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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    ZAKKOKUMAI GLUTEN-FREE MULTIGRAIN RICE BLEND


    Jefferson Adams

    02/19/2015 - The Japanese make a dish called Zakkokumai, which is cooked Japanese rice and millet. Zakkoku just means “mixed grains”, and mai is rice. Commercial Japanese dry mixes often use barley, so it’s best to make your own. I’ve modified that a bit by adding quinoa to the bunch.


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    Photo: CC--Makoko OtsukaIf you’re eating gluten-free because of celiac disease or gluten-intolerance, chances are you’re not getting enough fiber, or vitamins. If you’re like me, you may eat a lot of rice.

    One easy way to get a wider grain profile, and more nutrition, into your diet is to add gluten-free grains to standard brown, white or mixed rice.

    Ingredients:

    • 1 cup brown rice
    • 1 cup white rice
    • ¼ cup quinoa
    • ¼ cup millet
    • 5 cups water

    Directions:
    Rinse rice and grains in clean water.

    Place in pot with water and bring to a boil.

    Reduce heat to a simmer and cook until tender to taste, about 40 minutes.

    Other options include buckwheat, flax seed, sesame seed, poppy seed, black rice, wild rice, gluten-free oats, or any other gluten-free grain. Adjust cooking time and wage levels as needed.


    Image Caption: Photo: CC--Makoko Otsuka
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    Guest Arletta

    Posted

    I like the advice, and, for me, it's a great way to get millet into my diet, by hiding it among other grains. I know it's supposed to be good for me, but, I hate it. To be fair, I think that's because the first time I had it, it was stale.

     

    The reason I am not giving a better rating to this article is that I didn't like the ending. It seemed like someone wanted to quickly finish it up and call it good, when there was a lot more information that needed to be given.

     

    Yes, we could substitute those other grains and seeds for the ones mentioned in the recipe, and, adjust the cooking time and wage (???) levels as needed, but, when we are talking about mixing grains that have different cooking times and water (wage) needs, how do we know what is needed?

     

    Do we just automatically mix them all in and cook them by the time needed for the one that generally takes the longest, thereby ending up with a weird grain pudding? Is that the point? Or, would it be better to add the proper amount of water for each one and then add them in, one at a time, in time for them to cook just the proper amount? And, if we did the latter, how much time needs to be added to make up for the fact that the grains were not all in during the "bringing to a boil" of the water?

     

    I'm all fine with weird pudding, by the way. However, I do know that flax seeds need to have some care taken and that people have killed themselves by cooking them wrong. I mean, you cook flax seeds wrong, you get paint brush cleaner! It's toxic. So ... I know there has to be some difference between cooking a mix with flax seed and cooking a mix with millet.

     

    I was hoping you'd go into that, more.

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    admin

    This recipe comes to us from Ellen Switkes.
    3 lbs. fish - salmon, white fish, etc (use 2 or 3 kinds of fish, both fatty and lean, salmon makes pink fish balls, whitefish from the east coast is traditional, here in California I use cod and salmon.)
    3 large onions
    1 egg
    3 teaspoons salt (or more)
    ¼ cup potato starch
    lots of pepper
    Stock:
    Place fish skin/bones/head in a large pot with water to cover, add 2 carrots sliced thin and one onion sliced thin. Boil. Process all ingredients in food processor. Form fish balls either small or large as you like, drop into boiling stock and simmer for 2 hours. Remove fish balls to bowl, reduce stock, strain over fish and refrigerate. I like it when the stock gels a bit. Serve cold with horseradish.

    Destiny Stone
    This Mango stir-fry is very easy to make and can be put together for a quick meal during the week.It is also corn-free, dairy-free, egg-free and sugar-free with an option for vegetarians or vegans. As always, the variations are up to you. If you are like me, you will experiment using different ingredients each time, to come up with creative variations.

    Mango Stir-Fry with Peanut Sauce (Gluten-Free)
    Serves: 2 hungry people
    Sauce Ingredients:

    ½  cup peanut butter â…“ cup water ¼ cup gluten-free soy sauce 2 Tablespoons fresh squeezed lime juice 2 cloves garlic, minced 2 Tablespoons rice vinegar Chili flakes to taste Stir Fry Ingredients:
    1 cup rice 2 Tablespoons oil 1 large chicken breast or tofu cut into 1" strips 1 large carrot julienned 1 cup string beans ½ head broccoli chopped 1 large zucchini, sliced ½  cup mushrooms, chopped 2 mangoes peeled, seeded and cubed To Make:
    Combine all sauce ingredients in small sauce pan over low heat. While sauce is warming up, begin preparing rice according to package directions. In a wok or large pan, add oil and fry meat over medium heat until no longer pink. Add carrots, and broccoli and string beans. Cover and let simmer for 5 minutes. Add zucchini and cook for 2 minutes. Add mushrooms and mango and cook for an additional 2 minutes. Remove from stove, add sauce and stir. Serve with jasmine rice, or rice of your choice.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 05/15/2013 - Lemon chicken may be one of those Americanized Chinese dishes, like sweet and sour pork, and chow mein that have become a staple at nearly every Chinese restaurant in the country. Still, I love it. However, being gluten free, I have to be careful when dining out. Even if the restaurant doesn't use flour outright, there's always the possibility of cross contamination.
    One way I've resolved this tension is by learning how to make a delicious gluten-free Chinese-style lemon chicken using a corn-starch-based batter.
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    Chicken Ingredients:
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    1½ cup water ½ cup lemon juice 3½ tablespoons light brown sugar 3 tablespoons cornstarch 3 tablespoons honey 2 teaspoons gluten-free chicken bouillon ½ teaspoon ground ginger, or more if desired Preparation:
    To make the batter, combine the cornstarch, salt, and pepper in a shallow dish. Beat the egg yolks with the water until combined. Add the egg mixture to the cornstarch and blend until smooth.
    Heat the oil in a large wok or skillet.
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    Place the chicken in a serving dish, top evenly with sauce, and top with the sliced green onions.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/13/2013 - These Thai-style beef and chicken skewers are a big hit at parties and barbecues. They taste great with peanut sauce, and will deliver big flavor and lots of smiles every time I make them.
    That said, this dish carries a peanut alert! Because of this, I always check ahead before bringing the more traditional version with peanuts and peanut sauce in any group situations. Depending on the situation, I will bring the substitute dipping sauce along with the peanut sauce, or just drop the peanuts altogether, as needed.
    That said, these are easy to make, delicious, and always a crowd-pleaser. Enjoy!
    Chicken Satay
    Ingredients:
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    Preheat an indoor or outdoor grill for high heat. Thread the chicken strips onto skewers. Throw out marinade.
    Grill chicken for 2 to 3 minutes per side, until no longer pink. Time will depend on how thick your strips are.
    Transfer to a serving plate, and garnish with cilantro and peanuts. Serve with peanut sauce, or substitute sauce below, for dipping.
    Beef Satay
    Ingredients:
    1 pound flank steak, sliced thin 2 tablespoons each lime juice and fish sauce 1 tablespoon each sugar and hot chili sauce 3 tablespoons cilantro Directions:
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    Add thin slices of flank steak, cover and marinate up to 12 hours in refrigerator.
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    Peanut Sauce
    Ingredients:
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    **Note: Here's an alternative to peanut sauce for dipping.
    Peanut-free Dipping Sauce
    1 cup sugar ½ cup water ½ cup white vinegar 2 tablespoons garlic, finely chopped 2 tablespoons gluten-free fish sauce 1½ teaspoons chili sauce 2 tablespoons lime juice Directions:
    Mix sugar water and vinegar in a small saucepan. Boil for 5 minutes.
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    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
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    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center