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  • Jefferson Adams
    Jefferson Adams
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    Ancient Wheat Strains Trigger Adverse Reactions in People with Celiac Disease

    Caption: Photo: Wikimedia Commons SA3.0

    Celiac.com 11/11/2014 - There have been claims that certain strains of wheat, especially ancient strains, such as einkorn, do not trigger adverse reactions in people with celiac disease, or that they trigger less severe reactions.

    Photo: Wikimedia Commons SA3.0Until now, researchers haven't been able to say for certain that celiac disease patients react adversely to all varieties of wheat, or whether there may be differences in reactions to certain strains.

    A research team recently evaluated the safety of ancient strains of wheat in celiac disease. The researchers included Tanja Šuligojemailemail, Armando Gregorinidemail, Mariastella Colombaeemail, H. Julia Elliscemail, and Paul J. Ciclitirac

    To get a better idea of the nature of celiac factions to wheat, the team studied seven Triticum accessions showing different origin (ancient/modern) and ploidy (di-, tetra- hexaploid).

    In all, they tested ancient Triticum monococcum precoce (AA genome) and Triticum speltoides (BB genome), accessions of Triticum turgidum durum (AABB genome) including two ancient (Graziella Ra and Kamut) and two modern (Senatore Cappelli and Svevo) durum strains of wheat and Triticum aestivum compactum (AABBDD genome).

    They evaluated small intestinal gluten-specific T-cell lines generated from 13 celiac patients with wheat accessions by proliferation assays. They found that all strains of wheat they tested triggered a range of adverse responses, independent of ploidy or ancient/modern origin.

    Based on these results, they suggest that all strains of wheat, even ancient strains previously suggested to be low or devoid of celiac toxicity, should be tested for immunogenicity using gluten-specific T-cell lines from multiple celiac patients rather than gluten-specific clones to assess their potential toxicity.

    They also emphasize the need for celiac patients to follow a strict gluten-free diet, including avoidance of ancient strains of wheat.

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    My worst point in my illness, I consumed little to no wheat, but ate spelt and kamut. I was in TROUBLE! Please take this to heart and do not try older varieties of wheat thinking it will be same.

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    My worst point in my illness, I consumed little to no wheat, but ate spelt and kamut. I was in TROUBLE! Please take this to heart and do not try older varieties of wheat thinking it will be same.

    An excellent point, Diana. Thanks for your comment.

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  • About Me

    Jefferson Adams earned his B.A. and M.F.A. at Arizona State University, and has authored more than 2,000 articles on celiac disease. His coursework includes studies in biology, anatomy, medicine, and science. He previously served as Health News Examiner for Examiner.com, and provided health and medical content for Sharecare.com. Jefferson has spoken about celiac disease to the media, including an appearance on the KQED radio show Forum, and is the editor of the book "Cereal Killers" by Scott Adams and Ron Hoggan, Ed.D.

  • Related Articles

    Scott Adams
    Celiac.com 10/30/2006 - Triticum monococcum wheat is also known as Einkorn wheat and small spelt, but do not confuse it with common spelt which is not the same thing. Einkorn is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat, and recent studies have shown that it appears to lack gliadin toxicity and may be a safe wheat alternative for those with celiac disease. In the most recent study the researchers conclude that data show a lack of toxicity of triticum monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients. If this is the case it appears that this grain is non-toxic to those with celiac disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov;41(11):1305-11.
    Lack of intestinal mucosal toxicity of Triticum monococcum in celiac
    disease patients.
    Pizzuti D, Buda A, DOdorico A, DInca R, Chiarelli S, Curioni A, Martines D.
    Abstract:

    Objective. The treatment of celiac disease is based on lifelong withdrawal of foods containing gluten. Unfortunately, compliance with a gluten-free diet has proved poor in many patients (mainly due to its low palatability), emphasizing the need for cereal varieties that are not toxic for celiac patients. In evolutionary terms, Triticum monococcum is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of T. monococcum on small intestinal mucosa, using an in vitro organ culture system.
    Material and methods. Distal duodenum biopsies of 12 treated celiac patients and 17 control subjects were cultured for 24?h with T. aestivum (bread) gliadin (1?mg/ml) or with T. monococcum gliadin (1?mg/ml). Biopsies cultured with medium alone served as controls. Each biopsy was used for conventional histological examination and for immunohistochemical detection of CD3?+?intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and HLA-DR. Secreted cytokine protein interferon-? (IFN–?) was measured in the culture supernatant using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay.
    Results. Significant morphological changes, HLA-DR overexpression in the crypt epithelium and an increased number of CD3?+?IELs, found after bread gliadin exposure, were not observed in celiac biopsies cultured with T. monococcum gliadin. In contrast, with bread gliadin, there was no significant IFN-? response after culture with monococcum gliadin. Similarly, biopsies from normal controls did not respond to bread or monococcum gliadin stimulation.
    Conclusions. These data show a lack of toxicity of T. monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients.
    Note: Celiac.com strongly advises against celiacs including these grains in their diet until more testing and research is done to verify their safety.
    Einkorn Breadmaking Sites:
    Cereal Chem. 73 (2):208-214
    Breadmaking Quality of Einkorn Wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum).
    http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/backissues/1996/73_208.pdf
    Cereal Chem. 76 (5): Pub. no. C-1999-0804-01R
    Einkorn Characterization for Bread and Cookie Production in Relation to
    Protein Subunit Composition.
    http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/abstracts/1999/0804-01r.asp

    Jefferson Adams
    Can Corn Trigger Adverse Reactions in Some Celiac Patients?
    Celiac.com 12/03/2010 - An interesting finding regarding corn from a research team based in Sweden that studied the effects of both gluten and corn on patients with celiac disease.
    The research team included G. Kristjánsson, M. Högman, P. Venge, R. and Hällgren, who are affiliated variously with the Department of Gastroenterology, the Department of Medical Cell Biology, Section of Integrative Physiology, the Laboratory for Inflammation Research, and the Department of Rheumatology at Uppsala University Hospital in Uppsala, Sweden.
    Specifically, the team sought to better understand the facets of nitric oxide (NO) production induced by rectal gluten challenge and the relationship between nitric oxide production and mucosal granulocyte activation.
    The team measured the release of rectal nitric oxide in 13 patients with celiac disease and in 18 control subjects. The team measured levels both before and after rectal wheat gluten challenge.
    To collect the gas, the team used a rectal balloon and a newly developed instrument, which allows simultaneous measurements of concentrations of granulocyte mediators in the rectal mucosa. This new technique is called the “mucosal patch technique”.
    The technique allowed the team to measure myeloperoxidase (MPO), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and histamine.
    They found that concentrations of rectal nitric oxide increased in ALL celiac patients after wheat gluten challenge, peaking at 15 hours (average concentrations of 9464 (SEM 2393) parts per billion (ppb), with a range of 250–24982 ppb.
    The maximum MPO and ECP increase occurred five hours after challenge. At the fifteen hour mark, the team observed a correlation between mucosal MPO and nitric oxide production.
    They then compared their results against measurements taken after corn gluten challenge. Six of the celiac patients showed an increase in nitric oxide production 15 hours after rectal corn gluten challenge, though much smaller than after gluten challenge. The control group showed no increases after either challenge.
    The main findings showed that mucosal activation of neutrophils and eosinophils precedes pronounced enhancement of mucosal nitric oxide production after rectal wheat gluten challenge in patients with celiac disease.
    The researchers also found that some patients with celiac disease show signs of an inflammatory reaction after rectal corn gluten challenge, shown by increased nitric oxide production and activation of granulocyte markers.
    The fact that nearly half of the celiac patients in this small sample showed increases in nitric oxide production after a corn challenge is definitely interesting, and calls out for further study.
    Source:

    Gut 2005;54:769-774. doi:10.1136/gut.2004.057174 Update by Elaine E. Thompson, Ph.D. submitted 12/03/2010:
    In this study the researchers discovered that the cornmeal they tested was contaminated with wheat. Please revise this blog entry to reflect the flaw in the study."The manufacturer claimed that their corn product was free from wheat or other cereals. We tested the product at the Swedish National Food Administration (Livsmedelsverket) and it was found to be contaminated with 82 μg/g (ppm), which is less than the usual allowed amount in a gluten free diet (<200 ppm) according to the Codex Alimentarius Standard for gluten free foods, and far less than what has been found to be a safe amount of gluten contamination when correlated with histology in oral challenge studies. It cannot be excluded that the small amounts of gluten present in the corn preparation induced an inflammatory reaction as the mucosal patch technique is very sensitive. "


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/19/2012 - Can scientists create gluten-free wheat strains that are safe for people with celiac disease, and suitable for making bread? According to a team of researchers writing in the journal PNAS, the answer is 'yes.'
    Gluten is a complex mix of proteins stored in kernels of wheat, barley and rye. Some, but not all, of these proteins trigger the immune reactions seen in celiac disease and gluten sensitivity.
    Scientists have already experimented with another method that involves sifting through various kinds of wheat and barley in search of types that contain little or no offensive gluten proteins in their grains.
    So far, researchers have found wheat varieties that lack some of the important allergenic proteins, but they have yet to find a variety that is completely safe for people with celiac disease.
    That fact led the research team led by Shanshan Wen of Washington State University in Pullman and colleagues, to try a new approach that focused on a key enzyme that helps to trigger a group of genes that produce the most reactive gluten proteins.
    To do this, they used a genetic engineering trick that eliminated the key enzyme altogether. The resulting seeds wheat kernels showed sharply lower levels of these reactive gluten proteins.
    The research team predicts that, with more more tinkering, they will be able to create a line of wheat that completely eliminates the problem proteins, and keeps the non-problem proteins in the wheat.
    According to their write-up, they feel that they have good odds of creating wheat that is safe for people with celiac disease, and suitable for producing good bread and baked goods.
    If successful, they will then begin testing the results in cell cultures, mice and gluten-sensitive apes.
    Source:
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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    Rinsing it off under running water real good, this is to get any CC off. Examples, if there is a open air bakery some flour might have settled on your produce at the grocery store. OR if they are giving out samples some person might have been handling a dounut and touched your produce. Rinsing it off under running water works to remove any trace amounts normally.

    Organic. some people in general react to stuff used in growing produce, IE glyphostphate, or like me I have a issue with the wax they coat them with to keep the fresh. Going organic or farmers market fresh helps some with these. I think your nutritionist is covering all the bases.
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