the dishes from the table, NEVER finish up what someone else has left on their dish.  Remember…what you eat in private shows in public! Serve meals attractively; garnish your plates.  A pretty plate presentation will make even plain foods look appetizing. Before eating something, ask yourself, Are you really hungry or are you just bored?  If you are just bored try chewing a piece of gluten-free sugarless gum and take a walk around the block. Don’t skip meals.  Skipped meals often lead to an out-of-control appetite before your next mealtime, and may wreak havoc on your blood sugar levels. If you get really hungry between meals, snack on healthy, low calorie snacks (carrot sticks, plain popcorn, or some raisins). Skip the “extras”:  Don’t put butter on your bread; butter doesn’t fill you—it just adds calories and fat.  Eliminate sugar in your cereal, coffee or tea.  If you are eating French fries (oven-baked instead of deep fried), skip the ketchup.  Put away the steak sauce and tartar sauce; when the gravy boat is passed to you pass it on to someone else (who’s not on a diet!).  Cutting out the “extras” will significantly reduce your total caloric intake. Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber.  Your body needs these so be sure to eat three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruit each day to keep you healthy inside.  Do not confuse natural starch (potatoes, corn, brown rice) with processed starch (pasta, breads).  Natural starch is healthier for you and provides your body with energy.  Processed starch will slowly convert to sugar in your system, and allow it to absorb more sugar—and no one needs this! The key to better health is to maintain a healthy, reduced calorie diet that includes the least possible amount of processed foods.  Instead of the apple pie, eat just the apple!Beware of focusing only on eating “fat free” foods.  Shrimp has very little fat or calories, but it is higher in bad cholesterol than many other foods.  A “fat free” dinner may have excessive amounts of sugar which can be just as bad for your diet as fats.   A “fat free” dinner may have excessive amounts of salt, which can also be unhealthy.
    Beware of focusing only on your total caloric intake.  If you just count calories, you could eat several pieces of candy per day but would have to avoid all other foods.  Obviously the candy will not give your body the nutrients it needs, even though you are within your calorie limitations.  While caloric intake is a consideration, other factors are equally important, such as getting the proper vitamins, minerals, protein and fiber.
    We hear a lot about fats in the diet. Polyunsaturated oils lower your total blood cholesterol level, while monounsaturated oils (such as olive oil) lower LDL cholesterol levels and leave the beneficial HDL cholesterol intact.  Saturated fats do nothing but clog up your arteries and add calories.  Try these steps to reduce saturated fat in your diet:

    Eat less red meat.  When you do eat red meat, trim the fat before cooking it and limit the portion size to no more than four or five ounces per day. (Stir-frying allows you to cook small amounts of meat with lots of fresh vegetables and very little fat.) Don’t eat organ meats.  Organ meats (like liver, brain and kidney) have very high amounts of bad cholesterol and are also sources of concentrated toxins. Read labels.  Avoid foods that contain large amounts of hydrogenated vegetable oils, such as cocoa butter, coconut and palm oils, beef fat or lard.  Instead, use unsaturated fats such as olive or corn oil (if you use safflower oil, use it on salads but do not heat it as its helpful elements will break down). Eat low-fat cheeses.  Use part-skim mozzarella and substitute skim milk for whole milk.  Use skim milk in your coffee instead of cream or cream substitutes (many cream substitutes contain tropical oils which are very high in fat). Cook differently.  Instead of sautéing vegetables in butter, spray your pan with a gluten-free nonstick spray; or precook onions, celery, green peppers and other vegetables by simmering them in a little water or broth, then drain. Cook with egg whites when possible instead of whole eggs. Now that you have cooking at home under control, what do you do when you eat out? Here are some tips: 
    Choose entrees that are steamed, poached or broiled. Fish and chicken have far less calories, fat and cholesterol than beef. Eat half of your dinner; ask for a box to take home the rest for tomorrow’s meal. Restaurants today offer many low calorie selections.  Even fast-food outlets offer salads and lean burgers (obviously, without the bun). Be wary of “Diet Platters”; they often contain tuna salad loaded with high-calorie mayonnaise, canned fruit in heavy sugared syrup and Iceberg lettuce, which have minimal nutrients. Finally, we have to confront the “E” word—Exercise!  If you use the excuse that you can’t afford to join a health club, or you don’t have time to exercise (oh, that “E” word again!), then realize that you are only fooling yourself.  You can walk and do floor exercises at home for free.  You can walk up and down stairs at home or at a public building for free.  Walking promotes a lifetime of good health, but don’t expect results overnight.  In the beginning, forget stopwatches, heart rates, and technique.  Just go for a walk at a comfortable pace for 30 minutes; or do two or three strolls for 10 minutes each (we all waste more time than that just dreaming up excuses why we shouldn’t exercise!).  Once you are at ease with this, increase your pace, and/or the length of time of your walks.  Finally, refine your method of walking.  The correct posture, arm swing and stride add up to higher-intensity exercise and a lower risk of injury. Spinach Rice Tomatoes
    From The Wheat-Free Gluten-Free Reduced Calorie Cookbook. This entrée or side dish is low fat, low cholesterol, vegetarian, vegan, corn-free, soy-free, gluten-free, yeast-free, egg-free, dairy-free, low sodium, low carbohydrates, and tastes great!Ingredients:
    6 medium tomatoes
    1 box (10 oz.) frozen chopped spinach, thawed
    2 tablespoons olive oil
    ¼ cup rice
    2 onions, chopped
    1/8 teaspoon pepper
    ¼ cup carrots, shredded
    1/8 teaspoon salt
    1 tablespoon parsley, chopped
    3 tablespoons tomato sauce
    1 tablespoon dill
    ¾ cup water
    Directions:
    Cut a slice off the stem-end of each tomato; remove pulp (freeze the pulp from the tomatoes to use in soups or stews).  Cut a small “X” on the bottom of each tomato; place in a baking pan.  Pour ½-inch of water in the pan; cover and bake 15 minutes or until tomatoes are soft but still hold their shape.  Remove tomatoes with a spatula; drain off water from pan.  Spray pan with gluten-free nonstick spray, then return tomatoes to pan.  Spray a skillet with gluten-free nonstick spray; add oil and sauté onions and carrots in oil slowly until golden brown, stirring frequently.  Stir in remaining ingredients.  Cover and simmer for 15 minutes or until moisture is absorbed.  Remove from heat and cool 5 minutes.  Fill tomato cavities with spinach mixture.  Cover and bake for 15 minutes.
    Nutritional Breakdown:  Calories: 71; Total fat: 4g; Saturated fat: 0.6g; Cholesterol: 0mg; Sodium: 108mg; Carbohydrates: 6g; Fiber: 1.7g; Sugar: 0.6g; Protein: 1.7 g


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/22/2012 - Thanksgiving is upon us once again, and celiac.com is again offering gluten-free information, tips and recipes to help make your gluten-free Thanksgiving and holiday celebrations a smooth and delicious success!
    If you are planning a gluten-free turkey dinner at home, these helpful tips will make your work easier:
    First, always make sure you buy a 100% gluten-free turkey for your holiday dinner. Don't assume your turkey is gluten-free. Numerous brands use gluten when processing their turkeys, so be sure to read the label, and to make sure there is no hidden gluten in any of the ingredients. Check our extensive list of safe gluten-free foods and ingredients, along with gluten-free shopping guides to make gluten-free shopping easier. Brining is a great way to prepare your gluten-free turkey that will leave your guests quizzing you about your secrets to such a moist, savory bird. For those of you who plan a smaller Thanksgiving, consider this recipe for stuffed Cornish Game Hens. Remember, you can also brine the game hens for a extra-moist, flavorful birds. Next, make sure to prepare a gluten-free stuffing! Don't risk cross-contamination by putting gluten-based bread or stuffing ingredients in your turkey. Gluten-free stuffing is a holiday staple that keeps them coming back for more. Be sure to check out Celiac.com's recipe for our tried and true gluten-free holiday stuffing that will keep your guests happily coming back for seconds. You can find some alternative stuffing recipes on celiac.com's forum. Be sure to prepare gluten-free gravy. If you don't want to prepare your own, be sure to use a gluten-free gravy mix. Thicken homemade gravy with either corn starch, tapioca or arrowroot flour. Be careful: Bouillon cubes often contain wheat or gluten, so make sure to use only gluten-free bouillon cubes. Lastly, ordering gluten-free baking ingredients and other hard-to-find items, like prepared gluten-free pies, ahead of time will help you to spend less time cooking and more time with friends and family. Many excellent prepared gluten-free products can be ordered online and delivered directly to your door from places like the Gluten-Free Mall. Your purchases there will directly support the celiac awareness and support mission of Celiac.com. Here's a recipe for a delicious variation on traditional mashed potatoes:
    Roasted Garlic Chive Mashed Potatoes
    Ingredients:
    5 large russet potatoes (about 4½ pounds), peeled and cut into chunks
    1 head of garlic (8-10 cloves), roasted
    1 cup fresh cream, warmed
    ¾ cup (1½ sticks) butter, room temperature
    1 teaspoon finely chopped fresh thyme
    1 tablespoon finely chopped chives
    Salt and freshly ground black pepper
    Directions:
    Use a knife to cut off 1/4 to a 1/2 inch of the top of cloves, exposing the individual cloves of garlic. Drizzle lightly with olive oil, and wrap in foil. Place in oven at 400 degrees F, and roast for about 30 minutes, until cloves are soft.
    While garlic is roasting, wash and peel potatoes and cut into 6 chunks each.
    Add 1 teaspoon of salt to a large pot of water, add potatoes and boil until the potatoes are soft (about 25-30 minutes).
    When garlic is soft, remove from oven and allow to cool slightly. Once cool, place garlic on a plate and use a wooden spoon to squeeze roasted garlic out of the clove.
    When potatoes are done, strain them into a colander and let stand for 5 minutes to allow them to steam dry over the pot they were cooked in.
    Mash the potatoes.
    Stir in the cream, butter, roasted garlic, thyme and chives, and season to taste with salt and pepper. Serve immediately.
    For a sure-fire dessert hit, serve up some Classic Gluten-free Holiday Pumpkin Pie.
    Round out your gluten-free dinner with gluten-free side dishes from Celiac.com's extensive listing of gluten-free recipes. Meanwhile, be sure to check out these other gluten-free Thanksgiving recipes that will help make your holiday dinner a success:
    Spiced Pumpkin Soup Red Pepper Pumpkin Seeds Cranberry Sauce with Ginger and Raisins (Gluten-Free) Roasted Acorn Squash (Gluten-Free) Butternut Squash Soup with Apples (Gluten-Free) Baked Apples (Gluten-Free) In addition to our ever-popular recipe for Classic Gluten-free Pumpkin Pie, we offer this delicious recipe for gluten-free Ginger Crust Pumpkin Pie.
    Whether you plan on dining at home, dining out, or dining at a friend or relative's house, check these web sites for helpful gluten-free tips and information:
    Ali Demeritte's blog entry: The Dinner Party Drama—Two Guidelines to Assure a Pleasant Gluten-Free Experience. Danna Korn's article: Venturing Out of the House: Restaurant Realities. Aimee Eiguren's blog entry: Eating Out Gluten-Free and Without Fear. Chef Daniel Moran's article: Traveling and Eating Gluten-Free at Restaurants. Chef Daniel Moran's article: Traveling and Eating Gluten-Free Meals at Small or Moving Restaurants. HuffingtonPost Gluten-free Goddess Pinterest PNW Local News

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    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
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    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
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    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
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    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

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    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center