Jump to content

Important Information

This site places cookies on your device (Cookie settings). Continued use is acceptance of our Terms of Use, and Privacy Policy.

  • Sign Up
  • About Me

    In 1994 I was diagnosed with celiac disease, which led me to create Celiac.com in 1995. I created this site for a single purpose: To help as many people as possible with celiac disease get diagnosed so they can begin to live happy, healthy gluten-free lives. Celiac.com was the first site on the Internet dedicated solely to celiac disease. In 1998 I founded The Gluten-Free Mall, Your Special Diet Superstore!, and I am the co-author of the book Cereal Killers, and founder and publisher of Journal of Gluten Sensitivity.

  • Related Articles

    Scott Adams
    Celiac.com 10/30/2006 - Triticum monococcum wheat is also known as Einkorn wheat and small spelt, but do not confuse it with common spelt which is not the same thing. Einkorn is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat, and recent studies have shown that it appears to lack gliadin toxicity and may be a safe wheat alternative for those with celiac disease. In the most recent study the researchers conclude that data show a lack of toxicity of triticum monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients. If this is the case it appears that this grain is non-toxic to those with celiac disease. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov;41(11):1305-11.
    Lack of intestinal mucosal toxicity of Triticum monococcum in celiac
    disease patients.
    Pizzuti D, Buda A, DOdorico A, DInca R, Chiarelli S, Curioni A, Martines D.
    Abstract:

    Objective. The treatment of celiac disease is based on lifelong withdrawal of foods containing gluten. Unfortunately, compliance with a gluten-free diet has proved poor in many patients (mainly due to its low palatability), emphasizing the need for cereal varieties that are not toxic for celiac patients. In evolutionary terms, Triticum monococcum is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of T. monococcum on small intestinal mucosa, using an in vitro organ culture system.
    Material and methods. Distal duodenum biopsies of 12 treated celiac patients and 17 control subjects were cultured for 24?h with T. aestivum (bread) gliadin (1?mg/ml) or with T. monococcum gliadin (1?mg/ml). Biopsies cultured with medium alone served as controls. Each biopsy was used for conventional histological examination and for immunohistochemical detection of CD3?+?intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and HLA-DR. Secreted cytokine protein interferon-? (IFN–?) was measured in the culture supernatant using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay.
    Results. Significant morphological changes, HLA-DR overexpression in the crypt epithelium and an increased number of CD3?+?IELs, found after bread gliadin exposure, were not observed in celiac biopsies cultured with T. monococcum gliadin. In contrast, with bread gliadin, there was no significant IFN-? response after culture with monococcum gliadin. Similarly, biopsies from normal controls did not respond to bread or monococcum gliadin stimulation.
    Conclusions. These data show a lack of toxicity of T. monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients.
    Note: Celiac.com strongly advises against celiacs including these grains in their diet until more testing and research is done to verify their safety.
    Einkorn Breadmaking Sites:
    Cereal Chem. 73 (2):208-214
    Breadmaking Quality of Einkorn Wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum).
    http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/backissues/1996/73_208.pdf
    Cereal Chem. 76 (5): Pub. no. C-1999-0804-01R
    Einkorn Characterization for Bread and Cookie Production in Relation to
    Protein Subunit Composition.
    http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/abstracts/1999/0804-01r.asp

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/19/2012 - Can scientists create gluten-free wheat strains that are safe for people with celiac disease, and suitable for making bread? According to a team of researchers writing in the journal PNAS, the answer is 'yes.'
    Gluten is a complex mix of proteins stored in kernels of wheat, barley and rye. Some, but not all, of these proteins trigger the immune reactions seen in celiac disease and gluten sensitivity.
    Scientists have already experimented with another method that involves sifting through various kinds of wheat and barley in search of types that contain little or no offensive gluten proteins in their grains.
    So far, researchers have found wheat varieties that lack some of the important allergenic proteins, but they have yet to find a variety that is completely safe for people with celiac disease.
    That fact led the research team led by Shanshan Wen of Washington State University in Pullman and colleagues, to try a new approach that focused on a key enzyme that helps to trigger a group of genes that produce the most reactive gluten proteins.
    To do this, they used a genetic engineering trick that eliminated the key enzyme altogether. The resulting seeds wheat kernels showed sharply lower levels of these reactive gluten proteins.
    The research team predicts that, with more more tinkering, they will be able to create a line of wheat that completely eliminates the problem proteins, and keeps the non-problem proteins in the wheat.
    According to their write-up, they feel that they have good odds of creating wheat that is safe for people with celiac disease, and suitable for producing good bread and baked goods.
    If successful, they will then begin testing the results in cell cultures, mice and gluten-sensitive apes.
    Source:
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/05/2013 - In the west, sorghum has traditionally been used to feed livestock. However, in Africa and India, it has long been used to feed people.
    Recently, U.S. farmers have begun producing sorghum hybrids that are white in color, known as "food-grade" sorghum. In an effort to determine if these new hybrids are safe for people with celiac disease, a team of researchers set out to make a detailed molecular study.
    The team included Paola Pontieri, Gianfranco Mamone, Salvatore De Caro, Mitch R. Tuinstra, Earl Roemer, Josephine Okot, Pasquale De Vita, Donatella B. M. Ficco, Pietro Alifano, Domenico Pignone, Domenica R. Massardo, and Luigi Del Giudice.
    They are variously affiliated with the Istituto di Genetica Vegetale (IGV), CNR−Portici, c/o Dipartimento di Biologia, Sezione di Igiene, Napoli 80134, Italy, the Istituto di Genetica e Biofisica “Adriano Buzzati-Traverso” (IGB-ABT), CNR, in Napoli, Italy, the Istituto di Scienze dell’Alimentazione (ISA), CNR, in Avellino, Italy, with the Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per la Cerealicoltura (CRA-CER) in Foggia, Italy, the Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali at the Università degli Studi di Lecce, Italy, and the Istituto di Genetica Vegetale, CNR, in Bari, Italy, with the Department of Agronomy at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, the Nu Life Market in Healy, Kansas in the United States, with Victoria Seeds Ltd. in Kampala, Uganda.
    Their study, which includes molecular evidence that sorghum lacks the proteins toxic to people with celiac disease, appears in ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
    Paola Pontieri and colleagues explain that those gluten proteins, present in wheat and barley, trigger an immune reaction in people with celiac disease that can cause abdominal pain and discomfort, constipation, diarrhea and other symptoms.
    This strong new biochemical evidence shows that these sorghum hybrids are safe for people with celiac disease.
    The researchers describe evidence from an analysis of the recently published sorghum genome, the complete set of genes in the plant, and other sources, that verify the absence of gluten proteins. They also note that sorghum has provides high nutritional value.
    Their report concludes that "[f]ood-grade sorghums should be considered as an important option for all people, especially celiac patients."
    The authors acknowledge funding from the Regione Campania, the Istituto Banco di Napoli -- Fondazione and the Compagnia di San Paolo.
    Source:
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ACS News Service Weekly PressPac: April 3, 2013

    Jefferson Adams
    Ancient Wheat Strains Trigger Adverse Reactions in People with Celiac Disease
    Celiac.com 11/11/2014 - There have been claims that certain strains of wheat, especially ancient strains, such as einkorn, do not trigger adverse reactions in people with celiac disease, or that they trigger less severe reactions.
    Until now, researchers haven't been able to say for certain that celiac disease patients react adversely to all varieties of wheat, or whether there may be differences in reactions to certain strains.
    A research team recently evaluated the safety of ancient strains of wheat in celiac disease. The researchers included Tanja Šuligojemailemail, Armando Gregorinidemail, Mariastella Colombaeemail, H. Julia Elliscemail, and Paul J. Ciclitirac
    To get a better idea of the nature of celiac factions to wheat, the team studied seven Triticum accessions showing different origin (ancient/modern) and ploidy (di-, tetra- hexaploid).
    In all, they tested ancient Triticum monococcum precoce (AA genome) and Triticum speltoides (BB genome), accessions of Triticum turgidum durum (AABB genome) including two ancient (Graziella Ra and Kamut) and two modern (Senatore Cappelli and Svevo) durum strains of wheat and Triticum aestivum compactum (AABBDD genome).
    They evaluated small intestinal gluten-specific T-cell lines generated from 13 celiac patients with wheat accessions by proliferation assays. They found that all strains of wheat they tested triggered a range of adverse responses, independent of ploidy or ancient/modern origin.
    Based on these results, they suggest that all strains of wheat, even ancient strains previously suggested to be low or devoid of celiac toxicity, should be tested for immunogenicity using gluten-specific T-cell lines from multiple celiac patients rather than gluten-specific clones to assess their potential toxicity.
    They also emphasize the need for celiac patients to follow a strict gluten-free diet, including avoidance of ancient strains of wheat.
    Source:
    Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec;32(6):1043-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.02.003

  • Popular Contributors

×