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    Curried Sweet Potato Latkes (Gluten-Free)


    Jules Shepard

    Ingredients:

    • 2 large sweet potatoes, grated
    • 1 cup Nearly Normal All Purpose Gluten-Free Flour*
    • 1 teaspoon gluten-free baking powder
    • 2 teaspoons light brown sugar
    • ¼ teaspoon turmeric
    • 2 teaspoons curry powder
    • 1 teaspoon ground cumin
    • 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
    • ¼ teaspoon salt
    • Dash ground pepper
    • 5 large eggs, beaten
    • ¼ cup vanilla soy milk or plain milk + 1 teaspoon gluten-free vanilla extract
    • Canola oil for frying


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    *The recipe for my Nearly Normal All Purpose Gluten-Free Flour may be found in my cookbook, Nearly Normal Cooking for Gluten-Free Eating, and in various media links on my website.  You may also purchase a pre-mixed, patent-pending version of the flour there as well.

    Directions:

    Wash and grate sweet potatoes (skin on) in a food processor.

    In a large bowl, combine Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour, sugar, baking powder and spices.  Add in the eggs and milk to the dry ingredients, then add the grated potatoes to the batter.  If it is too thick, add more milk.

    Heat the oil to 375-400F in an electric skillet or deep skillet over a medium high flame.  When hot, drop approximately 2 tablespoons of batter in circles and thin by spreading with the backside of a spoon.  Cook each pancake until lightly browned on each side, flipping to cook both sides evenly.  Remove with a slotted spatula onto a paper towel lined plate to cool. Serve warm with your accompaniment of choice.

    Accompaniments:

    • Applesauce
    • Mango salsa (page 15 Nearly Normal Cooking for Gluten-Free Eating)
    • Sour cream


    Sweet Potato Latke
    A finished Sweet Potato Latke (Gluten-Free)


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  • Related Articles

    Jules Shepard
    This recipe may be prepared using a mixer and oven or in a bread machine. This loaf is light and airy, yet substantial enough to use as sandwich bread (however, if you want a denser loaf, simply add 1/4 cup dry milk powder to the dry ingredients).
    The recipe boasts the addition of flax seed meal and flax seeds which contribute a large amount of dietary fiber and other beneficial nutritional properties like high omega 3.  The simple addition of two tablespoons of flax seed meal to this bread also adds four grams of dietary fiber and three grams of protein.  As an alternative, you can simply use 2 eggs in place of the flax seed and water mixture, and you will add the dry yeast to the dough at the final mixing step.
    When using a bread machine, always be sure to add all liquid ingredients to the pan first, followed by the dry ingredients. I recommend sifting all dry ingredients (except yeast) together in a bowl first, then pouring it into the bread machine pan. If the dough seems too thick, gradually add more yogurt, one quarter cup at a time, until the dough is still thick, but able to be smoothed with a spatula. Be sure to check the bread with a spatula throughout the mixing process to ensure that all the dry ingredients have been incorporated. Smooth the top with a rubber spatula and when done mixing, sprinkle any desired toppings on top of the loaf. Select either the gluten-free bread setting on your machine, or the quickest bake setting like a light crust 1 ½ pound loaf. Remove the pan from the machine when finished baking (internal temperature should be between 205-210F).
    When making with a mixer and oven, follow the specific directions outlined below.

    Ingredients:
    2 Tablespoons ground flax seeds or flax seed meal
    ½ cup very hot water
    1 tsp. granulated cane sugar
    1 Tablespoon rapid rise or bread machine yeast
    ¼ cup Earth Balance Shortening, cut into small pieces (or canola oil, if using a bread machine)
    3 ¼ cups Jules Gluten FreeTM All Purpose Flour *
    ½ teaspoon baking soda
    2 teaspoons gluten-free baking powder
    Pinch of salt
    2 Tablespoons honey
    1 teaspoon apple cider vinegar
    1 ½ cup vanilla yogurt (dairy or soy)
    1 Tablespoon flax seeds
    Toppings of choice (coarse sea salt, sesame seeds, flax seeds, etc.)

    (* I cannot predict how this recipe will work with any other flour mixture but my own.  The mix recipe may be found in media links on my website and in my book, Nearly Normal Cooking for Gluten-Free Eating, or pre-mixed from my website.)Directions:
    In a small bowl, add the hot water and flax seed meal and stir. Let sit for 5 minutes. Add the yeast and one teaspoon of sugar to this mixture and stir. Set aside for 5 more minutes for it to begin to bubble and grow; if the mixture does not bubble or grow, throw it out and re-mix with fresh yeast. Sift remaining dry ingredients together in a large bowl. Cut in the pieces of shortening using a pastry cutter or the dough paddle on your mixer. Add the remaining liquid ingredients next, mixing well. Finally, mix in the yeast/flax seed meal mixture and stir well using the dough paddle. If the dough seems too thick to form a loaf, gradually mix in more yogurt, one quarter cup at a time, until the dough is still thick, but able to be smoothed with a spatula.

    Scoop the dough into a greased bread pan (use a dark metal pan if you like a darker crust on your bread; lighter, shiny metal or glass if you like a light crust). Smooth the top, sprinkle with any toppings, then cover with a sheet of wax paper sprayed with cooking oil. Sit the covered dough for 30 minutes in a warm place like an oven warming drawer or even in your oven with the light on.
    Remove the raised dough to a preheated convection oven set to 275 F or a preheated static oven set to 300 F. Cook for approximately 60 minutes, or until the crust is browning nicely and a cake tester or skewer inserted into the center of the loaf comes out clean (internal temperature should be 205-210F). Remove to a cooling rack and rotate gently from side to side every 5 minutes or so if it looks like your loaf wants to sink at all in the middle. When cooled for 15 minutes or more, remove from the loaf pan to finish cooling before slicing.

    Connie Sarros
    This article originally appeared in the Summer 2003 edition of Celiac.com's JournalofGluten-Sensitivity.
    Have you ever taken a bite of unsweetened chocolate?  If you have, I’m sure your taste buds revolted!  Sugar is what makes most of our desserts palatable and desirable.  But sugar adds empty calories to the diet and little else nutritionally speaking.  So how are you going to bake foods to satisfy your sweet tooth if you refrain from using refined sugar?  There are always viable alternatives.
    Sucrose (a fancy word for sugar) usually encompasses the following:

    Brown Sugar:  Much less refined than white sugar, is derived from molasses (sorghum cane) and contains very small amounts of minerals. Raw Sugar:  May come in crystalline form that is very similar to brown sugar. Turbinado Sugar:  Is partially refined sugar crystals that have been washed in steam. White Sugar:  Derived from cane or beets, and no matter what form it takes, offers nothing but empty calories. First consider the less desirable sugar replacements:
    Maltose:  Not a good option because it comes from the breakdown of starch in the process of malting grains, usually barley, so it is not always gluten-free. Corn syrup:  A blend of fructose and dextrose; its effect on blood glucose is similar to that of sucrose.  Dextrose:  Usually made from plant starches, in the U.S. it is mostly made from corn, but can also be obtained by the inversion of cane sugar or sucrose. Honey:  Derived from flowers where bees have collected nectar, is a more concentrated form of carbohydrate than table sugar, and is converted to glucose in the body.  It is only slightly better for you that refined sugar.  If you are using honey to replace sugar, for 1 cup sugar, substitute ¾ cup honey; reduce liquid in recipe by 2 Tablespoons, and add ¼ teaspoon baking soda. If you still opt to use refined sugar, in most recipes you may reduce the amount of sugar called for without any noticeable effects on the finished product.  There are several “sugars” on the market that do not have the negative effects of refined sugar:
    Date Sugar:  Derived from dates, it is not as sweet as sucrose but has far more nutritional value.  For 1 cup sugar, use 2/3 cup date sugar and add a little water to form thick syrup. Fresh or Dried Fruits:  Offer a natural sweetness and can be used in baking to reduce the amount of refined sugar used. Fruit Juice Concentrates:  While high in sugary taste, have nutritional value not found in sucrose. Fructose:  Sweeter than any other sugar in equal amounts, comes from fruits and honey.  Because of its concentration much less of this sweetener is needed in recipes. Invert Sugar:  A mixture of equal parts of glucose and fructose resulting from the hydrolysis of sucrose. It is found naturally in fruits and honey and produced artificially for use in the food industry.  It is sweeter than sucrose, so the amount used may be lessened, and it helps baked goods stay fresh longer. Molasses:  A thick syrup produced in refining raw sugar and ranging from light to dark brown in color. Maple Syrup/Sugar:  Both made from the sap of maple trees.  For 1cup sugar, use ¾ cup maple syrup or maple sugar.    Stevia Sugar:  Fairly new on the market this extract from the stevia leaf is combined with a pre-biotic nutritional supplement and is ten times sweeter than sugar.  It has a glycemic index of zero, and is nutritionally beneficial.  For 1cup sugar, use 2 Tablespoons stevia. Unsweetened Coconut:  When toasted the natural oils in coconut are exuded adding sweetness to a baked product. Unsweetened Applesauce:  When added to a cake or bread batter it adds sweetness, flavor, moistness and nutrition. Experiment until you find a sugar substitute that you enjoy, and one that works well with your recipes.Pineapple Sticks
    Ingredients:
    2 cups gluten-free flour mixture
    3 Tablespoons stevia
    ½ teaspoon salt
    ¾ teaspoon cinnamon
    ½ teaspoon gluten-free baking powder
    ¾ cup MF/gluten-free margarine
    ¾ teaspoon vanilla
    ¾ teaspoon lemon juice
    6 Tablespoons water
    1/3 cup all-fruit pineapple jamCorn-free diets:  Omit cornstarch from gluten-free flour mixture.  Use CF vanilla.  Use baking soda in place of the baking powder.  Use butter in place of the margarine.  Omit nonstick spray; use olive oil to brush baking sheet.
    Rice-free diets:  Omit rice flour from gluten-free flour mixture
    Soy-free diets:  Use butter in place of margarine.  Omit nonstick spray; use oil to brush baking sheet.
    Directions:
    Over a bowl, sift together flour mixture, fructose, salt, cinnamon and baking powder.  Cut in margarine until mixture resembles coarse crumbs.  Sprinkle vanilla, lemon juice and 2 Tablespoons water over flour mixture; toss with a fork.  Continue adding water, 1 tablespoon at a time, and tossing until mixture is evenly moistened.  Form into a ball, cover, and refrigerate for 1 hour.  Divide dough into 4 even pieces.  Roll 1 piece into a 12 X 4 inch rectangle; spread with half of the jam.  Roll the second piece into a 12 X 4 inch triangle; gently lift dough and place over jam.  Repeat with remaining 2 pieces of dough and remaining jam.  Trim edges.  Cut each rectangle into 12 one-inch strips.  Twist each strip, pinching ends to seal.  Place on a baking sheet that has been lightly sprayed with gluten-free nonstick spray.  Bake at 375F degrees for 20 minutes or until lightly browned.  Yield:  24 cookies.
    Note:  For variety, use apricot or black raspberry jam in place of the pineapple jam.
    Calories (per cookie): 83; Total fat: 4.4g; Saturated fat: 1g; Cholesterol: 0mg; Sodium: 121.4mg; Carbohydrates: 10.1g; Fiber: 0.3g; Sugar: 2.8g; Protein: 3g


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2013 - Does the way the dough is mixed have any effect on the quality of gluten-free bread? A team of researchers recently set out to answer just that question.
    The research team included Manuel Gómez, María Talegón, and Esther de la Hera. They are affiliated with the Food Technology Area of E.T.S. Ingenierías Agrarias at Valladolid University in Palencia, Spain.
    In the past few years, a great deal of research has gone into making better gluten-free bakery products, but there is still very little data on what impact mixing might have on gluten-free bread quality.
    In their study, the team focused on the way dough mixing effects two different gluten-free bread formulas; one with an 80% water formula, and another with 110% water formula.
    The team found that less hydrated breads showed no significant differences depending on the mixing arm (flat beater or dough hook). However, longer mixing time produced bread with higher specific volume.
    In the dough that contained more water, both mixer arm and mixing speed had a significant effect on bread volume and texture, with the wire whip, combined with lower mixing speeds and longer mixing time, producing softer bread with higher specific volume, compared with the flat beater.
    In more hydrated breads, proofing time improved bread specific volume, but in less hydrated breads, volume was decreased. The same pattern was seen when longer mixing times were used.
    The study shows the importance of mixing time and the type of mixer device in gluten-free bread making, something not well-studied. It also shows that mixing produces different effects than does kneading gluten-free bread dough.
    Based on the results of this study, corresponding changes to the mixing process of the gluten-free bread doughs can produce higher quality breads with higher volume and lower hardness.
    Source:
    Journal of Food Quality doi/10.1111/jfq.12014/abstract

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/19/2018 - Could baking soda help reduce the inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease? Scientists at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University say that a daily dose of baking soda may in fact help reduce inflammation and damage caused by autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease.
    Those scientists recently gathered some of the first evidence to show that cheap, over-the-counter antacids can prompt the spleen to promote an anti-inflammatory environment that could be helpful in combating inflammatory disease.
    A type of cell called mesothelial cells line our body cavities, like the digestive tract. They have little fingers, called microvilli, that sense the environment, and warn the organs they cover that there is an invader and an immune response is needed.
    The team’s data shows that when rats or healthy people drink a solution of baking soda, the stomach makes more acid, which causes mesothelial cells on the outside of the spleen to tell the spleen to go easy on the immune response.  "It's most likely a hamburger not a bacterial infection," is basically the message, says Dr. Paul O'Connor, renal physiologist in the MCG Department of Physiology at Augusta University and the study's corresponding author.
    That message, which is transmitted with help from a chemical messenger called acetylcholine, seems to encourage the gut to shift against inflammation, say the scientists.
    In patients who drank water with baking soda for two weeks, immune cells called macrophages, shifted from primarily those that promote inflammation, called M1, to those that reduce it, called M2. "The shift from inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory profile is happening everywhere," O'Connor says. "We saw it in the kidneys, we saw it in the spleen, now we see it in the peripheral blood."
    O'Connor hopes drinking baking soda can one day produce similar results for people with autoimmune disease. "You are not really turning anything off or on, you are just pushing it toward one side by giving an anti-inflammatory stimulus," he says, in this case, away from harmful inflammation. "It's potentially a really safe way to treat inflammatory disease."
    The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health.
    Read more at: Sciencedaily.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/18/2018 - Celiac disease has been mainly associated with Caucasian populations in Northern Europe, and their descendants in other countries, but new scientific evidence is beginning to challenge that view. Still, the exact global prevalence of celiac disease remains unknown.  To get better data on that issue, a team of researchers recently conducted a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to get a reasonably accurate estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. 
    The research team included P Singh, A Arora, TA Strand, DA Leffler, C Catassi, PH Green, CP Kelly, V Ahuja, and GK Makharia. They are variously affiliated with the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India; Innlandet Hospital Trust, Lillehammer, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Gastroenterology Research and Development, Takeda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Cambridge, MA; Department of Pediatrics, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy; Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; USA Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York; and the Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    For their review, the team searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords ‘celiac disease,’ ‘celiac,’ ‘tissue transglutaminase antibody,’ ‘anti-endomysium antibody,’ ‘endomysial antibody,’ and ‘prevalence’ for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. 
    The team cross-referenced each article with the words ‘Asia,’ ‘Europe,’ ‘Africa,’ ‘South America,’ ‘North America,’ and ‘Australia.’ They defined celiac diagnosis based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. The team used 96 articles of 3,843 articles in their final analysis.
    Overall global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% in 275,818 individuals, based on positive blood tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies. The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% in 138,792 individuals. That means that numerous people with celiac disease potentially remain undiagnosed.
    Rates of celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was 0.6% in female vs 0.4% males. Celiac disease was significantly more common in children than adults.
    This systematic review and meta-analysis showed celiac disease to be reported worldwide. Blood test data shows celiac disease rate of 1.4%, while biopsy data shows 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. 
    This review demonstrates a need for more comprehensive population-based studies of celiac disease in numerous countries.  The 1.4% rate indicates that there are 91.2 million people worldwide with celiac disease, and 3.9 million are in the U.S.A.
    Source:
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Jun;16(6):823-836.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.06.037.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/16/2018 - Summer is the time for chips and salsa. This fresh salsa recipe relies on cabbage, yes, cabbage, as a secret ingredient. The cabbage brings a delicious flavor and helps the salsa hold together nicely for scooping with your favorite chips. The result is a fresh, tasty salsa that goes great with guacamole.
    Ingredients:
    3 cups ripe fresh tomatoes, diced 1 cup shredded green cabbage ½ cup diced yellow onion ¼ cup chopped fresh cilantro 1 jalapeno, seeded 1 Serrano pepper, seeded 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar 2 garlic cloves, minced salt to taste black pepper, to taste Directions:
    Purée all ingredients together in a blender.
    Cover and refrigerate for at least 1 hour. 
    Adjust seasoning with salt and pepper, as desired. 
    Serve is a bowl with tortilla chips and guacamole.

    Dr. Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.
    Celiac.com 06/15/2018 - There seems to be widespread agreement in the published medical research reports that stuttering is driven by abnormalities in the brain. Sometimes these are the result of brain injuries resulting from a stroke. Other types of brain injuries can also result in stuttering. Patients with Parkinson’s disease who were treated with stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, an area of the brain that regulates some motor functions, experienced a return or worsening of stuttering that improved when the stimulation was turned off (1). Similarly, stroke has also been reported in association with acquired stuttering (2). While there are some reports of psychological mechanisms underlying stuttering, a majority of reports seem to favor altered brain morphology and/or function as the root of stuttering (3). Reports of structural differences between the brain hemispheres that are absent in those who do not stutter are also common (4). About 5% of children stutter, beginning sometime around age 3, during the phase of speech acquisition. However, about 75% of these cases resolve without intervention, before reaching their teens (5). Some cases of aphasia, a loss of speech production or understanding, have been reported in association with damage or changes to one or more of the language centers of the brain (6). Stuttering may sometimes arise from changes or damage to these same language centers (7). Thus, many stutterers have abnormalities in the same regions of the brain similar to those seen in aphasia.
    So how, you may ask, is all this related to gluten? As a starting point, one report from the medical literature identifies a patient who developed aphasia after admission for severe diarrhea. By the time celiac disease was diagnosed, he had completely lost his faculty of speech. However, his speech and normal bowel function gradually returned after beginning a gluten free diet (8). This finding was so controversial at the time of publication (1988) that the authors chose to remain anonymous. Nonetheless, it is a valuable clue that suggests gluten as a factor in compromised speech production. At about the same time (late 1980’s) reports of connections between untreated celiac disease and seizures/epilepsy were emerging in the medical literature (9).
    With the advent of the Internet a whole new field of anecdotal information was emerging, connecting a variety of neurological symptoms to celiac disease. While many medical practitioners and researchers were casting aspersions on these assertions, a select few chose to explore such claims using scientific research designs and methods. While connections between stuttering and gluten consumption seem to have been overlooked by the medical research community, there is a rich literature on the Internet that cries out for more structured investigation of this connection. Conversely, perhaps a publication bias of the peer review process excludes work that explores this connection.
    Whatever the reason that stuttering has not been reported in the medical literature in association with gluten ingestion, a number of personal disclosures and comments suggesting a connection between gluten and stuttering can be found on the Internet. Abid Hussain, in an article about food allergy and stuttering said: “The most common food allergy prevalent in stutterers is that of gluten which has been found to aggravate the stutter” (10). Similarly, Craig Forsythe posted an article that includes five cases of self-reporting individuals who believe that their stuttering is or was connected to gluten, one of whom also experiences stuttering from foods containing yeast (11). The same site contains one report of a stutterer who has had no relief despite following a gluten free diet for 20 years (11). Another stutterer, Jay88, reports the complete disappearance of her/his stammer on a gluten free diet (12). Doubtless there are many more such anecdotes to be found on the Internet* but we have to question them, exercising more skepticism than we might when reading similar claims in a peer reviewed scientific or medical journal.
    There are many reports in such journals connecting brain and neurological ailments with gluten, so it is not much of a stretch, on that basis alone, to suspect that stuttering may be a symptom of the gluten syndrome. Rodney Ford has even characterized celiac disease as an ailment that may begin through gluten-induced neurological damage (13) and Marios Hadjivassiliou and his group of neurologists and neurological investigators have devoted considerable time and effort to research that reveals gluten as an important factor in a majority of neurological diseases of unknown origin (14) which, as I have pointed out previously, includes most neurological ailments.
    My own experience with stuttering is limited. I stuttered as a child when I became nervous, upset, or self-conscious. Although I have been gluten free for many years, I haven’t noticed any impact on my inclination to stutter when upset. I don’t know if they are related, but I have also had challenges with speaking when distressed and I have noticed a substantial improvement in this area since removing gluten from my diet. Nonetheless, I have long wondered if there is a connection between gluten consumption and stuttering. Having done the research for this article, I would now encourage stutterers to try a gluten free diet for six months to see if it will reduce or eliminate their stutter. Meanwhile, I hope that some investigator out there will research this matter, publish her findings, and start the ball rolling toward getting some definitive answers to this question.
    Sources:
    1. Toft M, Dietrichs E. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease--two cases. BMC Neurol. 2011 Apr 8;11:44.
    2. Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: a case study. J Fluency Disord. 2010 Jun;35(2):141-5. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
    3. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    4. Jäncke L, Hänggi J, Steinmetz H. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 10;4(1):23.
    5. Kell CA, Neumann K, von Kriegstein K, Posenenske C, von Gudenberg AW, Euler H, Giraud AL. How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain. 2009 Oct;132(Pt 10):2747-60. Epub 2009 Aug 26.
    6. Galantucci S, Tartaglia MC, Wilson SM, Henry ML, Filippi M, Agosta F, Dronkers NF, Henry RG, Ogar JM, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain. 2011 Jun 11.
    7. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    8. [No authors listed] Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 43-1988. A 52-year-old man with persistent watery diarrhea and aphasia. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1139-48
    9. Molteni N, Bardella MT, Baldassarri AR, Bianchi PA. Celiac disease associated with epilepsy and intracranial calcifications: report of two patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Sep;83(9):992-4.
    10. http://ezinearticles.com/?Food-Allergy-and-Stuttering-Link&id=1235725 
    11. http://www.craig.copperleife.com/health/stuttering_allergies.htm 
    12. https://www.celiac.com/forums/topic/73362-any-help-is-appreciated/
    13. Ford RP. The gluten syndrome: a neurological disease. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Sep;73(3):438-40. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
    14. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/14/2018 - Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a rare complication of celiac disease that has high death rates. To diagnose RCDII, doctors identify a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). 
    However, researchers really don’t have much data regarding the frequency and significance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. Such data could provide useful comparison information for patients with RCDII, among other things.
    To that end, a research team recently set out to try to get some information about the frequency and importance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII. The research team included Shafinaz Hussein, Tatyana Gindin, Stephen M Lagana, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Bachir Alobeid, Suzanne K Lewis, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Peter H R Green, and Govind Bhagat.
    They are variously affiliated with the Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, and the Department of Medicine at the Celiac Disease Center, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, USA. Their team analyzed results of TCR-GR analyses performed on SB biopsies at our institution over a 3-year period, which were obtained from eight active celiac disease, 172 celiac disease on gluten-free diet, 33 RCDI, and three RCDII patients and 14 patients without celiac disease. 
    Clonal TCR-GRs are not infrequent in cases lacking features of RCDII, while PCPs are frequent in all disease phases. TCR-GR results should be assessed in conjunction with immunophenotypic, histological and clinical findings for appropriate diagnosis and classification of RCD.
    The team divided the TCR-GR patterns into clonal, polyclonal and prominent clonal peaks (PCPs), and correlated these patterns with clinical and pathological features. In all, they detected clonal TCR-GR products in biopsies from 67% of patients with RCDII, 17% of patients with RCDI and 6% of patients with gluten-free diet. They found PCPs in all disease phases, but saw no significant difference in the TCR-GR patterns between the non-RCDII disease categories (p=0.39). 
    They also noted a higher frequency of surface CD3(−) IELs in cases with clonal TCR-GR, but the PCP pattern showed no associations with any clinical or pathological feature. 
    Repeat biopsy showed that the clonal or PCP pattern persisted for up to 2 years with no evidence of RCDII. The study indicates that better understanding of clonal T cell receptor gene rearrangements may help researchers improve refractory celiac diagnosis. 
    Source:
    Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023