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    Summertime Lemon Souffle (Gluten-Free)


    Jefferson Adams

    After dinner at a local Mediterranean restaurant, the waitress suggested my friend and I try the farmer's market fresh lemon soufflé for dessert. What followed was nothing short of culinary bliss, with ooh's and ahh's over the sweet, airy, lemony, delight. Realizing that most soufflé's contain a bit of flour, I resolved to replicate the joy in a gluten-free version. I've done a pretty good version using just corn starch, but I've been experimenting with various flours and starches as a substitute for the 2 tablespoons of wheat flour the recipe usually requires. This is the best I've come up with, so far. I will continue to tinker, as should you. Enjoy!


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    The finished lemon souffle. Photo: CC-abakedcreationIngredients:
    1/2 stick of butter (for greasing cooking dishes)
    1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons granulated sugar
    1/2 cup whole milk, raw if possible
    1/4 cup fresh Meyer lemon juice*
    1 teaspoon grated Meyer lemon zest*
    2 large egg yolks
    3 large egg whites
    1 tablespoon sorghum flour
    1/2 tablespoon potato starch (plus a dash more, as needed)
    1/8 teaspoon salt
    1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar (McCormick's)
    Powdered sugar (gluten-free)

    *Note - If Meyer lemons are not available, you may substitute regular lemons.

    Directions:
    Place oven rack in the lowest possible position. Heat oven to 400° F.

    2. Butter 8 (6-ounce) ramekins, and dust lightly with 2 tablespoons sugar; refrigerate until ready to use.

    3. Mix milk and lemon zest in a small saucepan and scald over medium heat. Remove from heat, and cool.

    Use an electric mixer, or hand beat remaining 1/2 cup sugar and 2 egg yolks in a large bowl 3 to 4 minutes or until light and fluffy, scraping down side of bowl several times.

    Gradually mix in sorghum flour and 1/2 tablespoon of potato starch until blended, scraping down side of bowl.

    Add milk mixture to egg mixture, and mix thoroughly. Add lemon juice and salt.

    Heat mixture on low (or in a double boiler), and cook, stirring constantly, about 3 minutes or until thick and creamy (add more potato starch as necessary).

    Remove from heat, and cool completely.

    You can do this up to 2 days in advance, and store it sealed in the refrigerator. Just make sure you bring it to room temperature before cooking.)

    Place egg whites and cream of tartar into a separate bowl and mix at medium speed for about 10 seconds.

    Increase speed to medium-high, and beat 1 to 2 minutes or until soft peaks form. (Do not over-beat; egg whites will appear dry and granular if they are over-beaten.)

    Stir about one-quarter of egg whites into cooled egg mixture to lighten it.

    Fold in remaining whites gently, using a rubber spatula, just until incorporated. Be careful not to over-mix.

    Pour mixture gently into prepared soufflé cups to top of rim.
    Cleaning the rim with your finger will help the soufflés to rise properly.

    Bake at 400° for 10 minutes; lower heat to 350°, and bake 4 more minutes or until the soufflé has risen above dish, the outside is set, and the inside remains a bit loose and jiggly when shaken

    Remove from oven, dust with powdered sugar, and serve immediately in the same containers.


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    Wendy Cohan
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    Sources:
    1. Toft M, Dietrichs E. Aggravated stuttering following subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease--two cases. BMC Neurol. 2011 Apr 8;11:44.
    2. Tani T, Sakai Y. Stuttering after right cerebellar infarction: a case study. J Fluency Disord. 2010 Jun;35(2):141-5. Epub 2010 Mar 15.
    3. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    4. Jäncke L, Hänggi J, Steinmetz H. Morphological brain differences between adult stutterers and non-stutterers. BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 10;4(1):23.
    5. Kell CA, Neumann K, von Kriegstein K, Posenenske C, von Gudenberg AW, Euler H, Giraud AL. How the brain repairs stuttering. Brain. 2009 Oct;132(Pt 10):2747-60. Epub 2009 Aug 26.
    6. Galantucci S, Tartaglia MC, Wilson SM, Henry ML, Filippi M, Agosta F, Dronkers NF, Henry RG, Ogar JM, Miller BL, Gorno-Tempini ML. White matter damage in primary progressive aphasias: a diffusion tensor tractography study. Brain. 2011 Jun 11.
    7. Lundgren K, Helm-Estabrooks N, Klein R. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature. J Neurolinguistics. 2010 Sep 1;23(5):447-454.
    8. [No authors listed] Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 43-1988. A 52-year-old man with persistent watery diarrhea and aphasia. N Engl J Med. 1988 Oct 27;319(17):1139-48
    9. Molteni N, Bardella MT, Baldassarri AR, Bianchi PA. Celiac disease associated with epilepsy and intracranial calcifications: report of two patients. Am J Gastroenterol. 1988 Sep;83(9):992-4.
    10. http://ezinearticles.com/?Food-Allergy-and-Stuttering-Link&id=1235725 
    11. http://www.craig.copperleife.com/health/stuttering_allergies.htm 
    12. https://www.celiac.com/forums/topic/73362-any-help-is-appreciated/
    13. Ford RP. The gluten syndrome: a neurological disease. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Sep;73(3):438-40. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
    14. Hadjivassiliou M, Gibson A, Davies-Jones GA, Lobo AJ, Stephenson TJ, Milford-Ward A. Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness? Lancet. 1996 Feb 10;347(8998):369-71.

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    Journal of Clinical Pathologyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2018-205023

    Jefferson Adams
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    Source:
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

    Jefferson Adams
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    Source:
    Gut. 2017 Feb;66(2):250-257.  doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-310148.