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    • Scott Adams

      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/24/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What is Celiac Disease and the Gluten-Free Diet? What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    Is Triticum Monococcum (Einkorn) a Safe Wheat for those with Celiac Disease?


    Scott Adams

    Celiac.com 10/30/2006 - Triticum monococcum wheat is also known as Einkorn wheat and small spelt, but do not confuse it with common spelt which is not the same thing. Einkorn is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat, and recent studies have shown that it appears to lack gliadin toxicity and may be a safe wheat alternative for those with celiac disease. In the most recent study the researchers conclude that data show a lack of toxicity of triticum monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients. If this is the case it appears that this grain is non-toxic to those with celiac disease.


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    Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006 Nov;41(11):1305-11.
    Lack of intestinal mucosal toxicity of Triticum monococcum in celiac
    disease patients.
    Pizzuti D, Buda A, DOdorico A, DInca R, Chiarelli S, Curioni A, Martines D.

    Abstract:

    Objective.
    The treatment of celiac disease is based on lifelong withdrawal of foods containing gluten. Unfortunately, compliance with a gluten-free diet has proved poor in many patients (mainly due to its low palatability), emphasizing the need for cereal varieties that are not toxic for celiac patients. In evolutionary terms, Triticum monococcum is the oldest and most primitive cultivated wheat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of T. monococcum on small intestinal mucosa, using an in vitro organ culture system.

    Material and methods.
    Distal duodenum biopsies of 12 treated celiac patients and 17 control subjects were cultured for 24?h with T. aestivum (bread) gliadin (1?mg/ml) or with T. monococcum gliadin (1?mg/ml). Biopsies cultured with medium alone served as controls. Each biopsy was used for conventional histological examination and for immunohistochemical detection of CD3?+?intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and HLA-DR. Secreted cytokine protein interferon-? (IFN–?) was measured in the culture supernatant using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay.

    Results.
    Significant morphological changes, HLA-DR overexpression in the crypt epithelium and an increased number of CD3?+?IELs, found after bread gliadin exposure, were not observed in celiac biopsies cultured with T. monococcum gliadin. In contrast, with bread gliadin, there was no significant IFN-? response after culture with monococcum gliadin. Similarly, biopsies from normal controls did not respond to bread or monococcum gliadin stimulation.

    Conclusions.
    These data show a lack of toxicity of T. monococcum gliadin in an in vitro organ culture system, suggesting new dietary opportunities for celiac patients.

    Note: Celiac.com strongly advises against celiacs including these grains in their diet until more testing and research is done to verify their safety.

    Einkorn Breadmaking Sites:

    Cereal Chem. 73 (2):208-214
    Breadmaking Quality of Einkorn Wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum).
    http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/backissues/1996/73_208.pdf

    Cereal Chem. 76 (5): Pub. no. C-1999-0804-01R
    Einkorn Characterization for Bread and Cookie Production in Relation to
    Protein Subunit Composition.
    http://www.aaccnet.org/cerealchemistry/abstracts/1999/0804-01r.asp


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    Guest Stan Ness

    Posted

    Einkorn has not yet been proven to be safe for celiacs. I've seen peer reviewed articles advocating both sides of that question. It may be safe for people with gluten or wheat “sensitivities†but celiac patients should be extremely cautious and consult a physician before trying einkorn. Also, there are hundreds of different types of einkorn, each with a unique set of gluten and gliadin proteins. With any luck, one will be found that everyone can eat safely.

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    Guest HALLU

    Posted

    There is only ONE "Triticum Monococcum", but since it's a landrace plant, it adapts extremely quickly to different environments and hence produces a great variety of different Einkorn grains, depending on your location and climate.

     

    Einkorn is as Safe of a grain as you will get, especially after re-stablishing a healthy intestinal flora after your modern-wheat onslaught !

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    Guest Annie Flanders

    Posted

    Einkorn has not yet been proven to be safe for celiacs. I've seen peer reviewed articles advocating both sides of that question. It may be safe for people with gluten or wheat “sensitivities†but celiac patients should be extremely cautious and consult a physician before trying einkorn. Also, there are hundreds of different types of einkorn, each with a unique set of gluten and gliadin proteins. With any luck, one will be found that everyone can eat safely.

    I would not touch einkorn with a 10 foot pole. I shall continue to eat wheat-free. Thank you Stan Ness for your insight.

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  • Related Articles

    Scott Adams

    Gastroenterology. 2005 Feb;128(2):393-401.
    Celiac.com 02/09/2005 – Norwegian scientists have been mapping gluten T-cell epitopes in various wheat ancestors and have found several varieties that may be suitable for those with celiac disease. The trigger for celiac disease has been identified as the epitopes that cluster within a stable 33mer fragment of wheat chromosome 6D. The scientists extracted and screened gluten from a variety of modern wheat ancestors to look for any T-cell stimulatory gluten peptides. They found that the 33mer fragment is encoded by alpha-gliadin genes on wheat chromosome 6D, which does not exist in the gluten of diploid einkorn or in certain types of tetraploid pasta wheat.
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    Jefferson Adams
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    Source:
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 06/05/2013 - In the west, sorghum has traditionally been used to feed livestock. However, in Africa and India, it has long been used to feed people.
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    Source:
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ACS News Service Weekly PressPac: April 3, 2013

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/11/2014 - There have been claims that certain strains of wheat, especially ancient strains, such as einkorn, do not trigger adverse reactions in people with celiac disease, or that they trigger less severe reactions.
    Until now, researchers haven't been able to say for certain that celiac disease patients react adversely to all varieties of wheat, or whether there may be differences in reactions to certain strains.
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    Source:
    Clin Nutr. 2013 Dec;32(6):1043-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2013.02.003

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    Jefferson Adams
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    Zyana Morris
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    Itchy Rash
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    Sources:
    ncbi.nlm.nih.gov  Celiac.com ncbi.nlm.nih.gov  mendfamily.com