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      Frequently Asked Questions About Celiac Disease   04/07/2018

      This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc.   Subscribe to Celiac.com's FREE weekly eNewsletter   What are the major symptoms of celiac disease? Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease?  Celiac Disease Screening Interpretation of Celiac Disease Blood Test Results Can I be tested even though I am eating gluten free? How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? The Gluten-Free Diet 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Going Gluten-Free Is celiac inherited? Should my children be tested? Ten Facts About Celiac Disease Genetic Testing Is there a link between celiac and other autoimmune diseases? Celiac Disease Research: Associated Diseases and Disorders Is there a list of gluten foods to avoid? Unsafe Gluten-Free Food List (Unsafe Ingredients) Is there a list of gluten free foods? Safe Gluten-Free Food List (Safe Ingredients) Gluten-Free Alcoholic Beverages Distilled Spirits (Grain Alcohols) and Vinegar: Are they Gluten-Free? Where does gluten hide? Additional Things to Beware of to Maintain a 100% Gluten-Free Diet What if my doctor won't listen to me? An Open Letter to Skeptical Health Care Practitioners Gluten-Free recipes: Gluten-Free Recipes
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    RED CHILE PORK POZOLE (GLUTEN-FREE)


    Jefferson Adams


    • This red chile pork pozole makes a great potluck dish and is sure to leave plenty of happy eaters on game day. And it's gluten-free!


    Celiac.com 01/10/2018 - If you're looking for a tasty variation on the usual winter stews of soups, try this delicious red chile sauce. It makes a great potluck dish and is sure to leave plenty of happy eaters on game day.


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    Ingredients:

    • 2 pounds boneless pork shoulder, trimmed and cut in half
    • 2 quarts of chicken broth
    • ¾ cup dried chiles de arbol
    • 4 or 5 dried ancho chiles
    • 3 15-ounce cans white hominy, drained and rinsed
    • 6 cloves garlic (2 smashed, 4 minced)
    • 2½ teaspoons ground cumin
    • 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
    • 1 large white onion, chopped
    • 1 tablespoon dried Mexican oregano (regular will do in a pinch)
    • 1 bay leaf
    • Kosher salt
    • Diced avocado, tortilla chips, lime wedges, chopped cabbage, diced onion, sliced radishes and/or fresh cilantro, for topping

    Directions:
    Break the stems off the chiles de arbol and ancho chiles and shake out as many seeds as possible.

    Put the chiles in a bowl and cover with boiling water; weigh down the chiles with a plate to keep them submerged and soak until soft, about 30 minutes.

    Transfer the chiles and 1½ cups of the soaking liquid to a blender.

    Add the smashed garlic and ½ teaspoon salt and blend until smooth.

    Strain through a fine sieve into a bowl, pushing the sauce through with a rubber spatula; discard the solids.

    Rub the pork all over with the cumin and ½ teaspoon salt; set aside.

    Heat the vegetable oil in a stock pot over medium heat.

    Add the onion and cook about 5 minutes, stirring occasionally, until soft.

    Add the chopped garlic and cook about 2 minutes, until fragrant.

    Increase the heat to medium high.

    Put the onion and garlic into a bowl and set aside for a few minutes.

    Add the pork to the pot and sear, turning as needed, until lightly browned on all sides, about 5 minutes.

    Stir in 2 cups water, the chicken broth, oregano, bay leaf, ½ teaspoon salt and ½ cup to ¾ cup of the chile sauce, to taste.

    Bring to a low boil, then reduce the heat to maintain a simmer. Partially cover and cook for about 3 hours, turning the pork a few times, until tender.

    Stir in the hominy and continue to simmer, uncovered, until the pork starts falling apart, about 1 more hour.

    Remove the bay leaf.

    Put the pork on a cutting board, chop, and return chopped pork to the pot.

    Add water or broth as needed if the pozole is too thick. Season to taste with salt.

    Serve with assorted toppings and the remaining chilihil sauce.


    Image Caption: Red chile pork pozole makes a great gluten-free meal. Photo: CC--JeffreyW
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    admin
    This recipe comes to us from Anne Barfield.
    2 pounds top sirloin, cut into 1-inch cubes
    1 Tab salt, or to taste
    ½ Tsp. pepper
    3 cloves garlic
    1 Tab oil
    1 medium onion, chopped
    1 bell pepper, chopped
    2 med.-large tomatoes, diced
    2 medium potatoes, cut into about ¾ inch cubes
    ½ cup tomato sauce
    corn tortillas
    salsa
    Heat a large, heavy, deep pan over medium heat. Add cubes of meat and season with salt, pepper and garlic. Cover and cook, stirring occasionally, until meat is about three-quarters cooked. Pour off and reserve the accumulated juices. Add oil to the pan, and then add onion, bell pepper, tomatoes and potatoes. Cook, stirring frequently, until onion begins to brown. Add tomato sauce and reserved meat juices and simmer over low to medium heat for approximately 15 minutes, or until potatoes are cooked through.
    Serve with fresh corn tortillas and salsa, if desired.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 08/02/2016 - Fresh salsa may be king of summer snacking, but roasted salsa is definitely the queen. After the sun goes down, this roasted salsa will be sure to have hungry snackers smiling.
    Ingredients:
    4 vine-ripened tomatoes, quartered 2 ripe tomatillos 1 large yellow onion, cut into wedges 6 garlic cloves, peeled 1-3 Serrano chili peppers, stemmed, de-seeded (use less for milder salsa) 2 teaspoons salt 1 teaspoon cumin ¼ cup cilantro leaves ¼ cup vegetable oil 1 tablespoon fresh lime juice, from one lime, plus more if needed Directions:
    Lightly oil a large cast iron skillet, and heat to medium high.
    Place the tomatoes, tomatillos, onions, garlic, and Serrano chile peppers in the pan and heat, turning until they are softened and charred, about 10 minutes or so. You can also do this under the broiler.
    Transfer the softened and charred vegetables and pan juices to a food processor.
    Add one Serrano pepper here, and add others as desired after tasting.
    Add the salt and cumin and pulse until just slightly chunky.
    Add the cilantro and fresh lime juice, and pulse until the cilantro is well-chopped.
    Adjust seasoning with salt and more lime juice, as desired.
    Serve warm or at room temperature.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 11/22/2016 - These aren't enchiladas like you might be used to. These are typical of the cuisine of the cuisine of the state of San Luis Potosí, in central Mexico. They are more like quesadilas. Make them with fresh, home made tortillas if you can. Yum!
    Ingredients:
    1 dozen corn tortillas (or use fresh masa and make from scratch) ¼ cup vegetable oil 5 ounces of saltierra potosino cheese, or Mexican-style cheese like Manchego 4 chiles chinos, or guajillo chiles salsa verde, as desired salt
    Directions:
    Cook the red chiles, grind and strain them, taking care not to add too much water. The sauce should be a bit thick.
    The filling is prepared with grated cheese, cooked tomato, if desired, and a splash of salsa verde.
    Warm the small tortillas lightly in a frying pan, then add a little of the filling, and double them over like quesadillas, and cook them in the cast iron frying pan, taking care to turn them only once. If using fresh masa, form small tortillas, add a little of the filling, double them like quesadillas, and cook them on the comal or frying pan.
    Serve warm, with guacamole, refried beans, and chiles in vinegar. Top with red chile sauce as desired.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 12/02/2017 - Pozole, pozole, pozole. Pozole seems to be popular lately. Pozole is a hominy-based Mexican stew closely associated with the Pacific-coast state of Guerrero.
    I've noticed a number of references to pozole lately. I've seen articles touting pozole in place of traditional turkey dinner for Thanksgiving, and articles about using leftover Thanksgiving turkey to make pozole.
    This tasty recipe calls for chicken, but you can easily substitute turkey, leftover or otherwise. When stewed in chicken broth and other tasty ingredients like tomatillos, green chiles.
    Ingredients:
    Three 15-ounce cans of hominy, drained 8 cups chicken stock 2 cups water 6 chicken thighs on the bone, with skin 1 pound tomatillos, husked and halved 1 medium onion, quartered 2 poblano chiles, cored, seeded and quartered 2 jalapeños, seeded and quartered 6 large garlic cloves, smashed 1 tablespoon oregano leaves Salt and freshly ground black pepper 1 tablespoon vegetable oil For Serving:
    Finely shredded cabbage Fresh Mexican cheese (queso fresco) chopped cilantro sliced radishes chopped onion diced avocado sour cream tortilla chips lime wedges Directions:
    In a large stock pot, bring the chicken stock and water to a boil. Add the chicken thighs, cover and simmer over very low heat until they're tender and cooked through, about 30 minutes.
    Skim any fat from the cooking liquid and reserve.
    In a blender, combine the halved tomatillos with the quartered onion, poblanos and jalapeños, smashed garlic, chopped cilantro and oregano.
    Blend until coarsely chopped. With the machine on, add 1 cup of the cooking liquid and purée until smooth.
    Season with salt and pepper.
    In a large deep skillet, heat the vegetable oil.
    Add the tomatillo purée and cook over moderate heat, stirring occasionally, until the sauce turns a deep green, about 10 minutes.
    Pour the green sauce into the cooking liquid in the stock pot.
    Add the hominy and bring to a simmer over moderate heat.
    Add the chicken thighs back to the stew, season with salt and pepper and cook just until heated through.
    Serve the pozole in deep bowls, and garnish as desired with quest fresco, cabbage, radishes, onion, avocado, sour cream, tortilla chips and lime wedges at the table.

  • Recent Articles

    Connie Sarros
    Celiac.com 04/21/2018 - Dear Friends and Readers,
    I have been writing articles for Scott Adams since the 2002 Summer Issue of the Scott-Free Press. The Scott-Free Press evolved into the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. I felt honored when Scott asked me ten years ago to contribute to his quarterly journal and it's been a privilege to write articles for his publication ever since.
    Due to personal health reasons and restrictions, I find that I need to retire. My husband and I can no longer travel the country speaking at conferences and to support groups (which we dearly loved to do) nor can I commit to writing more books, articles, or menus. Consequently, I will no longer be contributing articles to the Journal of Gluten Sensitivity. 
    My following books will still be available at Amazon.com:
    Gluten-free Cooking for Dummies Student's Vegetarian Cookbook for Dummies Wheat-free Gluten-free Dessert Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Reduced Calorie Cookbook Wheat-free Gluten-free Cookbook for Kids and Busy Adults (revised version) My first book was published in 1996. My journey since then has been incredible. I have met so many in the celiac community and I feel blessed to be able to call you friends. Many of you have told me that I helped to change your life – let me assure you that your kind words, your phone calls, your thoughtful notes, and your feedback throughout the years have had a vital impact on my life, too. Thank you for all of your support through these years.

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/20/2018 - A digital media company and a label data company are teaming up to help major manufacturers target, reach and convert their desired shoppers based on dietary needs, such as gluten-free diet. The deal could bring synergy in emerging markets such as the gluten-free and allergen-free markets, which represent major growth sectors in the global food industry. 
    Under the deal, personalized digital media company Catalina will be joining forces with Label Insight. Catalina uses consumer purchases data to target shoppers on a personal base, while Label Insight works with major companies like Kellogg, Betty Crocker, and Pepsi to provide insight on food label data to government, retailers, manufacturers and app developers.
    "Brands with very specific product benefits, gluten-free for example, require precise targeting to efficiently reach and convert their desired shoppers,” says Todd Morris, President of Catalina's Go-to-Market organization, adding that “Catalina offers the only purchase-based targeting solution with this capability.” 
    Label Insight’s clients include food and beverage giants such as Unilever, Ben & Jerry's, Lipton and Hellman’s. Label Insight technology has helped the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) build the sector’s very first scientifically accurate database of food ingredients, health attributes and claims.
    Morris says the joint partnership will allow Catalina to “enhance our dataset and further increase our ability to target shoppers who are currently buying - or have shown intent to buy - in these emerging categories,” including gluten-free, allergen-free, and other free-from foods.
    The deal will likely make for easier, more precise targeting of goods to consumers, and thus provide benefits for manufacturers and retailers looking to better serve their retail food customers, especially in specialty areas like gluten-free and allergen-free foods.
    Source:
    fdfworld.com

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/19/2018 - Previous genome and linkage studies indicate the existence of a new disease triggering mechanism that involves amino acid metabolism and nutrient sensing signaling pathways. In an effort to determine if amino acids might play a role in the development of celiac disease, a team of researchers recently set out to investigate if plasma amino acid levels differed among children with celiac disease compared with a control group.
     
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    First, the team used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to analyze amino acid levels in fasting plasma samples from 141 children with celiac disease and 129 non-celiac disease controls. They then crafted a general linear model using age and experimental effects as covariates to compare amino acid levels between children with celiac disease and non-celiac control subjects.
    Compared with the control group, seven out of twenty-three children with celiac disease showed elevated levels of the the following amino acids: tryptophan; taurine; glutamic acid; proline; ornithine; alanine; and methionine.
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    Source:
    PLoS One. 2018; 13(3): e0193764. doi: & 10.1371/journal.pone.0193764

    Jefferson Adams
    Celiac.com 04/18/2018 - To the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service animals.
    If you’ve flown anywhere lately, you may have seen them. People flying with their designated “emotional support” animals. We’re not talking genuine service animals, like seeing eye dogs, or hearing ear dogs, or even the Belgian Malinois that alerts its owner when there is gluten in food that may trigger her celiac disease.
    Now, to be honest, some of those animals in question do perform a genuine service for those who need emotional support dogs, like veterans with PTSD.
    However, many of these animals are not service animals at all. Many of these animals perform no actual service to their owners, and are nothing more than thinly disguised pets. Many lack proper training, and some have caused serious problems for the airlines and for other passengers.
    Now the major airlines are taking note and introducing stringent requirements for service animals.
    Delta was the first to strike. As reported by the New York Times on January 19: “Effective March 1, Delta, the second largest US airline by passenger traffic, said it will require passengers seeking to fly with pets to present additional documents outlining the passenger’s need for the animal and proof of its training and vaccinations, 48 hours prior to the flight.… This comes in response to what the carrier said was a 150 percent increase in service and support animals — pets, often dogs, that accompany people with disabilities — carried onboard since 2015.… Delta said that it flies some 700 service animals a day. Among them, customers have attempted to fly with comfort turkeys, gliding possums, snakes, spiders, and other unusual pets.”
    Fresh from an unsavory incident with an “emotional support” peacock incident, United Airlines has followed Delta’s lead and set stricter rules for emotional support animals. United’s rules also took effect March 1, 2018.
    So, to the relief of many bewildered passengers and crew, no more comfort turkeys, geese, possums or other questionable pets will be flying on Delta or United without meeting the airlines' strict new requirements for service and emotional support animals.
    Source:
    cnbc.com

    admin
    WHAT IS CELIAC DISEASE?
    Celiac disease is an autoimmune condition that affects around 1% of the population. People with celiac disease suffer an autoimmune reaction when they consume wheat, rye or barley. The immune reaction is triggered by certain proteins in the wheat, rye, or barley, and, left untreated, causes damage to the small, finger-like structures, called villi, that line the gut. The damage occurs as shortening and villous flattening in the lamina propria and crypt regions of the intestines. The damage to these villi then leads to numerous other issues that commonly plague people with untreated celiac disease, including poor nutritional uptake, fatigue, and myriad other problems.
    Celiac disease mostly affects people of Northern European descent, but recent studies show that it also affects large numbers of people in Italy, China, Iran, India, and numerous other places thought to have few or no cases.
    Celiac disease is most often uncovered because people experience symptoms that lead them to get tests for antibodies to gluten. If these tests are positive, then the people usually get biopsy confirmation of their celiac disease. Once they adopt a gluten-free diet, they usually see gut healing, and major improvements in their symptoms. 
    CLASSIC CELIAC DISEASE SYMPTOMS
    Symptoms of celiac disease can range from the classic features, such as diarrhea, upset stomach, bloating, gas, weight loss, and malnutrition, among others.
    LESS OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS
    Celiac disease can often less obvious symptoms, such fatigue, vitamin and nutrient deficiencies, anemia, to name a few. Often, these symptoms are regarded as less obvious because they are not gastrointestinal in nature. You got that right, it is not uncommon for people with celiac disease to have few or no gastrointestinal symptoms. That makes spotting and connecting these seemingly unrelated and unclear celiac symptoms so important.
    NO SYMPTOMS
    Currently, most people diagnosed with celiac disease do not show symptoms, but are diagnosed on the basis of referral for elevated risk factors. 

    CELIAC DISEASE VS. GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
    Gluten intolerance is a generic term for people who have some sort of sensitivity to gluten. These people may or may not have celiac disease. Researchers generally agree that there is a condition called non-celiac gluten sensitivity. That term has largely replaced the term gluten-intolerance. What’s the difference between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten-sensitivity? 
    CELIAC DISEASE VS. NON-CELIAC GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (NCGS)
    Gluten triggers symptoms and immune reactions in people with celiac disease. Gluten can also trigger symptoms in some people with NCGS, but the similarities largely end there.

    There are four main differences between celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity:
    No Hereditary Link in NCGS
    Researchers know for certain that genetic heredity plays a major role in celiac disease. If a first-degree relative has celiac disease, then you have a statistically higher risk of carrying genetic markers DQ2 and/or DQ8, and of developing celiac disease yourself. NCGS is not known to be hereditary. Some research has shown certain genetic associations, such as some NCGS patients, but there is no proof that NCGS is hereditary. No Connection with Celiac-related Disorders
    Unlike celiac disease, NCGS is so far not associated with malabsorption, nutritional deficiencies, or a higher risk of autoimmune disorders or intestinal malignancies. No Immunological or Serological Markers
    People with celiac disease nearly always test positive for antibodies to gluten proteins. Researchers have, as yet, identified no such antobodies or serologic markers for NCGS. That means that, unlike with celiac disease, there are no telltale screening tests that can point to NCGS. Absence of Celiac Disease or Wheat Allergy
    Doctors diagnose NCGS only by excluding both celiac disease, an IgE-mediated allergy to wheat, and by the noting ongoing adverse symptoms associated with gluten consumption. WHAT ABOUT IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS) AND IRRITABLE BOWEL DISEASE (IBD)?
    IBS and IBD are usually diagnosed in part by ruling out celiac disease. Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome are sensitive to gluten. Many experience celiac disease-like symptoms in reaction to wheat. However, patients with IBS generally show no gut damage, and do not test positive for antibodies to gliadin and other proteins as do people with celiac disease. Some IBS patients also suffer from NCGS.

    To add more confusion, many cases of IBS are, in fact, celiac disease in disguise.

    That said, people with IBS generally react to more than just wheat. People with NCGS generally react to wheat and not to other things, but that’s not always the case. Doctors generally try to rule out celiac disease before making a diagnosis of IBS or NCGS. 
    Crohn’s Disease and celiac disease share many common symptoms, though causes are different.  In Crohn’s disease, the immune system can cause disruption anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract, and a diagnosis of Crohn’s disease typically requires more diagnostic testing than does a celiac diagnosis.  
    Crohn’s treatment consists of changes to diet and possible surgery.  Up to 10% of Crohn's patients can have both of conditions, which suggests a genetic connection, and researchers continue to examine that connection.
    Is There a Connection Between Celiac Disease, Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Large Number of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients Sensitive To Gluten Some IBD Patients also Suffer from Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity Many Cases of IBS and Fibromyalgia Actually Celiac Disease in Disguise CELIAC DISEASE DIAGNOSIS
    Diagnosis of celiac disease can be difficult. 

    Perhaps because celiac disease presents clinically in such a variety of ways, proper diagnosis often takes years. A positive serological test for antibodies against tissue transglutaminase is considered a very strong diagnostic indicator, and a duodenal biopsy revealing villous atrophy is still considered by many to be the diagnostic gold standard. 
    But this idea is being questioned; some think the biopsy is unnecessary in the face of clear serological tests and obvious symptoms. Also, researchers are developing accurate and reliable ways to test for celiac disease even when patients are already avoiding wheat. In the past, patients needed to be consuming wheat to get an accurate test result. 
    Celiac disease can have numerous vague, or confusing symptoms that can make diagnosis difficult.  Celiac disease is commonly misdiagnosed by doctors. Read a Personal Story About Celiac Disease Diagnosis from the Founder of Celiac.com Currently, testing and biopsy still form the cornerstone of celiac diagnosis.
    TESTING
    There are several serologic (blood) tests available that screen for celiac disease antibodies, but the most commonly used is called a tTG-IgA test. If blood test results suggest celiac disease, your physician will recommend a biopsy of your small intestine to confirm the diagnosis.
    Testing is fairly simple and involves screening the patients blood for antigliadin (AGA) and endomysium antibodies (EmA), and/or doing a biopsy on the areas of the intestines mentioned above, which is still the standard for a formal diagnosis. Also, it is now possible to test people for celiac disease without making them concume wheat products.

    BIOPSY
    Until recently, biopsy confirmation of a positive gluten antibody test was the gold standard for celiac diagnosis. It still is, but things are changing fairly quickly. Children can now be accurately diagnosed for celiac disease without biopsy. Diagnosis based on level of TGA-IgA 10-fold or more the ULN, a positive result from the EMA tests in a second blood sample, and the presence of at least 1 symptom could avoid risks and costs of endoscopy for more than half the children with celiac disease worldwide.

    WHY A GLUTEN-FREE DIET?
    Currently the only effective, medically approved treatment for celiac disease is a strict gluten-free diet. Following a gluten-free diet relieves symptoms, promotes gut healing, and prevents nearly all celiac-related complications. 
    A gluten-free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. This is a difficult task as there are many hidden sources of gluten found in the ingredients of many processed foods. Still, with effort, most people with celiac disease manage to make the transition. The vast majority of celiac disease patients who follow a gluten-free diet see symptom relief and experience gut healing within two years.
    For these reasons, a gluten-free diet remains the only effective, medically proven treatment for celiac disease.
    WHAT ABOUT ENZYMES, VACCINES, ETC.?
    There is currently no enzyme or vaccine that can replace a gluten-free diet for people with celiac disease.
    There are enzyme supplements currently available, such as AN-PEP, Latiglutetenase, GluteGuard, and KumaMax, which may help to mitigate accidental gluten ingestion by celiacs. KumaMax, has been shown to survive the stomach, and to break down gluten in the small intestine. Latiglutenase, formerly known as ALV003, is an enzyme therapy designed to be taken with meals. GluteGuard has been shown to significantly protect celiac patients from the serious symptoms they would normally experience after gluten ingestion. There are other enzymes, including those based on papaya enzymes.

    Additionally, there are many celiac disease drugs, enzymes, and therapies in various stages of development by pharmaceutical companies, including at least one vaccine that has received financial backing. At some point in the not too distant future there will likely be new treatments available for those who seek an alternative to a lifelong gluten-free diet. 

    For now though, there are no products on the market that can take the place of a gluten-free diet. Any enzyme or other treatment for celiac disease is intended to be used in conjunction with a gluten-free diet, not as a replacement.

    ASSOCIATED DISEASES
    The most common disorders associated with celiac disease are thyroid disease and Type 1 Diabetes, however, celiac disease is associated with many other conditions, including but not limited to the following autoimmune conditions:
    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: 2.4-16.4% Multiple Sclerosis (MS): 11% Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: 4-6% Autoimmune hepatitis: 6-15% Addison disease: 6% Arthritis: 1.5-7.5% Sjögren’s syndrome: 2-15% Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: 5.7% IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease): 3.6% Other celiac co-morditities include:
    Crohn’s Disease; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Chronic Pancreatitis Down Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Lupus Multiple Sclerosis Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Psoriasis Rheumatoid Arthritis Scleroderma Turner Syndrome Ulcerative Colitis; Inflammatory Bowel Disease Williams Syndrome Cancers:
    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (intestinal and extra-intestinal, T- and B-cell types) Small intestinal adenocarcinoma Esophageal carcinoma Papillary thyroid cancer Melanoma CELIAC DISEASE REFERENCES:
    Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University
    Gluten Intolerance Group
    National Institutes of Health
    U.S. National Library of Medicine
    Mayo Clinic
    University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center