• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    71,786
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    Charmain
    Newest Member
    Charmain
    Joined
  • Announcements

    • admin

      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
  • 0

    GLUTEN-FREE PIZZA CRUST / FOCACCIA BREAD BY KAREN ROBERTSON


    admin


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    Celiac.com 01/11/2005 - Pizza crust is an essential item in the gluten-free kitchen, especially for families with celiac children. This class demonstrates how to make an excellent pizza crust with a variation on the recipe for focaccia bread. Alternative flours will be used and their health benefits detailed.

    This recipe is adapted from Bette Hagmans first book The Gluten-Free Gourmet. Healthy flours and the tricks I have learned over the years are part of this revised recipe. You may use brown rice flour if you cant find the amaranth, buckwheat, or teff flour, although the health benefits of these alternative flours make them well worth the search.

    This recipe makes two 13-inch pizzas, or four 10-inch pizzas.

    Ingredients:

    1½ cups brown rice flour
    ½ cup amaranth, buckwheat, or teff flour
    2 cups tapioca flour
    2/3 cup instant non-fat dry milk powder (dairy-free: 2/3 cup ground almond meal)
    3 teaspoons xanthan gum
    1 teaspoon salt
    2 tablespoons active dry yeast
    1 tablespoon sugar
    1½ cups water (105-115F.) or less
    3 tablespoons olive oil
    4 egg whites at room temperature (egg-free: see "flaxseed" in tips section)
    Olive oil for spreading pizza dough

    Grease two 13-inch pizza pans, using organic shortening. In the bowl of a stand mixer, combine the flours, milk powder, xanthan gum, salt, yeast, and sugar. In a measuring cup, combine the water and 3 tablespoons olive oil. Add olive oil-water mixture to dry ingredients, then egg whites, mixing well after each addition. Beat on high speed for 4 minutes.

    Divide dough into two (or four) equal portions. Place each portion on a prepared pizza pan. Cover your hand with a clean plastic bag. Drizzle about a tablespoon of olive oil over your hand and one portion of dough. Spread the dough out evenly over the pizza pan, forming a ridge around the edge to contain the pizza toppings. Repeat process for second portion of dough. Let dough rise for about 20 minutes. Preheat oven to 400?F. Bake pizza crusts for 7 minutes (until lightly golden) and remove from oven. At this point you can either cool the crusts, wrapping and freezing them for future use, or you can spread tomato sauce on the crust and top with your favorite toppings.

    Focaccia Bread

    While infinite versions exist, my preference for focaccia bread is a flat, round, chewy, bread brushed with olive oil, rubbed with garlic and sprinkled with rosemary. Follow the same instructions as above though you may want to allow the dough to rise another 15 minutes or so before baking the bread. You may want to bake the bread longer for a more golden crust. Another topping variation is olive oil, sliced shallots, and chopped green or black olives.

    Plain focaccia bread is also good served with a tapenade or dip.

    Reprinted with permission from:
    Cooking Gluten-Free! A Food Lovers Collection of Chef and Family
    Recipes Without Gluten or Wheat
    by Karen Robertson


    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    I tried this pizza recipe tonight. I was very surprised that it was so good. I made regular pizza for my guests and the gluten free for myself, but they all had a piece of mine and thought it was just as good as the regular. when I was concerned that the dough was so sticky when I finished mixing. I made 2 pizzas and spread the dough on parchment paper to let it rise. I have a pizza paddle, so I used that to lift paper and all on to my hot stone. later i realized that I left out the ½ cup amaranth. since the dough was totally unfamiliar to work with. sticky and wet, when I realized I forgot the amaranth, I thought that was the problem, but the finished pizza was really good. Thanks so much for helping me with my craving. I'm new to all this and cut out gluten and wheat because of an autoimmune disease. Before the guests arrived, I baked one of the rounds. when it came out of the oven, my boyfriend ate it with butter like a fresh baked bread. Very delicious.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    Not bad but be sure to activate the yeast before you add it (let yeast in water until little bubbles appear) or the bread probably won't rise I followed the recipe as is and have a great portion but it didn't rise.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Garrett

    Posted

    Great recipe, I put about 3 times the amount of salt called for and made it vegan using a gluten free egg replace and almond meal instead of milk. Great for pesto pizza especially if made with buckwheat!

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Brandee

    Posted

    Thank you so much! This is great bread. Being recently diagnosed with celiac has been quite the adventure in baking. This is one of two breads which I have made that I can tolerate.

     

    Very close to the traditional, and superb used as a nice pizza crust!

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Marni

    Posted

    I'm not very experienced with pizza dough, and I may have done something wrong. It was so sticky I couldn't do a thing with it. I tried adding brown rice flour to make it workable, but no luck! I waited the 20 minutes before I worked with it, so that was probably wrong too.

    But, I threw it on the pizza pan and baked it anyway! It doesn't look good, but it's delicious!

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Angela

    Posted

    Great taste and texture, saved the recipe and will certainly make again. made one with marinara sauce and traditional toppings, the other with chicken pesto. The only problem was the sticky mess trying to spread it out on the pizza pan. I prefer a thinner crust and this recipe isn't possible to get it thin enough. Even though it was thicker than I prefer as i said, it was yummy and I will make again. My husband doesn't care as long as it's pizza. Thanks!

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Barbara

    Posted

    Unfortunately this was a failed recipe for me. I used the almond meal and teff flour. The batter wasn't spreadable at all - more like pancake batter. I had planned on making focaccia and so poured the batter into three different cake pans and let it rise for 40 minutes before putting toppings on and baking until it reached 200 degrees. The texture is dry, the taste as bland. I would definitely at least increase the salt in the recipe. Not sure if that will make enough of a difference though.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites


    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoticons maximum are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   13 Members, 1 Anonymous, 1,278 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    admin

    makes 1½ pounds dough You will probably find many uses for this good, user-friendly dough. Recipe from Wendy Warks Living Healthy with Celiac Disease (AnAffect, 1998). Wendy uses this for pretzels, breadsticks, cinnamon rolls, and pizza crust. Use it as a substitution for wheat flour dough in your favorite recipes.
    2 teaspoons unflavored dry gelatin
    2¼ teaspoons active dry yeast
    2/3 cup warm water (105F-115F)
    2 tablespoons sugar
    2½ cups Wendy Wark's Gluten-Free Flour Mix
    2½ teaspoons xanthan gum
    ¼ cup instant non-fat dry milk powder
    ½ teaspoon salt
    3 tablespoons vegetable oil
    2 eggs
    Combine gelatin, yeast, water, and sugar together in a 2-cup glass measure. Let stand for 5 minutes, or until foamy. In the bowl of a stand mixer, add flour mix, xanthan gum, milk powder, and salt. Mix briefly, then add oil and eggs, followed by yeast mixture. Beat on high speed for 2 minutes, using the paddle attachment until a soft dough forms. Use dough in your favorite recipe.
    Karen Robertson

    Jules Shepard
    I'm always looking for quick, healthy snacks and breakfasts that I can eat and run, chasing after two small kids as I do each morning! Granola bars seem like the perfect solution, but are off-limits for the gluten-free set. Most contain forbidden grains, or at least oats which are not certified gluten-free.
    I decided to be deprived no longer and invented my own, packed with deliciousness and nutrition in every gluten-free bite! These are great bars for everyone, as they are easily modifiable to fit nearly any diet. In addition to being gluten-free, they are also egg and dairy-free and vegan. I've even offered alternatives below for low-glycemic, oat-free and nut-free diets. Feel free to substitute what you have on hand and to your tastes. Adding more dried fruits will increase the sugars, so if you are watching your sugar intake, simply reduce the fruit content and be sure not to use any dried fruits with added sugars, like cranberries.
    I like to make my own dried fruit using a dehydrator on loan from a friend, but you can find many dried fruits (often already chopped – bonus!) in your local organic market or grocery store. Check ingredient labels to be sure there are not any added glutens, as some manufacturers will roll dried fruits in wheat flour to keep them from sticking together.
    Enjoy this healthy treat!
    Gluten-Free Granola Bars
    Ingredients:
    3 cups gluten-free rolled oats or rice flakes (Shiloh Farms)
    1 cup Jules' Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour* or certified gluten-free oat flour
    ¼ cup flax seeds (pulverized) or flax seed meal
    1 tablespoon. cinnamon
    ½ cup chopped dried apples
    ½ cup chopped dried bananas
    ¼ cup chopped dates
    3/4 cup raisins, boiled (see directions below)
    1 cup chopped walnuts (optional)
    ½ cup chopped figs
    ½ cup agave nectar, honey or maple syrup
    ¼ cup sunflower nut butter or “natural” peanut, almond or cashew butter
    1 cup unsweetened applesauce
    ¾ cup unsweetened apple juice or cider

    *My all purpose flour may be made athome according to directions found in my books, Nearly NormalCooking for Gluten-Free Eating and The First Year: CeliacDisease and Living Gluten-Free, as well as in various media linkson my website. It may also be purchased pre-mixed from my website.
    Directions:
    Preheat oven to 375 F.
    Line a jelly roll baking pan withaluminum foil (preferably the “release” kind)
    Blend the flax seeds (if using seedsinstead of flax seed meal) in a food processor or blender until fine.
    In a large mixing bowl, stir togetherthis flax seed meal, the 1 cup Jules' Nearly Normal All Purpose Flour,the 3 cups of oats, cinnamon, and fruits and nuts of your choice (insimilar proportions to those listed above). When fully combined,stir in the agave nectar, applesauce, nut butter and juice, mixingwith a large wooden spoon until totally incorporated. The mixtureshould be wet enough to press together for baking.
    Pack the mixture into the bottom of theprepared baking pan and press down with the back of a rubber spatulaor large wooden spoon. Bake for 30 minutes, or until the edges beginto brown slightly.
    Remove from oven and cut into barsbefore cooled. Once fully cooled, remove from pan by lifting thefoil edges out and gently removing all the bars while still on top ofthe foil.
    Makes approximately 21 bars, but theywon't last long! My kids even liked these healthy snacks!

    Jules Shepard
    I know there has been a lot of talk lately about whether Starbucks willbegin adding gluten-free offerings to their now-forbidden gluten-filledglass cases. Time will tell if they do so, if they do it safely (thosekinds of cases are a huge source of cross-contamination), and if theydo it tastily. But I'm not going to sit idly by and wait for Starbucksto see the light. I invented my own Starbucks-like maple scone, and Idare say it's better than any they may devise!
    I made thisrecipe dairy-free, but you could use dairy yogurt and regular milkinstead. I have also provided alternatives for those of you watchingyour sugar intake, so everyone may partake.
    Enjoy!
    Gluten-Free Maple-Oat Scones
    Ingredients:
    1¼ cup certified gluten-free rolled oats (You may substitute an equalportion of Jules' Gluten Free All Purpose Flour in lieu of these oatsif you avoid oats in your diet)
    2 cups Jules' Gluten Free All Purpose Flour* (+ additional to flour the rolling surface)
    ¼ cup granulated cane sugar (or Splenda)
    ½ teaspoon baking soda
    2 teaspoons gluten-free baking powder
    ¼ cup Earth Balance Shortening or Buttery Sticks
    1 cup vanilla (soy or dairy) yogurt
    2 large eggs
    2 Tablespoons pure maple syrup (or dark agave nectar)
    (*Note- This recipe calls for Jules Gluten Free All Purpose Flour which maybe made at home according to directions found in my books, NearlyNormal Cooking for Gluten-Free Eating and The First Year: CeliacDisease and Living Gluten-Free, as well as in various media links on mywebsite.)
    Glaze Ingredients (optional):
    1 ½ cups confectioner's sugar
    2 Tablespoons+ vanilla (soy or dairy) milk
    2 Tablespoons pure maple syrup (or dark agave nectar)
    Directions:
    Preheat the oven to 400 F static or 375 F convection.
    Pourthe oats into a blender or food processor and blend into a fine flour.(Or use equal amount Jules Gluten Free All Purpose Flour)
    In alarge bowl whisk together the dry ingredients: oat flour, Jules GlutenFree All Purpose Flour, sugar, baking soda and baking powder. Cut inthe shortening using a pastry cutter, two knives or an electric mixer.
    Ina small bowl, stir the eggs together with a fork to mix. Pour eggs intothe mixed dry ingredients, then add the yogurt and maple syrup. Stirwell to combine.
    Turn the dough onto a clean counter or pastrymat liberally dusted with my Jules Gluten Free All Purpose Flour. Coatyour hands with the flour as well, then scoop the dough in a ball ontothe mat.
    Pat the dough out into a flat disc, approximately 1inch thick. Using a butter knife, cut the dough into three sections,then cut each section into smaller triangles. You should wind up withapproximately 12 triangle-shaped scones. Make sure there is not toomuch extra flour on the tops of the scones before baking - brush offlightly, if necessary.
    Place each scone onto a parchment-linedcookie sheet and bake in the preheated oven for approximately 10minutes, or until they spring back when lightly touched. Do not overcook! Remove the entire baking sheet to a cooling rack.
    Aftercooling for at least 5 minutes, stir together the glaze ingredients,adding the milk only one tablespoon at a time until it reaches apourable, but not thin, glaze consistency. Slowly pour over the tops ofeach scone. Some of the glaze will pool around the scones onto theparchment paper, so leave the scones on the baking sheet for this glazestep unless you are serving immediately and want the glaze to pool onthe serving plates.


    Connie Sarros
    This article originally appeared in the Autumn 2003 edition of Celiac.com's Journal of Gluten-Sensitivity.
    Celiac.com 09/17/2014 - The traditional food pyramid of the past shows breads, pasta, rice, cereals (all high in carbohydrates) at the base of the pyramid, the ‘staple’ of the diet.  Recently, this assumption has come under attack.  Experts are telling us that a diet high in carbohydrates is bad for us (Why is it that the things we love to eat are bad for us?).
    We consume carbohydrates primarily from grains, fruits, vegetables (including ‘root’ crops such as potatoes), beer, wine, desserts, candies, most milk products (except cheese), and ‘…ose’ foods, such as sucrose, fructose, maltose, etc.  Eating an excessive amount of carbohydrates will increase total caloric intake, which may lead to obesity, heart disease and higher blood sugar levels.  Consuming too few carbohydrates may lead to an increase in our intake of fats to make up the calories (which also leads to obesity, heart disease and higher blood sugar levels), or malnutrition.
    Right now, it is considered the “in” thing to be on a low carbohydrate diet.  Dr. Atkins has become a household word.  The term “fad diet” refers to a diet that will yield rapid weight loss and is like a quick fix for a particular problem.  It sells the dream that this time you WILL lose weight and your life will be better.  Most diets fail to yield the anticipated results because we set unrealistic expectations of what our bodies can do.  The claim of the low carbohydrate diet is that you should adapt this regimen as a permanent way of life, thereby preventing weight-gain in the future.
    If carbohydrates are totally eliminated from your diet for a prolonged period of time, your body will become deficient in major nutrients.  Fortunately, it is nearly impossible to retain a 100% carbohydrate-free diet, because carbohydrates are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes––nearly everywhere.
    Some who follow the Atkins diet feel that it is permissible to consume large quantities of meat and eggs each day, both high in protein, and ignore their cholesterol intake.  Over a period of time, this may create other health risks.
    That being said, a sensible low-carbohydrate diet has been deemed a healthy one.  Americans consume way too much starch and sugar.  Diabetics must, of necessity, restrict their sugar and carb intake; the rest of us should follow suit.  
    Complex carbohydrates provide calories, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and improve your energy level.  Therefore, it is wise to replace processed carbohydrates (like bread, pasta, crackers, cereal) with complex carbs, such as the following:
    Apple Apricot Asparagus Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cauliflower Celery Cherries Cucumber Grapefruit Green beans Green pepper Lettuce Mushrooms Onions Plums Spinach Strawberries Tomatoes Zucchini The complex carbohydrates that should be limited if you are following a low- carbohydrate diet are:
    Acorn squash Baked beans Butternut squash Cooked dried beans Corn Grains Hummus Peas Plantain Popcorn Potato Rice Sweet potato Yam So what does a low-carbohydrate diet look like?  In the sample menu below, you will notice that ‘toast’ is listed.  One slice of ‘healthy’ toast (with flaxseed or sesame seed or other form of fiber) may be beneficial, even on a low-carbohydrate diet.
    Breakfast:  
    1 cup sliced strawberries (sweetened with ½ teaspoon honey) with 1 cup 0.5% milk.
    1 hard-boiled egg.
    1 slice toast with 1 teaspoon all-fruit jelly.
    Lunch:  
    Salad made with ½ cup shredded lettuce, ¼ cup diced tomato, ¼ cup diced green pepper, ¼ cup diced cucumber, ½ cup broccoli florets, 3 Tablespoons water-packed tuna (drained), 1 Tablespoon gluten-free lowfat Italian dressing.
    1 cup fresh cherries for dessert.
    Dinner:  
    4 oz. broiled salmon topped with 1 teaspoon gluten-free low-fat mayonnaise mixed with 1 teaspoon gluten-free Parmesan cheese.
    Sliced beets and onion salad.
    Zucchini, mushrooms and red peppers sautéed in 1 teaspoon olive oil with Italian seasoning.
    Juice-packed diced peaches folded into gluten-free sugar-free orange gelatin for dessert.
    A few final hints:
    Limit your intake of ‘white’ processed foods, including rice, breads and pastas.  If you need a sugar rush, get it from natural sugars—eat an orange or broil half a grapefruit.
    Use herbs and shredded cheeses to liven up entrees and vegetable dishes.  Read labels, not just for gluten ingredients, but for fat, sugar, sodium, and carbohydrate counts; the lower the numbers, the better it is for you.
    Buy foods in their natural state, eliminating processed foods, and vary your menu.  If you prepare bland foods or foods you don’t like, you won’t stick to any diet.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6