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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    GLUTEN-FREE TUSCAN SOUP


    Jefferson Adams


    • This delicious central Italian-style soup will warm your heart and please your hungriest eaters.


    Celiac.com 01/13/2018 - To you and me, it may be Tuscan Soup, but to the sonorous, lyrical Italians, it is known as Zuppa Toscana. Whatever language you speak, it means a warm, satisfying and delicious meal.


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    Ingredients:

    • 1 pound mild Italian sausage
    • 1 can white or navy beans, drained
    • 2 quarts chicken broth
    • 6 potatoes, sliced thin
    • 1 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes
    • 6 slices bacon, cut to ½ inch strips
    • 1 large onion, diced
    • 4 cloves garlic, minced
    • 1 cup heavy cream
    • ¼ bunch fresh spinach, washed, with stems removed

    Directions:
    Heat a stock pot over medium heat.

    Add the Italian sausage and red pepper flakes and cook until well-browned, and no longer pink, 10 to 15 minutes. Drain and set aside.

    Cook the bacon in the same stock pot over medium heat until crisp, about 10 minutes. Drain bacon fat, leaving a few tablespoons of drippings with the bacon in the bottom of the pot.

    Stir in the onions and garlic; cook until onions are soft and translucent, about 5 minutes.

    Pour the chicken broth into the pot with the bacon and onion mixture; bring to a boil over high heat.

    Add the potatoes, and boil until fork tender, about 20 minutes.

    Reduce the heat to medium and stir in the heavy cream, the cooked sausage, and the beans, and heat well.

    Mix the spinach into the soup just before serving.


    Image Caption: Gluten-free Tuscan soup makes a great winter meal. Photo: CC--Joy
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    Guest dappy

    Posted

    Skip the cream - the soup is delicious without that extra fat. And in fact the picture doesn't show a creamy broth...

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    Guest D.J. Leverett

    Posted

    Skip the cream - the soup is delicious without that extra fat. And in fact the picture doesn't show a creamy broth...

    Wonderful! I was wandering about the fat content of "heavy" cream. I use Non-fat milk only!

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    admin
    This recipe comes to us from Robin Moore (Can also be chicken parmesan, shrimp parmesan, veal, etc...).
     
    Note: I do NOT deep fry the eggplant or bread it. The layering gives the same effect without being greasy. The proportions in this are variable and lots of things can make good additions, like sprinkling shrimp in. Amounts will vary on the size of the pan you use, and none are set in stone, especially the type of veggies you use. Additionally, you could slice chicken breasts up and layer them instead of eggplant, and this goes for veal or pork as well. Many people think the eggplant is chicken until I tell them otherwise. Its good hot, excellent cold, addictive, and even if you hate eggplant you will probably love this.
    2 cups bread crumbs. Make breadcrumbs, either grate the fresh bread, whirl it in a blender, or toast it in the oven a while and then put it in a blender if you need bread crumbs that dont stick together. In this recipe, either way works, just break up the clumps and spread them out. I prefer Food for Lifes Brown Rice, fruit-sweetened bread for this.
    Ingredients:
    One peeled eggplant: I recommend slicing it lengthwise and then slicing the long slices into strips as they are more maneuverable in a pan than round slices 1 cup Sliced Mushrooms, I like the brown Crimini type Red bell peppers - slice into rings Parmesan Cheese Line a deep-dish pan with tinfoil and spray Pam into it. Put down a thin layer of crumbs and parmesan, I dont really measure, just enough to cover the bottom with crumbs and then shake some Parmesan out. Then I put a layer of eggplant, topped with mushroom and red pepper slices, and then another layer of crumbs and Parmesan, and so forth until the pan is filled. End with a layer of crumbs and Parmesan. Then pour sauce over it.
    Sauce:
    Either a can of tomato paste and 4 cans of water to thin it, or a couple of cans of diced tomatoes in juice. Either will work, and the amount varies depending on how big a pan you are using. Normally this will cover a 9x12 inch pan that is 3 inches deep.
    Garlic, about a teaspoon of powdered, or five or six cloves crushed in a garlic press Mixed Italian seasonings - half a teaspoon Dried Porcini Mushrooms broken up into very small pieces. - This is optional, though they add a lot of flavor ½ cup chardonnay 1 teaspoon white balsamic vinegar OR apple cider vinegar with a teaspoon of sugar Sea Salt: ¼ teaspoon OR regular salt Onion: One cup, finely diced Ground fennel seed: about 1/3 teaspoon Fresh rosemary - ½ teaspoon finely chopped Dried basil: one teaspoon Simmer the sauce for a bit to blend things together, and then pour over the eggplant layered in the pan. You might need to use a chopstick or something to poke it a bit and make sure the sauce penetrates down to the bottom (or lift some of the slices with your finger to do this).
    Shake Parmesan generously all over the top, then spray Pam on foil to cover pan. Crimp it well and make it tent up over and not touch the food if you can. Seal it well and bake for 50 min in a 350F oven. Its a good idea to put it on a rack close to the top of the oven and have a buffer pan on the bottom rack to dissipate the direct heat. Then take off the lid and add a bit more Parmesan and bake for ten more minutes.

    Jefferson Adams
    Whoever thought of combining bacon and eggs with macaroni and cheese has earned a well-deserved place in my annals of culinary greatness. This Italian classic is a staple in my kitchen, and I try to make it at least once a month. It's quick, easy, tasty, and hugely satisfying. It's also easy to scale for larger or smaller groups. I typically use Schar pasta for this dish, but use what you like.
    Ingredients:
    ½ pound bacon, chopped
    1 tablespoon chopped garlic
    Freshly ground black pepper
    1 pound gluten-free fettucini or spaghetti, cooked al dente
    4 large eggs, beaten
    1 cup grated Peccorino Romano cheese
    ¼ cup butter, soft
    ¼ cup Italian parsley, chopped
    Salt
    Directions:
    Cook bacon in large saute pan on medium heat until crispy. Remove the bacon and drain on paper towels.
    Cook pasta al dente, according to package directions. When done, remove from heat, stir in a bit of butter to prevent sticking and cover.
    In medium bowl beat eggs lightly until creamy and season with salt.
    Pour off all except for 3 tablespoons of bacon fat from saute pan. Add the garlic to pan. Season with black pepper. Saute for 30 seconds. Add cooked pasta to pan with garlic. Add butter and toss until butter melts.
    Remove the pan from the heat and add the eggs and the bacon, and whisk quickly until the eggs thicken, but do not scramble.
    Add the cheese and re-season with salt and pepper. Spoon into serving bowls and garnish with parsley.
    Serves: 4


    Jefferson Adams
    Simple, rustic foods are one of my true loves. Simple, rustic, Italian foods are one of my great loves.
    The Italian word 'cacciatore' means 'hunter.' In Italy, dishes prepared 'alla cacciatore,' or 'hunter-style,' usually include chicken or sometimes rabbit, and are prepared with tomatoes, onions, herbs, often bell pepper, and often include either red or white wine.
    Because the chicken or the rabbit are commonly dredged in flour, traditional cacciatore dishes can be off limits for people eating a gluten-free diet. However, with a spot of modification, that hurdle can be cleared, and a wonderful gluten-free vesion of the dish can be enjoyed.
    This recipe for chicken cacciatore makes about four servings.
    Ingredients:
    4 chicken thighs
    2 chicken breasts with skin and backbone, halved crosswise
    ½ cup tapioca, rice or other gluten-free flour or potato starch, for dredging
    3 tablespoons olive oil
    1 medium green bell pepper, chopped
    1 medium red bell pepper, chopped
    1 large onion, chopped
    4 garlic cloves, finely chopped
    ¾ cup dry white wine (red wine works, too)
    1 ( 28-ounce) can diced tomatoes with juice
    ¾ cup reduced-sodium chicken broth
    3 tablespoons drained capers
    1½ teaspoons dried oregano leaves
    ¼ cup coarsely chopped fresh basil leaves
    2½ teaspoons salt, plus more to taste
    1½ teaspoon freshly ground black pepper, plus more to taste

    Directions:
    Sprinkle the chicken pieces with 1 teaspoon of each salt and pepper. Dredge the chicken pieces in gluten-free flour mixture to coat lightly.
    In a large heavy sauté pan, heat the oil to medium-high flame. Sauté chicken pieces until brown, about 5 minutes per side.
    Transfer browned chicken to a plate and set aside.
    In the same pan sauté bell pepper, onion and garlic over medium heat until the onion is soft, about 5 minutes. Season with salt and pepper.
    Add the wine and simmer a few minutes until liquid is reduced by half.
    Add the tomatoes with the juice, broth, capers and oregano.
    Return the chicken pieces to the pan and turn them to coat in the sauce. Bring the sauce to a simmer. Continue simmering over medium-low heat until the chicken is cooked, about 30 minutes for the breast pieces, and 20 minutes for the thighs.
    Using tongs, transfer the chicken to a platter. If necessary, boil the sauce for a few minutes, until it thickens up.
    Spoon off any excess fat from atop the sauce. Spoon the sauce over the chicken, then sprinkle with the basil and serve with rice or pasta for a delicious meal.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/14/2015 - These Tuscan-style chicken breasts are a great way to anchor pasta night at any house. They are tasty, easy to make, and will please most eaters. They are delicious either fried or baked.
    Ingredients:
    4 large boneless skinless chicken breast halves ¾ cup pecorino Romano cheese, grated ¾ cup crushed Rice Chex 1 teaspoon dried basil 1 teaspoon dried oregano ¼ teaspoon dried garlic ½ teaspoon paprika ¼ teaspoon sea salt, to taste ¼ teaspoon fresh ground black pepper, to taste 3 tablespoons olive oil ¼ cup tapioca flour, or potato starch, for dredging 1 egg, beaten 1 cup vegetable oil for frying 1 cup marinara or pesto sauce for serving Directions:
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    Heat oil in a deep skillet or frying pan. When oil is hot, add coated chicken breasts, and cook, one or two at a time.
    Cook until golden brown. Serve hot with marinara or pesto sauce, and/or your favorite gluten-free pasta on the side.
    For a non-fried version, I just coat the chicken with herbs, salt and pepper, and bake it until it’s done. I like to top it with fresh chopped tomatoes and a dash of olive oil. I serve it the same way, with hot with marinara or pesto sauce, and/or gluten-free pasta on the side.

  • Recent Articles

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
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    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
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    This study shows that amino acids can influence inflammation and may play a role in the development of celiac disease.
    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
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    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center