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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    IS AMARANTH GLUTEN-FREE AND SAFE FOR PEOPLE WITH CELIAC DISEASE?


    Jefferson Adams


    • Amaranth is gluten-free and safe for people with celiac disease


    Celiac.com 12/07/2017 - Amaranth is naturally gluten-free and usually safe for people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.


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    Amaranth is not actually a grain, but is considered a pseudo-cereal like it's cousin, quinoa. Both are part of the same large family that includes beets, chard and spinach.

    Amaranth is highly nutritious, and contains about one-third more protein than rice, sorghum, or rye. It also contains high levels of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, and fiber, together with a nearly perfect amino acid profile.

    So, amaranth is good to include in just about any diet, but especially for gluten-free folks looking for more nutritious options.

    Cooked amaranth is very similar to cooked quinoa, with similar nutty taste and chewy texture, although cooke amaranth is not quite as fluffy as quinoa.

    Like quinoa, it's important to soak amaranth thoroughly before cooking.

    As with buckwheat and quinoa, you can also bake with amaranth flour. If you're looking for something more nutritious than brown rice and other flours, then amaranth flour may be a good fit. Here are some recipes that use amaranth flour.

    Also, amaranth is more comparable to wheat in terms of the chewy, sticky characters needed for baking, so it's a good addition to many gluten-free breads. You'll likely still need xanthin gum, but probably less of it.

    Like rice, or quinoa, amaranth goes great in soup.

    Here's a recipe for stuffed chicken breasts with oatmeal and amaranth.


    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Naturalflow
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  • Related Articles

    Danna Korn
    This article originally appeared in the Spring 2003 edition of Celiac.com's Journal of Gluten-Sensitivity.
    -Yes, there’s more to life than rice and corn!
    Variety, it’s been said, is the spice of life.  So what’s a person to do when they’re told to eliminate wheat and/or gluten from their diet?  Most turn to rice, corn, and potatoes—an adequate set of starches, but ones that are sorely lacking in nutrients, flavor, and imagination.
    The superheroes of gluten-free grains are often referred to as “ancient” or alternative grains, which are loaded with nutrients and unique, interesting flavors.  The following is a condensed excerpt from my newly published book, Wheat-Free, Worry-Free: The Art of Happy, Healthy, Gluten-Free Living.
    “Alternative” Grains: The Superheroes of Gluten-Free Grains
    If you’re an adventuresome eater, you’re in for a treat.  In searching for alternatives to wheat, rye, or barley, you’ll discover a variety of wheat-free/gluten-free grains that you may never have heard of before, many of them loaded with nutrients and robust flavors not found in typical grains like wheat and rice.  If you’re not the adventurous type and you just long for the ease of a few tried-and-true favorites, you’ll find them here as well.
    Perhaps you fall into still another category—you’ve been eating a wheat or gluten-free diet for a while and you think you already know everything there is to know.  Okay, what’s quinoa, and how the heck is it pronounced?  Is teff wheat-free?  Do Job’s Tears have religious significance?  If you don’t know the answers to these questions, or if you think ragi is a spaghetti sauce and sorghum is what you get when you have your teeth cleaned, it’s time to move on to lesson one.
    Alternative Grains and Non-Grains
    Even if you can’t eat wheat, rye, barley, or oats, there are several other grains, fruits, and legumes that are not only acceptable alternatives to them, but they also happen to be loaded with flavor and nutrients.  Here are some of the many choices available to those on a wheat and gluten-free diet (WF/gluten-free):

    Amaranth (WF/gluten-free) Buckwheat/groats/kasha (WF/gluten-free) Cassava (arrowroot) (WF/gluten-free) Chickpea (garbanzo) (WF/gluten-free) Job’s Tears (WF/gluten-free) Millet (WF/gluten-free) Montina (WF/gluten-free) Oats (WF/gluten-free, but oats can be contaminated with wheat and other grains) Quinoa (WF/gluten-free) Ragi (WF/gluten-free) Rice (WF/gluten-free; only brown rice is whole grain) Sorghum (WF/gluten-free) Soy (WF/gluten-free) Tapioca (WF/gluten-free) Taro root (WF/gluten-free) Teff (WF/gluten-free)
    Many of the proteins found in these alternatives are a great source of complex carbohydrates.  The fuel from these carbohydrates, found in plant kingdom starches, produces what nutritionists call a protein-sparing effect, which means the body can meet its energy requirements without dipping into its protein reserves. Several of these alternative grains and non-grains are high in lysine, an amino acid that controls protein absorption in the body.  Because this amino acid is absent from most grains, the protein fraction of those grains is utilized only if eaten in conjunction with other foods that do contain lysine.  All high protein grains are better utilized by the body when they are eaten with high-lysine foods such as peas, beans, amaranth, or buckwheat.
    Amaranth (WF/gluten-free): Loaded with fiber and more protein than any traditional grain, amaranth is nutritious and delicious, with a pleasant peppery flavor.  The name means “not withering,” or more literally, “immortal.”  While it may not make you immortal, it is extremely healthful, especially with its high lysine and iron content.
    Buckwheat (groat; kasha) (WF/gluten-free): It sounds as though it would be closely related to wheat, but buckwheat is not related to wheat at all.  In fact, it’s not even a grain; it’s a fruit of the Fagopyrum genus, a distant cousin of garden-variety rhubarb, and its seed is the plant’s strong point.  The buckwheat seed has a three-cornered shell that contains a pale kernel known as a “groat.”  In one form or another, groats have been used as food by people since the 10th century b.c.
    Nutritionally, buckwheat is a powerhouse.  It contains a high proportion of all eight essential amino acids, which the body doesn’t make itself but are still essential for keeping the body functioning.  In that way, buckwheat is closer to being a complete protein than any other plant source.
    Whole white buckwheat is naturally dried and has a delicate flavor that makes it a good stand-in for rice or pasta.  Kasha is the name given to roasted hulled buckwheat kernels.  Kasha is toasted in an oven and tossed by hand until the kernels develop a deep tan color, nutlike flavor, and a slightly scorched smell.
    Be aware, however, that buckwheat is sometimes combined with wheat.  Read labels carefully before purchasing buckwheat products.
    Millet (WF/gluten-free): Millet is said by some to be more ancient than any grain that grows.  Where it was first cultivated is disputed, but native legends tell of a wild strain known as Job’s Tears that grows in the Philippines and sprouted “at the dawn of time.”
    Millet is still well respected in Africa, India, and China, where it is considered a staple.  Here in the United States, it is raised almost exclusively for hay, fodder, and birdseed.  One might consider that to be a waste, especially when considering its high vitamin and mineral content.  Rich in phosphorus, iron, calcium, riboflavin, and niacin, a cup of cooked millet has nearly as much protein as wheat.  It is also high in lysine—higher than rice, corn, or oats.
    Millet is officially a member of the Gramineae (grass) family and as such is related to montina.
    Montina (Indian Rice Grass) (WF/gluten-free): Indian rice grass was a dietary staple of Native American cultures in the Southwest and north through Montana and into Canada more than 7,000 years ago, even before maize (corn) was cultivated.  Similar to maize, montina was a good substitute during years when maize crops failed or game was in short supply.  It has a hearty flavor, and is loaded with fiber and protein.
    Quinoa (“KEEN-wah”) (WF/gluten-free): The National Academy of Science described quinoa as “the most nearly perfect source of protein from the vegetable kingdom.”  Although new to North Americans, it has been cultivated in the South American Andes since at least 3000 b.c.  Ancient Incas called this annual plant “the mother grain,” because it was self-perpetuating and ever-bearing.  They honored it as a sacred food product, since a steady diet appeared to ensure a full, long life; and the Inca ruler himself planted the first row of quinoa each season with a gold spade.
    Like amaranth, quinoa is packed with lysine and other amino acids that make a protein complete.  Quinoa is also high in phosphorus, calcium, iron, vitamin E, and assorted B vitamins.  Technically a fruit of the Chenopodium herb family, quinoa is usually pale yellow in color, but also comes in pink, orange, red, purple, and black.
    Quinoa’s only fault is a bitter coating of saponins its seeds.  The coating comes off with thorough rinsing prior to cooking, and some companies have developed ways to remove the coating prior to delivering quinoa to stores.
    Sorghum (milo) (WF/gluten-free): Sorghum is another of the oldest known grains, and has been a major source of nutrition in Africa and India for years.  Now grown in the United States, sorghum is generating excitement as a gluten-free insoluble fiber.
    Because sorghum’s protein and starch are more slowly digested than that of other cereals, it may be beneficial to diabetics and healthy for anyone.  Sorghum fans boast of its bland flavor and light color, which don’t alter the taste or look of foods when used in place of wheat flour.  Many cooks suggest combining sorghum with soybean flour.
    Soy and Soybeans (WF/gluten-free): Like the ancient foods mentioned at the beginning of this section, soy has been around for centuries.  In China, soybeans have been grown since the 11th century b.c., and are still one of the country’s most important crops.  Soybeans weren’t cultivated in the United States until the early 1800s, yet today are one of this country’s highest yielding producers.
    Soybeans are a legume, belonging to the pea family.  Comprised of nearly 50 percent protein, 25 percent oil, and 25 percent carbohydrate, they have earned a reputation as being extremely nutritious.  They are also an excellent source of essential fatty acids, which are not produced by the body, but are essential to its functioning nonetheless.
    Teff (WF/gluten-free): Considered a basic part of the Ethiopian diet, teff is relatively new to Americans.    Five times richer in calcium, iron, and potassium than any other grain, teff also contains substantial amounts of protein and soluble and insoluble fiber. Considered a nutritional powerhouse, it has a sweet, nutty flavor. Teff grows in many different varieties and colors, but in the United States only the ivory, brown, and reddish-tan varieties can be found. The reddish teff is reserved for purveyors of Ethiopian restaurants, who are delighted to have an American source for their beloved grain.
    A Word About Sprouted Grains
    Some people believe that “sprouted grains,” even ones that contain gluten such as wheat, are gluten-free—not true!  The sprouting process sparks a chemical reaction that begins to break down gluten, so some people who are slightly sensitive to gluten may find that they can tolerate sprouted grains better, but too many of the peptides that are reactive for celiacs are still present, so sprouted grains are not safe for people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance.


    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/15/2017 - Quinoa is regarded as safe for people with celiac disease. For many years, some celiac support groups listed quinoa as unsafe due to cross-contamination concerns. But any grain is unsafe for celiacs if it is contaminated with wheat, rye or barley. Some grains have a higher risk of such contamination, others have a low risk.
    Based on its low risk for cross-contamination, Celiac.com has had quinoa on our safe list since 1995. A vast amount of evidence supports that listing.
    The latest research shows that celiac patients can safely tolerate up to 50 g of quinoa daily for 6 weeks. The researchers in this test point out that further studies are needed to assess long-term effects of quinoa consumption. In the short-term test, the researchers looked at 19 treated celiac patients who ate 50 g of quinoa every day for 6 weeks as part of their regular gluten-free diet.
    The team evaluated diet, serology, and gastrointestinal parameters, and made histological assessments of 10 patients, both before and after they consumed quinoa. The results show that celiac patients seem to tolerate quinoa well, and it doesn't trigger any symptoms or cause any gut damage or dysfunction. The team found normal gut structure and mucosa to confirm that assessment.
    In fact, patients saw a general improvement histological and serological results, so better gut conditions and less blood antibodies to gluten in patients who ate quinoa. Celiac patients who ate quinoa for 6 weeks also experienced a mild reduction in blood pressure.
    Overall, this is the first clinical study to show that celiac patients can safely tolerate up to 50 g of quinoa daily for 6 weeks.
    Obviously, future studies need to look at the safety of long-term quinoa consumption. That said, quinoa seems to be safe for celiac patients on a gluten-free diet.
    If you really want to be sure, quinoa grown in main producer countries of Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador, where practically no wheat is grown, is probably the safest bet for those on a gluten-free diet.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/18/2017 - Just looking at its name, one might wonder if buckwheat is safe for people on a gluten-free diet.
    However, unlike its name, buckwheat does not naturally contain any wheat or gluten. As a result, buckwheat is considered safe for people with celiac disease on a gluten-free diet.
    Turns out that buckwheat and wheat are from different, unrelated botanical families. As with quinoa, buckwheat is the seed of a flowering plant, as such it is not considered a grain or a cereal.
    Buckwheat is actually closely related to rhubarb. It is an excellent source of fiber and nutrients. A serving of cooked buckwheat groats, the small triangular seeds, offers 17 grams of dietary fiber and 22 grams of protein.
    Buckwheat is not only nutritious, but it contains rutin, a compound shown to strengthen capillary walls and improve circulation. As such, buckwheat, is also regarded as beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.
    As with grains, buckwheat can become contaminated with wheat during processing, transportation or if it is grown in fields also used to grow wheat.
    To make sure your buckwheat is gluten-free, it is important to find certified gluten-free buckwheat. Also, remember that some products labled as buckwheat may include wheat flour, so double check to make sure your product is labled gluten-free. Otherwise, buckwheat is a healthy, nutritious gluten-free alternative for people with celiac disease.

  • Recent Articles

    Tammy Rhodes
    Celiac.com 04/24/2018 - Did you know in 2017 alone, the United States had OVER TENS OF THOUSANDS of people evacuate their homes due to natural disasters such as fires, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes and tsunamis? Most evacuation sites are not equipped to feed your family the safe gluten free foods that are required to stay healthy.  Are you prepared in case of an emergency? Do you have your Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag ready to grab and go?  
    I have already lived through two natural disasters. Neither of which I ever want to experience again, but they taught me a very valuable lesson, which is why I created a Gluten Free Emergency Food Bag (see link below). Here’s my story. If you’ve ever lived in or visited the Los Angeles area, you’re probably familiar with the Santa Ana winds and how bitter sweet they are. Sweet for cleaning the air and leaving the skies a brilliant crystal blue, and bitter for the power outages and potential brush fires that might ensue.  It was one of those bitter nights where the Santa Ana winds were howling, and we had subsequently lost our power. We had to drive over an hour just to find a restaurant so we could eat dinner. I remember vividly seeing the glow of a brush fire on the upper hillside of the San Gabriel Mountains, a good distance from our neighborhood. I really didn’t think much of it, given that it seemed so far from where we lived, and I was hungry! After we ate, we headed back home to a very dark house and called it a night. 
    That’s where the story takes a dangerous turn….about 3:15am. I awoke to the TV blaring loudly, along with the lights shining brightly. Our power was back on! I proceeded to walk throughout the house turning everything off at exactly the same time our neighbor, who was told to evacuate our street, saw me through our window, assuming I knew that our hillside was ablaze with flames. Flames that were shooting 50 feet into the air. I went back to bed and fell fast asleep. The fire department was assured we had left because our house was dark and quiet again. Two hours had passed.  I suddenly awoke to screams coming from a family member yelling, “fire, fire, fire”! Flames were shooting straight up into the sky, just blocks from our house. We lived on a private drive with only one way in and one way out.  The entrance to our street was full of smoke and the fire fighters were doing their best to save our neighbors homes. We literally had enough time to grab our dogs, pile into the car, and speed to safety. As we were coming down our street, fire trucks passed us with sirens blaring, and I wondered if I would ever see my house and our possessions ever again. Where do we go? Who do we turn to? Are shelters a safe option? 
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    Then, my second brush with a natural disaster happened, without any notice, leaving us once again scrambling to find a safe place to shelter. It was a warm and muggy summer morning, and my husband was away on a business trip leaving my young daughter and me to enjoy our summer day. Our Severe Weather Alert Radio was going off, again, as I continued getting our daughter ready for gymnastics.  Having gotten used to the (what seemed to be daily) “Severe Thunderstorm warning,” I didn’t pay much attention to it. I continued downstairs with my daughter and our dog, when I caught a glimpse out the window of an incredibly black looking cloud. By the time I got downstairs, I saw the cover to our grill literally shoot straight up into the air. Because we didn’t have a fenced in yard, I quickly ran outside and chased the cover, when subsequently, I saw my neighbor’s lawn furniture blow pass me. I quickly realized I made a big mistake going outside. As I ran back inside, I heard debris hitting the front of our home.  Our dog was the first one to the basement door! As we sat huddled in the dark corner of our basement, I was once again thinking where are we going to go if our house is destroyed. I was not prepared, and I should have been. I should have learned my lesson the first time. Once the storm passed, we quickly realized we were without power and most of our trees were destroyed. We were lucky that our house had minimal damage, but that wasn’t true for most of the area surrounding us.  We were without power for five days. We lost most of our food - our gluten free food.
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    In 2017 alone, FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) had 137 natural disasters declared within the United States. According to FEMA, around 50% of the United States population isn’t prepared for a natural disaster. These disasters can happen anywhere, anytime and some without notice. It’s hard enough being a parent, let alone being a parent of a gluten free family member. Now, add a natural disaster on top of that. Are you prepared?
    You can find my Gluten Free Emergency Food Bags and other useful products at www.allergynavigator.com.  

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/23/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to learn whether celiac disease patients commonly suffer cognitive impairment at the time they are diagnosed, and to compare their cognitive performance with non-celiac subjects with similar chronic symptoms and to a group of healthy control subjects.
    The research team included G Longarini, P Richly, MP Temprano, AF Costa, H Vázquez, ML Moreno, S Niveloni, P López, E Smecuol, R Mazure, A González, E Mauriño, and JC Bai. They are variously associated with the Small Bowel Section, Department of Medicine, Dr. C. Bonorino Udaondo Gastroenterology Hospital; Neurocience Cognitive and Traslational Institute (INECO), Favaloro Fundation, CONICET, Buenos Aires; the Brain Health Center (CESAL), Quilmes, Argentina; the Research Council, MSAL, CABA; and with the Research Institute, School of Medicine, Universidad del Salvador.
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    Celiac disease patients had similar cognitive performance and anxiety, but no significant differences in depression scores compared with disease controls.
    A total of thirty-three subjects were diagnosed with celiac disease. Compared with the 26 healthy control subjects, the 17 celiac disease subjects, and the 17 disease control subjects, who mostly had irritable bowel syndrome, showed impaired cognitive performance (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively), functional impairment (P<0.01), and higher depression (P<0.01). 
    From their data, the team noted that any abnormal cognitive functions they saw in adults with newly diagnosed celiac disease did not seem not to be a result of the disease itself. 
    Their results indicate that cognitive dysfunction in celiac patients could be related to long-term symptoms from chronic disease, in general.
    Source:
    J Clin Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar 1. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0000000000001018.

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
    The research team included Åsa Torinsson Naluai, Ladan Saadat Vafa, Audur H. Gudjonsdottir, Henrik Arnell, Lars Browaldh, and Daniel Agardh. They are variously affiliated with the Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Karolinska University Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Clinical Science and Education, Karolinska Institute, Sodersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; the Diabetes & Celiac Disease Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; and with the Nathan S Kline Institute in the U.S.A.
    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
    The significance of the individual amino acids do not survive multiple correction, however, multivariate analyses of the amino acid profile showed significantly altered amino acid levels in children with celiac disease overall and after correction for age, sex and experimental effects.
    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764