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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    QUINOA THE AMAZING GLUTEN-FREE GRAIN


    Jen Cafferty

    Celiac.com 05/29/2009 - Quinoa is making a comeback as a "wonder grain." Before going gluten free, most people have never heard of quinoa. But, once you embrace the gluten-free lifestyle, you should learn more about this amazing grain.


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    Quinoa is an ancient grain that has been grown in South America for thousands of years and was called the "gold of the Incas." The grain resembles millet and has a bitter protective saponin coating that protects the grain from being eaten by birds and insects.

    Today, many companies that sell quinoa in the United States remove the bitter saponins. This allows you to prepare the quinoa without having to rinse it first.

    Red Quinoa - A Gluten-Free GrainQuinoa is gluten-free, high in fiber and a complete protein, meaning it has all nine amino acids. Quinoa also contains high amounts of lysine, manganese, magnesium, iron, copper and phosphorus. Due to quinoa being a complete protein, it is an excellent food choice for the gluten-free vegan.

    To prepare the quinoa for cooking, either purchase pre-rinsed quinoa or rinse the quinoa in a strainer until the saponins are removed. To cook the quinoa, add one part of the grain to two parts liquid in a saucepan. After the mixture is brought to a boil, reduce the heat to simmer and cover. One cup of quinoa cooked in this method usually takes 15 minutes to prepare. When cooking is complete, you will notice that the grains have become translucent, and the white germ has partially detached itself, appearing like a white-spiraled tail.

    Serve quinoa as a replacement for rice or couscous. Quinoa is delicious served cold or warm and can be frozen and reheated. It is recommended to prepare the entire box of quinoa and freeze the unused portions for later use.

    Tuscan Quinoa Salad Recipe

    Ingredients
    2 cups cooked quinoa
    ¼ cup scallions, chopped
    2 cloves garlic,minced
    1 box cherry tomatoes, sliced in half
    ½ cup pine nuts, toasted
    ½ cup fresh parsley, chopped
    ½ cup fresh basil, chopped
    3 T olive oil
    juice from half of a lemon
    kosher salt and pepper to taste

    To Prepare
    Prepare quinoa according to recipe on package. Add remaining ingredients to quinoa. Season with salt and pepper to your liking. You may replace oil and lemon juice with Italian dressing. 


    Sources for info on quinoa:
    Quinoa Corporation
    Eden Organics
    Homegrown Harvest



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    Guest jill

    Posted

    Very interesting article and I will certainly try some quinoa. Just one thing, Ms Cafferty suggests using it instead of rice or couscous, but I thought couscous contains gluten. Am I mistaken?

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    Guest Elizabeth

    Posted

    Great information on a grain I've heard of but hesitated to use simply because I'm not familiar with it.

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    There are at least a few people (including myself) who react strongly to Quinoa - it makes me horribly ill. Just lucky in my intolerances, I guess - it's showing up in a lot of packaged gluten-free food now, hopefully it will continue to be well-marked in ingredients.

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    There are at least a few people (including myself) who react strongly to Quinoa - it makes me horribly ill. Just lucky in my intolerances, I guess - it's showing up in a lot of packaged gluten-free food now, hopefully it will continue to be well-marked in ingredients.

    Thank you for your comment. I too cannot digest Quinoa. I just tried it for the 3rd time and within 3 hours had extreme nausea, sweating and diarrhea. I did not rinse the quinoa before cooking it and wonder if that would have made any difference. I am leery to try it again to find out.

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    Thank you for your comment. I too cannot digest Quinoa. I just tried it for the 3rd time and within 3 hours had extreme nausea, sweating and diarrhea. I did not rinse the quinoa before cooking it and wonder if that would have made any difference. I am leery to try it again to find out.

    Please note that Quinoa is gluten-free unless it is cross contaminated in the field or processing plant. Quinoa grown in South America is almost never cross-contaminated.

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    One caveat is that most Quinoa products are a combination of quinoa and CORN. Chances are, if you have a gluten allergy, you may very likely have a corn allergy. I had a similarly bad reaction to eating Quinoa pasta because it had corn in it (I didn't read the package carefully enough). So far, I haven't found any quinoa without corn.

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    Guest emily

    Posted

    Great information on a grain I've heard of but hesitated to use simply because I'm not familiar with it.

    It's delicious, I've just started going Gluten-free as my mom has celiac sprue. Try preparing the quinoa as box directed, but replace the water with equal parts water and milk. Then add a few handfuls of your favorites: walnuts, dried cranberries, frozen blueberries or strawberries, pecans, bananas, etc. then add 2 tsp vanilla extract and 2 tsp. cinnamon and a dash or two of nutmeg if you'd like. You can add flaxseed or anything else you'd like to make it more nutrient-rich, if that's even possible! I love this nutty cinnamon treat for breakfast. I make the whole box and freeze the remainder, then reheat in a saucepan with a little milk for the next time.

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    I have been using the Quinoa for a while now and I find it very versatile. I use it for breakfast, boiled in skimmed milk a teaspoon of honey and a choice of fruit sprinkled on top...or for dinner I boil in salted water a few sprigs of mint, a handful of fresh peas and to finish a little butter placed on top.

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    Guest GirlnPurpledress

    Posted

    Very interesting article and I will certainly try some quinoa. Just one thing, Ms Cafferty suggests using it instead of rice or couscous, but I thought couscous contains gluten. Am I mistaken?

    Yes, couscous is not wheat or gluten free.

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    Guest Lalala

    Posted

    I also have a problem digesting quinoa. This morning I had intestinal pain and found in my bowel movement a whole intact undigested grain. One might be because I didn't wash the quinoa. Two is that you should boil it for as long as possible till the tails are wiggling out. I probably didn't cook some of it well enough. Also I would recommend three times the water in case it boils down too quick.

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    Try cooking quinoa in a rice cooker instead (still a ratio 2:1). The grains cook much better and softer that way without having to watch it closely.

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    I also have a problem digesting quinoa. This morning I had intestinal pain and found in my bowel movement a whole intact undigested grain. One might be because I didn't wash the quinoa. Two is that you should boil it for as long as possible till the tails are wiggling out. I probably didn't cook some of it well enough. Also I would recommend three times the water in case it boils down too quick.

    I broke out with another round of rash and other than absolutely gluten-free food, quinoa was all I had eaten. This is what I found online and I will NEVER eat Quinoa again!

     

    Ever hear of saponins? If not think of the word soap and you'll be headed in the right direction since saponins are molecules that make a soap-like foaming reaction when shaken in a water-based solution. While they are said not to attach themselves to carriers as the gluten proteins do, saponins can poke holes in the cell membranes of the microvilli (this is all in your gut mind you). This, of course, is profoundly irritating. In short quinoa might as well be a grain and in some ways it might as well have gluten too. At least if it did people who probably should not be eating it now, would not be eating it.

     

    So to answer the question, "is quinoa gluten-free?", Yes. But don't eat it.

     

    What do you eat besides quinoa, wheat and all these other problematic grains? We've talked a bit here before about how white rice is a fairly reasonable option for most people. Since white rice has had the bran removed it is primarily a starch and the potentially irritating anti-nutrients in the bran are eliminated. If you are trying to lose weight it may not be the first thing you should turn to depending on your situation and particular health status but it is probably the best option out there in terms of grains and grain-like products.

     

    Beyond that the best way to avoid the problems faced by celiac sufferers is to make your diet primarily one of meats, fruits, vegetables and some tubers like sweet potatoes. This will have the dual benefit of eliminating gluten and similar lectins from your diet as well as clearing out the processed food content so your body can thrive on whole, clean foods that help spark all the right hormonal signals for health and vitality.

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    Guest George

    Posted

    Please specify the brands of quinoa that are safe. Some have high amounts of gluten.

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    Guest dolores mason

    Posted

    Yes, couscous is not wheat or gluten free.

    Just bought a box of Lundberg Organic Gluten-free brown rice couscous. Haven't tried it yet, but am looking forward to finding recipes for it.

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    Guest Relwin

    Posted

    I broke out with another round of rash and other than absolutely gluten-free food, quinoa was all I had eaten. This is what I found online and I will NEVER eat Quinoa again!

     

    Ever hear of saponins? If not think of the word soap and you'll be headed in the right direction since saponins are molecules that make a soap-like foaming reaction when shaken in a water-based solution. While they are said not to attach themselves to carriers as the gluten proteins do, saponins can poke holes in the cell membranes of the microvilli (this is all in your gut mind you). This, of course, is profoundly irritating. In short quinoa might as well be a grain and in some ways it might as well have gluten too. At least if it did people who probably should not be eating it now, would not be eating it.

     

    So to answer the question, "is quinoa gluten-free?", Yes. But don't eat it.

     

    What do you eat besides quinoa, wheat and all these other problematic grains? We've talked a bit here before about how white rice is a fairly reasonable option for most people. Since white rice has had the bran removed it is primarily a starch and the potentially irritating anti-nutrients in the bran are eliminated. If you are trying to lose weight it may not be the first thing you should turn to depending on your situation and particular health status but it is probably the best option out there in terms of grains and grain-like products.

     

    Beyond that the best way to avoid the problems faced by celiac sufferers is to make your diet primarily one of meats, fruits, vegetables and some tubers like sweet potatoes. This will have the dual benefit of eliminating gluten and similar lectins from your diet as well as clearing out the processed food content so your body can thrive on whole, clean foods that help spark all the right hormonal signals for health and vitality.

    What medical qualifications do you have exactly? You used the internet to self-diagnose? Scary.

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    Guest Sandra

    Posted

    I've just been diagnosed with a corn intolerance and I'm also celiac. As I write this I'm in a restaurant staring at the menu. There is not one thing I can have. It's either gluten-free or corn. I cannot seem to avoid all.

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    Guest jonathan

    Posted

    Try making quinoa and rice. North American farmers have been unable to match the quality of the quinoa grown in the Andean countries although more and more of them are cultivating it these days. Quinoa can be found in many large grocery stores.

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    What ever causes you some discomfort, I would eliminate it from your diet regardless of its gluten free classification. Eating it is not worth your discomfort. If it does this one time, it's one time too many. Get rid of it.

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    admin
    Authors: Kasarda DD. DOvidio R.
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    Gryphon Myers
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    Jefferson Adams
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    The study also found that bread crumbs in gluten-free bread made with buckwheat flour and the food additive HPMC were softer than in gluten-free bread made without buckwheat flour.
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    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/17/2018 - Could the holy grail of gluten-free food lie in special strains of wheat that lack “bad glutens” that trigger the celiac disease, but include the “good glutens” that make bread and other products chewy, spongey and delicious? Such products would include all of the good things about wheat, but none of the bad things that might trigger celiac disease.
    A team of researchers in Spain is creating strains of wheat that lack the “bad glutens” that trigger the autoimmune disorder celiac disease. The team, based at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture in Cordoba, Spain, is making use of the new and highly effective CRISPR gene editing to eliminate the majority of the gliadins in wheat.
    Gliadins are the gluten proteins that trigger the majority of symptoms for people with celiac disease.
    As part of their efforts, the team has conducted a small study on 20 people with “gluten sensitivity.” That study showed that test subjects can tolerate bread made with this special wheat, says team member Francisco Barro. However, the team has yet to publish the results.
    Clearly, more comprehensive testing would be needed to determine if such a product is safely tolerated by people with celiac disease. Still, with these efforts, along with efforts to develop vaccines, enzymes, and other treatments making steady progress, we are living in exciting times for people with celiac disease.
    It is entirely conceivable that in the not-so-distant future we will see safe, viable treatments for celiac disease that do not require a strict gluten-free diet.
    Read more at Digitaltrends.com , and at Newscientist.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/16/2018 - A team of researchers recently set out to investigate whether alterations in the developing intestinal microbiota and immune markers precede celiac disease onset in infants with family risk for the disease.
    The research team included Marta Olivares, Alan W. Walker, Amalia Capilla, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Francesc Palau, Julian Parkhill, Gemma Castillejo, and Yolanda Sanz. They are variously affiliated with the Microbial Ecology, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, National Research Council (IATA-CSIC), C/Catedrático Agustín Escardin, Paterna, Valencia, Spain; the Gut Health Group, The Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; the Genetics and Molecular Medicine Unit, Institute of Biomedicine of Valencia, National Research Council (IBV-CSIC), Valencia, Spain; the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire UK; the Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, URV, Tarragona, Spain; the Center for regenerative medicine, Boston university school of medicine, Boston, USA; and the Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu and CIBERER, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain
    The team conducted a nested case-control study out as part of a larger prospective cohort study, which included healthy full-term newborns (> 200) with at least one first relative with biopsy-verified celiac disease. The present study includes 10 cases of celiac disease, along with 10 best-matched controls who did not develop the disease after 5-year follow-up.
    The team profiled fecal microbiota, as assessed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, along with immune parameters, at 4 and 6 months of age and related to celiac disease onset. The microbiota of infants who remained healthy showed an increase in bacterial diversity over time, especially by increases in microbiota from the Firmicutes families, those who with no increase in bacterial diversity developed celiac disease.
    Infants who subsequently developed celiac disease showed a significant reduction in sIgA levels over time, while those who remained healthy showed increases in TNF-α correlated to Bifidobacterium spp.
    Healthy children in the control group showed a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum, while children who developed celiac disease showed increased levels of Bifidobacterium breve and Enterococcus spp.
    The data from this study suggest that early changes in gut microbiota in infants with celiac disease risk could influence immune development, and thus increase risk levels for celiac disease. The team is calling for larger studies to confirm their hypothesis.
    Source:
    Microbiome. 2018; 6: 36. Published online 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1186/s40168-018-0415-6