• Join our community!

    Do you have questions about celiac disease or the gluten-free diet?

  • Ads by Google:
     




    Get email alerts Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

    Ads by Google:



       Get email alertsSubscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter

  • Member Statistics

    71,836
    Total Members
    3,093
    Most Online
    Beachrat
    Newest Member
    Beachrat
    Joined
  • Announcements

    • admin

      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
  • 0

    HOW SAFE IS QUINOA FOR A CELIACS ON A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 08/03/2012 - Quinoa is a highly nutritious grain from the Andes, with low concentrations of prolamins. Even though it is regularly recommended as part of a gluten-free diet, few studies have been done, and there is scant data to support this recommendation.


    Ads by Google:




    ARTICLE CONTINUES BELOW ADS
    Ads by Google:



    Photo: CC--Emily BarneyA team of researchers recently evaluated quinoa together with millet, sorghum and wheat. The research team included Victor F. Zevallos, H. Julia Ellis, Tanja Šuligoj, L. Irene Herencia, and Paul J. Ciclitira. They are affiliated with the Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, Department of Gastroenterology at King's College London, United Kingdom, and the Departamento de Producción Vegetal at Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, in Spain.

    The study was supported by the Food Standards Agency PG1017 of the Clinical Research Trust, and the European Commission QLK1-CT-2002-02077.

    The team wanted to determine the amount of celiac-toxic prolamin epitopes in various quinoa strains from different regions of the Andes, along with the ability of these epitopes to trigger immune responses in patients with celiac disease.

    For their test, the team used 15 cultivars of quinoa provided by Irene Herencia in coordination with the germoplasm bank at INIA Peru, millet and sorghum provided by F Janssen of the regional food inspection service in Zuppen, Netherlands, and peptic/tryptic digested wheat gliadin donated by Herbert Wieser German Institute for Food Chemistry in Garching, Germany.

    They measured the concentration of celiac-toxic epitopes using murine monoclonal antibodies against gliadin and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits.

    To assess immune response, they conducted proliferation assays of celiac small intestinal T cells/interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and production of IFN-γ/IL-15 after organ culture of celiac duodenal biopsy samples.

    Of the fifteen quinoa strains tested, the researchers found that four strains had measurable concentrations of celiac-toxic epitopes, but that these levels were below the maximum permitted for a gluten-free food.

    Notably, the Ayacuchana and Pasankalla strains triggered T cells at levels similar to those for gliadin and caused secretion of cytokines from cultured biopsy samples at levels comparable with those for gliadin.

    The end result was that most quinoa strains are safe for celiacs, and do not possess measurable amounts of celiac-toxic epitopes. However, 2 strains do contain celiac-toxic proteins that might trigger adverse immune responses in some patients with celiac disease.

    Because so many people with celiac disease turn to quinoa as an important source of nutrients, more study is needed to determine if all strains are safe, or if certain strains need to be avoided.

    Source:


    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Emily Barney
    0


    User Feedback

    Recommended Comments

    Guest sergio Nunez

    Posted

    Ayacuchana is a Peruvian variety and the Pasankalla grows both in Peru and Bolivia. I believe the positive results were due to samples cross contaminated at the source. Because quinoa from Ecuador and Peru grow in fields that are rotated with other crops (wheat, barley, oats, potatoes), some of which are allergens, that quinoa most often carries fragments of wheat or barley (per our studies). Bolivian Royal quinoa grows in areas where there are no other viable crops and as such do not carry any cross-contaminants.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Kelly

    Posted

    My husband (celiac) has terrible trouble with quinoa and can't process it at all. I'm not surprised to hear this is a problem for other people as well.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    Yet again another article mentioning an allowable amount determined by those without celiac disease. I cannot tolerate any amount and have a hard time choosing gluten-free foods that are truly gluten-free. I have had quinoa that didn't make me sick, but I also had some that made me very sick. No thanks!

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Yet again another article mentioning an allowable amount determined by those without celiac disease. I cannot tolerate any amount and have a hard time choosing gluten-free foods that are truly gluten-free. I have had quinoa that didn't make me sick, but I also had some that made me very sick. No thanks!

    Me too. I quit all grains and other foods as well. I can't tolerate them as well.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Hilary

    Posted

    As usual, Jefferson found the most interesting thing to write about! Thanks for the info and study, Jefferson... it's going to make eating quinoa a little less secure for me for a while, but I'm glad to know about the study.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Muriel MacArthur

    Posted

    I am very sensitive to gluten, but I have never had a problem with quinoa. I live in the USA. Would this make a difference? I notice the studies were done in England.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Tammy Lemke

    Posted

    This is very interesting. I have had trouble with Quinoa always -- so frustrating. It is such a nutritional grain. Thanks!

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites
    Guest Denise

    Posted

    This explains SO much! I get so sick when I eat it, but couldn't figure out why. Had some quinoa for breakfast and have been doubled over for an hour!

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites

    Thanks - I came here today because I was feeling quite ill with intestinal issues. I was at a retreat center yesterday who served glue free food - but quinoa was served, and then today I had chips with quinoa and I then got really sick. Anyway, it has been a long time since I've had a gluten type of reaction I have been gluten-free for 12 years... I think this is what is going on with me today.

    Share this comment


    Link to comment
    Share on other sites


    Your content will need to be approved by a moderator

    Guest
    You are commenting as a guest. If you have an account, please sign in.
    Add a comment...

    ×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

      Only 75 emoticons maximum are allowed.

    ×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

    ×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

    ×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.


  • Popular Contributors

  • Ads by Google:

  • Who's Online   10 Members, 0 Anonymous, 1,117 Guests (See full list)

  • Related Articles

    admin

    Gastroenterology, Oct 2003, Vol 125, No 4, p1105-13
    Celiac.com 10/30/2003 – It has long been known that celiac disease is caused by T-cell responses to wheat gluten-derived peptides, but the toxicity of other widely consumed grains has not been well studied. The researchers who conducted this study were aimed at determining the toxic T-cell stimulatory properties of barley hordeins, rye secalins, and oat avenins. Except for one instance, they found that there were no identical T-cell stimulatory gluten peptide matches in these grains. There were, however, similar responses found in "11 homologous sequences in hordeins, secalins, and avenins located in regions similar to those in the original gluten proteins," and seven of the 11 peptides were recognized by gluten-specific T-cell lines and/or clones from patients with celiac disease. The team discovered that key amino acids can be substituted, which will either partially or totally stop the T-cell stimulation by the gluten peptides, and that "single nucleotide substitutions in gluten genes will suffice to induce these effects."
    The researchers conclude: "These results show that the disease-inducing properties of barley and rye can in part be explained by T-cell cross-reactivity against gluten-, secalin-, and hordein-derived peptides. Moreover, the results provide a first step toward a rational strategy for gluten detoxification via targeted mutagenesis at the genetic level."

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 10/05/2012 - Buckwheat flour significantly improves the nutrition and texture in gluten-free breads, according to a new study published in the journal Food Hydrocolloids. The study examines the role of buckwheat and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) in making gluten-free breads.
    The researchers point out that the food industry has cleared numerous formulation hurdles associated with removing gluten from dough, and created numerous new gluten-free products. However, they add, many gluten-free breads are still made with pure starches, "resulting in low technological and nutritional quality."
    The research team included M. Mariotti, M. Ambrogina Pagani and M. Lucisano. They are affiliated with the Department of Food Science and Technology and Microbiology (DiSTAM) at the University of Milan.
    In their study, they found that high levels of buckwheat flour improves both the texture and nutrition of gluten-free breads.
    Their findings showed that including up to 40% de-hulled buckwheat flour improved the leavening characteristics and overall quality of gluten-free breads.
    Because it is high in dietary fiber, the buckwheat flour increases dough viscosity, along with "the swelling and gelling properties of the buckwheat starch and the emulsion-forming and stabilizing properties of the globulin protein fraction,” the researchers wrote.
    The study also found that bread crumbs in gluten-free bread made with buckwheat flour and the food additive HPMC were softer than in gluten-free bread made without buckwheat flour.
    For their study, the research team evaluated ten bread formulas, 2 commercial, 8 experimental, with varying levels of buckwheat flours and HPMC. These formulas used both de-hulled and puffed buckwheat flour. The team based all experimental formulas on recipes from the two commercial samples.
    The formula that yielded the most favorable gluten-free bread included, 40% de-hulled buckwheat flour, 5% puffed buckwheat flour and 0.5% HPMC.

    Source:
    Journal of Food Hydrocolloids doi: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2012.07.005

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/19/2012 - Can scientists create gluten-free wheat strains that are safe for people with celiac disease, and suitable for making bread? According to a team of researchers writing in the journal PNAS, the answer is 'yes.'
    Gluten is a complex mix of proteins stored in kernels of wheat, barley and rye. Some, but not all, of these proteins trigger the immune reactions seen in celiac disease and gluten sensitivity.
    Scientists have already experimented with another method that involves sifting through various kinds of wheat and barley in search of types that contain little or no offensive gluten proteins in their grains.
    So far, researchers have found wheat varieties that lack some of the important allergenic proteins, but they have yet to find a variety that is completely safe for people with celiac disease.
    That fact led the research team led by Shanshan Wen of Washington State University in Pullman and colleagues, to try a new approach that focused on a key enzyme that helps to trigger a group of genes that produce the most reactive gluten proteins.
    To do this, they used a genetic engineering trick that eliminated the key enzyme altogether. The resulting seeds wheat kernels showed sharply lower levels of these reactive gluten proteins.
    The research team predicts that, with more more tinkering, they will be able to create a line of wheat that completely eliminates the problem proteins, and keeps the non-problem proteins in the wheat.
    According to their write-up, they feel that they have good odds of creating wheat that is safe for people with celiac disease, and suitable for producing good bread and baked goods.
    If successful, they will then begin testing the results in cell cultures, mice and gluten-sensitive apes.
    Source:
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

    Carol Fenster, Ph.D.
    This article originally appeared in the Autumn 2007 edition of Celiac.com's Journal of Gluten-Sensitivity.
    Celiac.com 03/19/2015 - Almost half of Americans eat no whole grains at all and those who do eat them only consume a single serving per day—far below the 3 to 5 daily servings recommended by the USDA. People often tell me, "I might eat more whole grains if I just knew which ones to choose and how to prepare them."
    There are many wholesome, gluten-free grains that add flavor, variety, and texture to our diet and—if you read this article—you'll know which ones to choose and you'll learn some easy ways to prepare them at home.
    A Quick Definition of Whole Grain
    What is a whole grain? Scientists use technical explanations, but to me it means the WHOLE grain or seed with everything intact and nothing removed. A whole grain contains the outside layer of bran and fiber, the middle layer or germ which contains important nutrients such as B-vitamins, and the inner part called the endosperm which provides energy and carbohydrates.
    Many whole grains are also naturally gluten-free, including amaranth, brown rice (but not white rice because the outer layers are milled away), buckwheat, hominy, millet, quinoa, sorghum, and teff. These grains are generally available at your natural food store. Some of these grains—such as buckwheat—are actually seeds of fruit but we treat them as grains in cooking. Gluten-free whole oats (or oat groats as they're typically called) are whole grain and are available from www.bobsredmill.com and www.creamhillestates.com. Be sure to check with your physician to see if these gluten-free oats are right for you.
    Whole Grains for Breakfast
    When we think of grains, we think of cereal. And, when we think of cereal, we automatically think of breakfast, so let's start there. Whole grains make terrific hot cereal, but they take a while to cook and most people don't have that much time in the morning.
    Of course, you can always cook whole grains the traditional way on the stovetop the night before, if you have time. In my latest book, Gluten-Free Quick & Easy, I encourage ways to more easily incorporate whole grains into our diets with minimal time investment. This is the perfect opportunity to pull that slow cooker out from the back shelf of your pantry or to invest in a pressure cooker. The slow cooker cooks the whole grains overnight or the pressure cooker does it quickly the night before.
    Slow Cooker Grains. Put 1 cup of any of the whole grains mentioned above, 3 ½ to 4 cups water, and ¼ teaspoon salt in a slow cooker. Cook on low all night and the next morning you have hot, cooked whole grains for breakfast. The grains will have softened and resemble porridge because they absorbed lots of water.
    Pressure Cooker Grains. Be sure to follow your pressure cooker's directions. Lorna Sass, in her James Beard award-winning cookbook, Whole Grains: Every Day, Every Way, suggests using 4 cups water, 1 tablespoon vegetable oil, and ½ teaspoon salt for each 1 cup of whole grain. Brown rice can be ready in 15 minutes while gluten-free oat groats take 30 minutes, but these times are significantly shorter than traditional cooking times. You can cook the grains while you're preparing dinner or after the dinner dishes are done. Drain any extra water from the grains and refrigerate the cooked grains before you go to bed. Unlike the slow cooker method, which produces a more porridge-like consistency, whole grains cooked in a pressure cooker more closely resemble their original shape. Cooked whole grains keep refrigerated for about a week. I simply reheat the refrigerated cooked grains in the microwave oven.
    Regardless of whether I cook the grains in a slow cooker or pressure cooker, I like to mix them with honey, agave nectar, brown rice syrup, chopped nuts, or brown sugar and a sprinkle of cinnamon and flax meal for a marvelous breakfast that is packed with fiber and nutrients.
    If you would like to make your own breakfast porridge with the sweeteners and fruit cooked in it, try my easy Slow Cooker Brown Rice Porridge recipe (page 12).
    Whole Grains as Side Dishes
    Whole grains such as brown rice, buckwheat, millet, quinoa, and sorghum stand in nicely for savory side dishes made from rice, couscous, wheatberries, and bulgur. And, the new gluten-free whole oat groats make nice side dishes as well. You will find an excellent Toasted Oat Pilaf recipe at www.bobsredmill.com that demonstrates how to use the new gluten-free steel-cut oats as a savory dish.
    The basic idea is to add herbs and seasonings to the cooked whole grains in the same way and in the same amounts as you would add them to cooked rice, couscous, wheatberries, or bulgur. Any recipe that uses these grains can be adapted to use your favorite gluten-free whole grains.
    Want to Learn More about Whole Grains?
    If you would like to know more about the whole grain stamp used on store-bought foods, go to www.wholegrainscouncil.org. Or, if you want to learn more about nutritional content of gluten-free grains, see Gluten-Free Diet: a Comprehensive Resource Guide by Shelley Case, RD, (Expanded Edition, Case Nutrition Consulting, 2006). To learn more about cooking whole grains using a variety of methods, see Whole Grains: Every Day, Every Way, by Lorna Sass (Clarkson Potter, 2006). Not all of the grains are gluten-free, but the cooking instructions and innovative preparation techniques for the gluten-free grains are very helpful.

  • Recent Articles

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com