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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    IS GENETICALLY MODIFIED WHEAT THE SOLUTION TO CELIAC DISEASE?


    Jefferson Adams

    Celiac.com 06/30/2014 - The people who grow wheat think they might have a solution for people with celiac disease: Genetically modified wheat.


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    Photo: CC--bluemooseBy genetically modifying wheat, researchers are looking to ‘silence’ proteins that trigger adverse immune reactions in people with celiac disease.

    A research team working on just such a project recently published a report of their results in the Journal of Cereal Science. The team included researchers Cristina M. Rosella, Francisco Barrob, Carolina Sousac, and Ma Carmen Menad.

    Their report acknowledges that creating strains of wheat with reduced gluten toxicity is difficult using conventional breeding methods, and that genetic modification, in particular a technology called RNA interference (RNAi), hold the greatest promise in reducing or ‘silencing’ the gluten proteins in wheat and other cereals. Such technology allows researchers to develop gluten-free wheat strains by adjusting the gluten fractions toxic to those with celiac disease.

    They acknowledge that their efforts could face resistance fueled by global concerns around genetically modified foods. They also note that current and prior genetic modification efforts have not produced products with tangible benefits to the consumer. Rather, the main beneficiaries of such efforts have been large companies and/or farmers.

    According to their report, the development of genetically modified wheat lines suitable for people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance could be a major turning point.

    Their efforts to create celiac-friendly wheat varieties via genetic modification aims to “solve a health problem that directly affects a large proportion of consumers, in developed as well as developing countries, and with higher consumer awareness.”

    What do you think? Is this a possible breakthrough? Would you be interested in wheat that had been genetically modified to be safe for people with celiac disease?

    Source:


    Image Caption: Photo: CC--bluemoose
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    Guest Sherri

    Posted

    I don't care who thinks GMO's are the way to 'cure' anything! They are destructive and I refuse to ever eat Frankenfood. I support certified organic and the environment the way it's meant to be not this fake food!

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    Guest kristian

    Posted

    Noo! This is awful. Where do you think celiac came from?! Genetically modifying our foods!

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    Guest Michelle S.

    Posted

    What other medical conditions will genetically engineered wheat bring on? Leave nature to nature and just cut out foods with gluten from your diet. It's not the end of the world! There is still plenty left to eat!

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    Guest Glenn

    Posted

    Let's ask the people wit celiac disease what they think. This sounds like it is still in the early stages of development, but sounds like it could be a breakthrough. In the long run, if we ban all GM Foods, we will starve.

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    Guest John R.

    Posted

    I think the article is right on. Perhaps this modification will work out, perhaps not. But it looks potentially promising and it would irresponsible not to pursue the matter further. It dismays me when others (three of the previous four comments above) irrationally dismiss this topic out of hand merely because it uses the technique "GMO." Luddenites! I don't know of any DOCUMENTED case where the consumption of a GM food has ever caused damage to the person. If you know of such a case, and it is DOCUMENTED (not simply your impression or an offhand comment from your aunt Suzy), please let me know. Science largely supports the development of GM foods (i.e., Scientific American and Technology Review [MIT]) much the same way it also almost universally acknowledges the fact that global warning is actually occurring in the face of ridiculous political (Fox News, Tea Party) denials.

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    Guest Emily

    Posted

    Noo! This is awful. Where do you think celiac came from?! Genetically modifying our foods!

    Actually, no, GMOs have nothing to do with celiac disease. The increased gluten concentration found in today's wheat is ENTIRELY due to conventional cross-breeding of strains to select for the desired trait - in this case, the better bread texture that gluten provides.

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    Guest Dee Kay

    Posted

    This is absurd. Certainly people with celiacs are looking for gluten free options, but taking the gluten out of wheat does not make sense. The properties of wheat based products that we love (the chewiness of bread, the texture of cake and cookies) comes from gluten. Removing the gluten from wheat will not give you a product with similar properties to regular wheat, it will give you a product with the properties of other gluten-free wheat replacement options (rice flour, bean flour). We do not need gluten-free wheat. People with celiacs need gluten alternatives. This GMO effort is a waste of research money. We don't even need to discuss how GMOs are bad for farming methods, bad for natural cross pollination, bad for organic farmers, and bad for your health. This is a short sighted idea by someone who doesn't seem to understand exactly what gluten is and what it's properties are.

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    Guest allan

    Posted

    Let's ask the people wit celiac disease what they think. This sounds like it is still in the early stages of development, but sounds like it could be a breakthrough. In the long run, if we ban all GM Foods, we will starve.

    My MD routinely checked me for allergies, general, food, etc. This was in 1973-4 and the approx. 70 scratches on my arm were filled with small rub-on products that a person could be allergic to. I was highly allergic to wheat, nicotine, peas, less allergic to salmon, codfish, tomatoes, etc. I've had 5 vocal cord strippings in the past 15 years and may need 1 more. It is called 'severe dysplasia', next door to cancer. I will be 68 in Nov. 2014 and am in superb condition, other than allergies and things they cause. I get sleepy when I eat certain foods and that's annoying. Etc. Don't see much helping. I don't want GMO's of any kind unless I really need it. Bye!

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    Guest Janine Polk

    Posted

    Genetically modified strains of wheat, no matter how they are developed, will eventually be the answer. You can't just lump all GMOs together and say they're all bad.

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    Guest Donnie

    Posted

    I have celiac, and have my doubts about GMO wheat. I certainly wouldn't be likely to tolerate it, even if it can be made gluten-free. The other GMOs cause me severe stomach pains, for some reason and I have to avoid them. And no, I can't prove it, and since GMOs are not labeled, I can't even 'prove' that I ever ate them. I assume this GMO wheat will be drenched in herbicides, like the other GMOs. Also modified with viruses, bacteria and god only knows what else, like the other GMOs. No thank you. I'll just stay on my totally gluten free diet, like I have for the past 10 years. Much safer, and better for my health.

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    An absolute NO to anything GMO. Genetic modification is pure hubris.

    I have been obligatorily gluten-free and eating organic for more than 15 years, and am usually mistaken for 20 years younger than my age.

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    No. We need more attention paid to the contamination of our food that's happened through the use of excessive pesticides, second-hand smoke and diesel fumes during harvesting and transport, and factory-farmed animals that are pumped with antibiotics and hormones designed to make them plumper and/or keep them alive under unhealthy conditions. We have contaminated the food chain so much. We should be cleaning it up, not using our energy to genetically modify foods. GMOs are creating new problems, and encourage us to feel that we can ignore the messes we've already made. I'm celiac and I can live without GMO wheat, designed to line some bigwig's pockets. Trust issues? You bet.

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    Guest Michael

    Posted

    I have celiac, gluten ataxia and a wheat allergy. There is no way I will ever get near wheat again. Just think this through: genetically modified wheat already exists. There is no way you are ever going to control the wind or contamination if other strains. There is no way the majority gluten addicts are ever going to accept elimination of gluten. Then what? You are going to trust restaurant X that you are being served pure non-toxic wheat pasta and bread? You had better come to realize that wheat is variously toxic to everyone, and the human genes that make it so are many thousands of years older than the creation of wheat by hybridization of wild grasses.

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    Guest maneesha

    Posted

    No. We need more attention paid to the contamination of our food that's happened through the use of excessive pesticides, second-hand smoke and diesel fumes during harvesting and transport, and factory-farmed animals that are pumped with antibiotics and hormones designed to make them plumper and/or keep them alive under unhealthy conditions. We have contaminated the food chain so much. We should be cleaning it up, not using our energy to genetically modify foods. GMOs are creating new problems, and encourage us to feel that we can ignore the messes we've already made. I'm celiac and I can live without GMO wheat, designed to line some bigwig's pockets. Trust issues? You bet.

    Agreed

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    Guest Christy

    Posted

    I definitely think it's worth trying! And as usual if you're against it, you don't have to eat it. You can sit back and watch the rest of us enjoy!

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    Guest LeeAnne

    Posted

    This is absurd. Certainly people with celiacs are looking for gluten free options, but taking the gluten out of wheat does not make sense. The properties of wheat based products that we love (the chewiness of bread, the texture of cake and cookies) comes from gluten. Removing the gluten from wheat will not give you a product with similar properties to regular wheat, it will give you a product with the properties of other gluten-free wheat replacement options (rice flour, bean flour). We do not need gluten-free wheat. People with celiacs need gluten alternatives. This GMO effort is a waste of research money. We don't even need to discuss how GMOs are bad for farming methods, bad for natural cross pollination, bad for organic farmers, and bad for your health. This is a short sighted idea by someone who doesn't seem to understand exactly what gluten is and what it's properties are.

    Amen!

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    Guest Margo

    Posted

    This is an interesting concept. I usually stay away from GMOs when I can but I would probably try this as long as it was proven safe for celiacs. Dee Kay is right though, the thing I miss about wheat is the gluten itself--crispy, chewy pizza, croissants, phyllo dough, yeast donuts, things that can't be replicated with gluten-free flours.

    By the way, I always look forward to your articles, Jefferson. Thank you for keeping us informed!

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    Guest Catherine

    Posted

    This sounds great!

    I agree completely. The only reason to make an issue of celiacs is to get food producers to leave wheat out and make healthier food. This is a people issue not just a celiac issue.

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    Guest Shar

    Posted

    I have celiac, and have my doubts about GMO wheat. I certainly wouldn't be likely to tolerate it, even if it can be made gluten-free. The other GMOs cause me severe stomach pains, for some reason and I have to avoid them. And no, I can't prove it, and since GMOs are not labeled, I can't even 'prove' that I ever ate them. I assume this GMO wheat will be drenched in herbicides, like the other GMOs. Also modified with viruses, bacteria and god only knows what else, like the other GMOs. No thank you. I'll just stay on my totally gluten free diet, like I have for the past 10 years. Much safer, and better for my health.

    Why do you assume GMO wheat will be "drenched in herbicides? I don't think GMO and organic are mutually exclusive. GMO wheat can save eyesight in developing countries.

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    Guest Shar

    Posted

    No. We need more attention paid to the contamination of our food that's happened through the use of excessive pesticides, second-hand smoke and diesel fumes during harvesting and transport, and factory-farmed animals that are pumped with antibiotics and hormones designed to make them plumper and/or keep them alive under unhealthy conditions. We have contaminated the food chain so much. We should be cleaning it up, not using our energy to genetically modify foods. GMOs are creating new problems, and encourage us to feel that we can ignore the messes we've already made. I'm celiac and I can live without GMO wheat, designed to line some bigwig's pockets. Trust issues? You bet.

    Genetic modification can make plants more resistant to pests without using pesticides. I am not sure how you think products should be transported.

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    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
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    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6