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    Ancient Wheat Strains Trigger Adverse Reactions in People with Celiac Disease


    Jefferson Adams
    Image Caption: Photo: Wikimedia Commons SA3.0

    Celiac.com 11/11/2014 - There have been claims that certain strains of wheat, especially ancient strains, such as einkorn, do not trigger adverse reactions in people with celiac disease, or that they trigger less severe reactions.


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    Photo: Wikimedia Commons SA3.0Until now, researchers haven't been able to say for certain that celiac disease patients react adversely to all varieties of wheat, or whether there may be differences in reactions to certain strains.

    A research team recently evaluated the safety of ancient strains of wheat in celiac disease. The researchers included Tanja Šuligojemailemail, Armando Gregorinidemail, Mariastella Colombaeemail, H. Julia Elliscemail, and Paul J. Ciclitirac

    To get a better idea of the nature of celiac factions to wheat, the team studied seven Triticum accessions showing different origin (ancient/modern) and ploidy (di-, tetra- hexaploid).

    In all, they tested ancient Triticum monococcum precoce (AA genome) and Triticum speltoides (BB genome), accessions of Triticum turgidum durum (AABB genome) including two ancient (Graziella Ra and Kamut) and two modern (Senatore Cappelli and Svevo) durum strains of wheat and Triticum aestivum compactum (AABBDD genome).

    They evaluated small intestinal gluten-specific T-cell lines generated from 13 celiac patients with wheat accessions by proliferation assays. They found that all strains of wheat they tested triggered a range of adverse responses, independent of ploidy or ancient/modern origin.

    Based on these results, they suggest that all strains of wheat, even ancient strains previously suggested to be low or devoid of celiac toxicity, should be tested for immunogenicity using gluten-specific T-cell lines from multiple celiac patients rather than gluten-specific clones to assess their potential toxicity.

    They also emphasize the need for celiac patients to follow a strict gluten-free diet, including avoidance of ancient strains of wheat.

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    Guest Diana Thompson

    Posted

    My worst point in my illness, I consumed little to no wheat, but ate spelt and kamut. I was in TROUBLE! Please take this to heart and do not try older varieties of wheat thinking it will be same.

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    Guest Jefferson

    Posted

    My worst point in my illness, I consumed little to no wheat, but ate spelt and kamut. I was in TROUBLE! Please take this to heart and do not try older varieties of wheat thinking it will be same.

    An excellent point, Diana. Thanks for your comment.

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    Guest Zsolt Kanyo

    Posted

    In Hungary a researcher and colleagues found the same relations.

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  • Related Articles

    Scott Adams
    Celiac.com 10/30/2006 - Triticum monococcum wheat is also known as Einkorn wheat and small spelt, but do not confuse it with common spelt which is not the same thing. Einkorn is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat, and recent studies have shown that it appears to lack gliadin toxicity and may be a safe wheat alternative for those with celiac disease. In the most recent study the researchers conclude that data show a lack of toxicity of triticum monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients. If this is the case it appears that this grain is non-toxic to those with celiac disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov;41(11):1305-11.
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    Pizzuti D, Buda A, DOdorico A, DInca R, Chiarelli S, Curioni A, Martines D.
    Abstract:

    Objective. The treatment of celiac disease is based on lifelong withdrawal of foods containing gluten. Unfortunately, compliance with a gluten-free diet has proved poor in many patients (mainly due to its low palatability), emphasizing the need for cereal varieties that are not toxic for celiac patients. In evolutionary terms, Triticum monococcum is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of T. monococcum on small intestinal mucosa, using an in vitro organ culture system.
    Material and methods. Distal duodenum biopsies of 12 treated celiac patients and 17 control subjects were cultured for 24?h with T. aestivum (bread) gliadin (1?mg/ml) or with T. monococcum gliadin (1?mg/ml). Biopsies cultured with medium alone served as controls. Each biopsy was used for conventional histological examination and for immunohistochemical detection of CD3?+?intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and HLA-DR. Secreted cytokine protein interferon-? (IFN–?) was measured in the culture supernatant using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay.
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    Note: Celiac.com strongly advises against celiacs including these grains in their diet until more testing and research is done to verify their safety.
    Einkorn Breadmaking Sites:
    Cereal Chem. 73 (2):208-214
    Breadmaking Quality of Einkorn Wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum).
    http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/backissues/1996/73_208.pdf
    Cereal Chem. 76 (5): Pub. no. C-1999-0804-01R
    Einkorn Characterization for Bread and Cookie Production in Relation to
    Protein Subunit Composition.
    http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/abstracts/1999/0804-01r.asp

    Jefferson Adams
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    Source:

    Gut 2005;54:769-774. doi:10.1136/gut.2004.057174 Update by Elaine E. Thompson, Ph.D. submitted 12/03/2010:
    In this study the researchers discovered that the cornmeal they tested was contaminated with wheat. Please revise this blog entry to reflect the flaw in the study."The manufacturer claimed that their corn product was free from wheat or other cereals. We tested the product at the Swedish National Food Administration (Livsmedelsverket) and it was found to be contaminated with 82 μg/g (ppm), which is less than the usual allowed amount in a gluten free diet (<200 ppm) according to the Codex Alimentarius Standard for gluten free foods, and far less than what has been found to be a safe amount of gluten contamination when correlated with histology in oral challenge studies. It cannot be excluded that the small amounts of gluten present in the corn preparation induced an inflammatory reaction as the mucosal patch technique is very sensitive. "


    Jefferson Adams
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    Source:
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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    My own experience with stuttering is limited. I stuttered as a child when I became nervous, upset, or self-conscious. Although I have been gluten free for many years, I haven’t noticed any impact on my inclination to stutter when upset. I don’t know if they are related, but I have also had challenges with speaking when distressed and I have noticed a substantial improvement in this area since removing gluten from my diet. Nonetheless, I have long wondered if there is a connection between gluten consumption and stuttering. Having done the research for this article, I would now encourage stutterers to try a gluten free diet for six months to see if it will reduce or eliminate their stutter. Meanwhile, I hope that some investigator out there will research this matter, publish her findings, and start the ball rolling toward getting some definitive answers to this question.
    Sources:
    1. Toft M, Dietrichs E. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease--two cases. BMC Neurol. 2011 Apr 8;11:44.
    2. Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: a case study. J Fluency Disord. 2010 Jun;35(2):141-5. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
    3. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    4. Jäncke L, Hänggi J, Steinmetz H. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 10;4(1):23.
    5. Kell CA, Neumann K, von Kriegstein K, Posenenske C, von Gudenberg AW, Euler H, Giraud AL. How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain. 2009 Oct;132(Pt 10):2747-60. Epub 2009 Aug 26.
    6. Galantucci S, Tartaglia MC, Wilson SM, Henry ML, Filippi M, Agosta F, Dronkers NF, Henry RG, Ogar JM, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain. 2011 Jun 11.
    7. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    8. [No authors listed] Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 43-1988. A 52-year-old man with persistent watery diarrhea and aphasia. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1139-48
    9. Molteni N, Bardella MT, Baldassarri AR, Bianchi PA. Celiac disease associated with epilepsy and intracranial calcifications: report of two patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Sep;83(9):992-4.
    10. http://ezinearticles.com/?Food-Allergy-and-Stuttering-Link&id=1235725 
    11. http://www.craig.copperleife.com/health/stuttering_allergies.htm 
    12. https://www.celiac.com/forums/topic/73362-any-help-is-appreciated/
    13. Ford RP. The gluten syndrome: a neurological disease. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Sep;73(3):438-40. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
    14. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

    Jefferson Adams
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    Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023